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  • Ceratophyllum demersum (Photo: Kerry Dressler, University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants)
  • Ceratophyllum demersum (Photo: Vic Ramey, University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants - used with permission)
  • Ceratophyllum demersum (Photo: Vic Ramey, University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants- used with permission)
  • Ceratophyllum demersum (Photo: Ann Murray, University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants -  used with permission)
  • Ceratophyllum demersum (Illustration: University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants - used with permission)
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Common name
common hornwort (English, United States of America), rigid hornwort (English, United Kingdom), hornwort (English, New Zealand), coontail (English, New Zealand), coon's-tail (English, United States of America)
Synonym
Ceratophyllum apiculatum , Cham.
Ceratophyllum demersum , var. apiculatum (Cham.) Aschers.
Ceratophyllum demersum , var. apiculatum (Cham.) Garcke
Similar species
Myriophyllum spicatum
Summary
Ceratophyllum demersum is a native of North America. It now has a worldwide distribution, at least in part due to the aquarium and pond trade. It is a submerged aquatic plant which is capable of forming dense monospecific beds, excluding other plant species, causing problems to recreational activities on waterways and in some cases causing blockages at hydroelectric power stations. C. demersum can spread rapidly, and grows in a large range of aquatic habitats.
Species Description
Ceratophyllum demersum is a submerged perennial macrophyte which will normally grow with the base of its stem buried in sandy or silty substrates. It does not form roots. It is prone to dislodgement, and its buoyant stems may become free-floating. It can form a dense subsurface canopy and reach of height of 5-6m and frequently grows as a mono-specific community (heights of 10m have been reported in Maraetai, New Zealand (Rohan Wells., pers.com., 2005)) (NIWA, 2005b). C. demersum can form modified leaves when it is growing near the lake bottom, which it uses to anchor to the sediment (Keskinkan et al. 2004).
Notes
Although C. demersum, and other weeds, will eventually dessicate and die if kept out of water for long enough, fragments can survive for months in wet spots underfloor, or in the anchor well of boats (NIWA, 2005a).
Uses
C. demersum can be used as a measure of lake pollution, as it can contain trace metals such as cadmium and lead in plant tissue (Stankovic et al. 2000). It can also be successfully used for heavy metal removal under dilute metal concentration (Keskinkan, 2004).
C. demersum is recommended for use in plantings for remediation of a dump site in Europe (Stilinovic and Hrenovic, 2000).
Habitat Description
Ceratophyllum demersum can be found in ponds, lakes, ditches, and quiet streams with moderate to high nutrient levels (Johnson et al. 1995; in Keskinkan et al. 2004). It will grow in waters that are clear or turbid, still or flowing, and warm or ice-covered (NIWA, 2001). In New Zealand, as well as overseas, C. demersum has performed well in eutrophic waters (Coffey and Clayton, 1988), however, evidence suggests that the success of C. demersumet al. 1997) and it may be able to invade a wider variety of habitats than previously thought. Janauer (2003) notes that the frequency of C. demersum in the Danube River is \"surprisingly high for a species supposedly confined to still water habitats\".
Coffey and Clayton (1988) described C. demersum as a brittle, poorly attached plant, which is prone to dislodgement by water currents and wave action. However, Wells et al. (1997) state that the establishment of permanent monospecific stands of C. demersum at Lake Tarawera in New Zealand (a relatively exposed lake) is not consistent with this description.
C. demersum occupies a wide depth range, between 0.5 and 15.5m (Wells et al. 1997). It is classified as a shade-adapted species, although in clear water, shade tolerance may enable it to form a dense canopy in deep water, thereby further reducing the light climate for lower stature or higher light demanding plants (Wells et al. 1997). Su et al. (2004) state that C. Demersum is adapted to high light conditions.
C. Demersum tolerates a wide range of water levels (Barrat-Segretain et al. 1999; in Armstrong et al. 2003). Sculthorpe (1985; in Armstrong et al. 2003) state that it may have thread-like rhizoid shoots which penetrate the substrate to aid absorption and anchorage.
Reproduction
Propagation of Ceratophyllum demersum occurs by fragmentation of its brittle stems. Flowers do occur on this monoecious species, although there is no evidence of seed production in New Zealand (NIWA, 2005b). A Japanese study found that almost 90% of young shoots in spring originated from turions, with active growth of main shoots being observed from June to July. Auto-fragmentation was observed at the end of August, and shoots had turions at the apices from October (Fukuhara et al. 1997).
Nutrition
Unrooted submerged vegetation such as Ceratophyllum demersum requires nutrient uptake from the water (Denny, 1987; in Mjelde and Faafeng, 1997). Goulder and Boatman (1971; in Mjelde and Faafeng, 1997) state that C. demersum requires high inorganic nitrogen levels in the surrounding water during rapid growth.
Pathway
Ceratophyllum demersum can be spread by the intentional release of aquarium contents into waterways (NIWA, 2001).Ceratophyllum demersum is spread by contaminated nets, boat trailers and anchors, and drainage machinery (NIWA, 2001).

Principal source: NIWA, 2005, 2005a, 2005b. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand. Available from: http://www.niwa.cri.nz

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Terrestrial and Freshwater Biodiversity Information System (TFBIS) Programme (Copyright statement)

Review: Dr. Rohan Wells, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd, Hamilton New Zealand

Publication date: 2006-04-11

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Ceratophyllum demersum. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=281 on 03-12-2016.

General Impacts
Ceratophyllum demersum has been spread throughout the world via the aquarium and pond trade, and is considered to be a weed of waterways in many regions of the world, due to its ability to spread rapidly, invade a wide range of aquatic habitats, and grow to deeper depths than some other weed species (NIWA, 2005a). C. demersum is able to dominant waterbodies. Its presence can affect phytoplankton development in three ways: by competition for inorganic nitrogen, competition for light, and allelopathy (Mjelde and Faafeng, 1997). A dense bed of C. demersum can remove up to 0.1 g N per square metre per day during the early growth stage. Allelopathy, the inhibition of growth of a plant species by chemicals produced by another species, has been shown to occur by C. Demersum (Mjelde and Faafeng, 1997; Korner and Nicklisch, 2002; Gross et al. 2003). Chemical compounds isolated from C. Demersum have been shown to inhibit the growth of phytoplankton (Mjelde and Faafeng, 1997; Korner and Nicklisch, 2002) and nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Gross et al. 2003). Allelopathy by C. Demersum can change waterbodies by stabilising the dominance of aquatic plants over phytoplankton (Scheffer et al., 1993; in Gross et al. 2003).

C. Demersum can also cause problems in aquatic ecosystems because of its ability to form dense monospecific beds. In some lakes in New Zealand, C. Demersum can be found growing from the shore to 14.5m deep, with beds up to 7m tall, creating a dense underwater forest (NIWA, 2001) (heights of 10m have been reported in Maraetai, New Zealand (Rohan Wells., pers.com., 2005)). This displaces all other plants from the area, including native submerged vegetation, and also impacts on boating, fishing and other recreational activities. This alteration of aquatic habitat may also affect the accessibility of invertebrate prey to New Zealand's native fish populations (Duggan et al. 2002). It has also caused problems to hydroelectric power stations in New Zealand (NIWA, 2005a).

Management Info
Chemical: Diquat is commonly used in the control of submerged invasive weeds, but it can become deactivated under turbid conditions and therefore be ineffective. Hofstra et al. (2001) showed that endothall was more effective in these conditions and state that other recent studies have shown promising results for the use of endothall in controlling C. demersum. However, Hofstra and Clayton (2001) found that endothall also killed native non-target species in New Zealand such as Myriophyllum and Potamogeton. Further research on endothall showed that it required an application rate of at least 4.0 mg/L active ingredient endothall (dipotassium salt of endothall) to be effective (Skogerboe and Getsinger, 2002).
Smith and Pullman (1997) reported that C. demersum appeared to be highly susceptible to applications of Sonar ® A.S. aquatic herbicide (active ingredient fluridone), however Wells et al. (1986); Hofstra et al. (2001) found it was not.
Cedergreen et al. (2004) showed that C. demersum is sensitive to the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl.

Biological: An alternative method of C. demersum control in agricultural drains in New Zealand has been evaluated by Wells et al. (2003) - stocking with diploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). It was found that grass carp generally provided continuous weed control in these drains, although they did not provide adequate control in smaller side drains, or in the shallow, upper parts of the main drain. However, subsequent to this research trial, a number of carp were found dead in Churchill East drain, emphasising that grass carp management in agricultural drains in New Zealand can be problematic due to periodic fish kills. In other countries, the use of grass carp may not be as successful. Greenfield et al. (2004) state that C. demersum is not a preferred food of grass carp in Californian waters, while Pipalova (2002) stated that stocking with grass carp resulted in a change in species composition, including an increase in C. demersum.

Integrated management: Greenfield et al. (2004) provide information about controlling aquatic pests and weeds in California using non-conventional methods such as alternative chemical control, biological and mechanical control methods
New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) also provide detailed information about controlling aquatic plants such as C. demersum, please see Aquatic plant control

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Ceratophyllum demersum
NATIVE RANGE
  • united kingdom
  • united states
Informations on Ceratophyllum demersum has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Ceratophyllum demersum in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Ceratophyllum demersum has been spread throughout the world via the aquarium and pond trade, and is considered to be a weed of waterways in many regions of the world, due to its ability to spread rapidly, invade a wide range of aquatic habitats, and grow to deeper depths than some other weed species (NIWA, 2005a). C. demersum is able to dominant waterbodies. Its presence can affect phytoplankton development in three ways: by competition for inorganic nitrogen, competition for light, and allelopathy (Mjelde and Faafeng, 1997). A dense bed of C. demersum can remove up to 0.1 g N per square metre per day during the early growth stage. Allelopathy, the inhibition of growth of a plant species by chemicals produced by another species, has been shown to occur by C. Demersum (Mjelde and Faafeng, 1997; Korner and Nicklisch, 2002; Gross et al. 2003). Chemical compounds isolated from C. Demersum have been shown to inhibit the growth of phytoplankton (Mjelde and Faafeng, 1997; Korner and Nicklisch, 2002) and nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Gross et al. 2003). Allelopathy by C. Demersum can change waterbodies by stabilising the dominance of aquatic plants over phytoplankton (Scheffer et al., 1993; in Gross et al. 2003).

C. Demersum can also cause problems in aquatic ecosystems because of its ability to form dense monospecific beds. In some lakes in New Zealand, C. Demersum can be found growing from the shore to 14.5m deep, with beds up to 7m tall, creating a dense underwater forest (NIWA, 2001) (heights of 10m have been reported in Maraetai, New Zealand (Rohan Wells., pers.com., 2005)). This displaces all other plants from the area, including native submerged vegetation, and also impacts on boating, fishing and other recreational activities. This alteration of aquatic habitat may also affect the accessibility of invertebrate prey to New Zealand's native fish populations (Duggan et al. 2002). It has also caused problems to hydroelectric power stations in New Zealand (NIWA, 2005a).

Red List assessed species 0:
Mechanism
[4] Competition
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [2] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
[4] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Population size decline
  • [3] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
[5] Socio-Economic
  • [2] Damage to infrastructures
  • [2] Alteration of recreational use and tourism
  • [1] Limited access to water, land and other
Management information
Chemical: Diquat is commonly used in the control of submerged invasive weeds, but it can become deactivated under turbid conditions and therefore be ineffective. Hofstra et al. (2001) showed that endothall was more effective in these conditions and state that other recent studies have shown promising results for the use of endothall in controlling C. demersum. However, Hofstra and Clayton (2001) found that endothall also killed native non-target species in New Zealand such as Myriophyllum and Potamogeton. Further research on endothall showed that it required an application rate of at least 4.0 mg/L active ingredient endothall (dipotassium salt of endothall) to be effective (Skogerboe and Getsinger, 2002).
Smith and Pullman (1997) reported that C. demersum appeared to be highly susceptible to applications of Sonar ® A.S. aquatic herbicide (active ingredient fluridone), however Wells et al. (1986); Hofstra et al. (2001) found it was not.
Cedergreen et al. (2004) showed that C. demersum is sensitive to the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl.

Biological: An alternative method of C. demersum control in agricultural drains in New Zealand has been evaluated by Wells et al. (2003) - stocking with diploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). It was found that grass carp generally provided continuous weed control in these drains, although they did not provide adequate control in smaller side drains, or in the shallow, upper parts of the main drain. However, subsequent to this research trial, a number of carp were found dead in Churchill East drain, emphasising that grass carp management in agricultural drains in New Zealand can be problematic due to periodic fish kills. In other countries, the use of grass carp may not be as successful. Greenfield et al. (2004) state that C. demersum is not a preferred food of grass carp in Californian waters, while Pipalova (2002) stated that stocking with grass carp resulted in a change in species composition, including an increase in C. demersum.

Integrated management: Greenfield et al. (2004) provide information about controlling aquatic pests and weeds in California using non-conventional methods such as alternative chemical control, biological and mechanical control methods
New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) also provide detailed information about controlling aquatic plants such as C. demersum, please see Aquatic plant control

Bibliography
54 references found for Ceratophyllum demersum

Managment information
Champion, P. Clayton, J. and Rowe, D. 2002. Alien Invaders Lake Managers� Handbook. Ministry for the Environment.
Summary: Available from: http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/water/lm-alien-invaders-jun02.pdf [Accessed 3 February 2005]
Champion, P.D.; Clayton, J.S. 2000. Border control for potential aquatic weeds. Stage 1. Weed risk model. Science for Conservation 141. .
Summary: This report is the first stage in a three-stage development of a Border Control Programme for aquatic plants that have the potential to become ecological weeds in New Zealand.
Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc141.pdf [Accessed 13 June 2007]
Champion, P.D.; Clayton, J.S. 2001. Border control for potential aquatic weeds. Stage 2. Weed risk assessment. Science for Conservation 185. 30 p.
Summary: This report is the second stage in the development of a Border Control Programme for aquatic plants that have the potential to become ecological weeds in New Zealand. Importers and traders in aquatic plants were surveyed to identify the plant species known or likely to be present in New Zealand. The Aquatic Plant Weed Risk Assessment Model was used to help assess the level of risk posed by these species. The report presents evidence of the various entry pathways and considers the impact that new invasive aquatic weed species may have on vulnerable native aquatic species and communities.
Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/SFC185.pdf [Accessed 13 June 2007]
Greenfield, B.K., David, N., Hunt, J., Wittmann, M. and Siemering, G. 2004. Aquatic pesticide monitoring programme. Review of alternative aquatic pest control methods for California waters. San Francisco Estuary Institute. April 2004.
Summary: This report outlines a number of alternative methods of aquatic pest control in California, including biological, chemical and mechanical methods.
Available from: http://www.sfei.org/apmp/reports/PestAlternatives_review.pdf [Accessed 15 August 2005]
Hofstra, D.E., Clayton, J.S. and Getsinger, K.D. 2001. Evaluation of selected herbicides for the control of exotic submerged weeds in New Zealand: II. The effects of turbidity on diquat and endothall efficacy. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 39: 25-27.
Summary: This article discusses the effectiveness of diquat and endothall in controlling C. demersum.
National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
Summary: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
NIWA, 2001. Aniwaniwa Online. Issue 18.
Summary: The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) website provides a wealth of information about the presence and effects of C. demersum in New Zealand.
Available from: http://www.niwa.cri.nz/pubs/an/18/index.htm [Accessed 17 August 2005]
NIWA. 2005. Articles: Aquatic Plants.
Summary: The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) website provides a wealth of information about the presence and effects of C. demersum in New Zealand.
Available from: http://www.niwa.cri.nz/rc/prog/aquaticplants/news/ [Accessed 18 August 2005]
Pipalova, I. 2002. Initial impact of low stocking density of grass carp on aquatic macrophytes. Aquatic Botany. 73: 9-18.
Summary: This paper discusses the impacts of stocking ponds with grass carp on species composition, including changes in the proportion of C. demersum.
Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture (RNZIH), 2005. Hornwort Ceratophyllum demersum
Summary: Available from: http://www.rnzih.org.nz/pages/nppa_047.pdf [Accessed 1 October 2005]
Skogerboe, J.G. and Getsinger, K.D. 2002. Endothall species selectivity evaluation: Northern latitude aquatic plant community. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 40: 1-5.
Summary: This article discusses the effectiveness of endothall on various aquatic plants, including C. demersum.
Smith, C.S. and Pullman, G.D. 1997. Experiences using Sonar � A.S. aquatic herbicide in Michigan. Lake and Reservoir Management. 13 (4): 338-346.
Summary: This paper reports on the results of applications of an aquatic herbicide, Sonar � A.S., to Michigan lakes between 1990 and 1996.
Wells, R.D.S., Bannon, H.J. and Hicks, B.J. 2003. Control of macrophytes by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in a Waikato drain, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 37: 85-93.
Summary: This article discusses the management of aquatic macrophytes such as C. demersum in New Zealand using grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).
Wells, R.D.S., Coffey, B.T and Lauren D.R., 1986. Evaluation of Fluridone for weed control in new Zealand. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 24: 39-42
General information
Armstrong, N., Planas, D. and Prepas, E. 2003. Potential for estimating macrophyte surface area from biomass. Aquatic Botany. 75: 173-179.
Summary: This short communication outlined a study in the relationship between macrophyte surface area and biomass.
Barkman, 2003. Aquatic and littoral macrophytes in seven lakes northwest of Helsinki, S. Finland: Changes over a 36-year period. Memoranda Societatis Pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. 79 (1): 13-45.
Summary: This discusses the increasing dominance of some macrophyte species in seven lakes near Helsinki, Finland.
Bell, G. Biological Heritage Sites: Guidelines for site selection. Lancashire County Heritage Sites Scheme. February 1998.
Summary: This document gives guideline for the selection of biological heritage sites in Lancashire County, United Kingdom, and also presents an audit of flora and fauna in the area.
Available from: http://www.lancashire.gov.uk/environment/ecology/bhs/bhs.pdf [Accessed 15 August 2005]
Buckton, S. T., Nguyen Cu, Ha Quy Quynh and Nguyen Duc Tu. 1999. Conservation of key wetland sites in the Mekong Delta. Birdlife International Vietnam Programme Conservation Report No. 12. Birdlife International Vietnam Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Summary: This report gives detailed information about the conservation status of the Mekong Delta, and its flora and fauna.
Chen, Z., Lei, Z., Zhou, J. and Chen, J. 2001. A preliminary study of winter seed bank of dominant submerged macrophytes in Lake Liangzi.
Summary: This paper contains information about the macrophyte composition of Lake Liangzi in China.
Coffey, B.T. and Clayton, J.S. 1988. Changes in the submerged macrophyte vegetation of Lake Rotoiti, central North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 22: 215-223.
Summary: This paper outlines the changes in the submerged macrophyte vegetation of Lake Rotoiti between 1969 and 1985, and gives details about the invasion of C. demersum.
Dimitrov, D. and Tsonev, R. 2001. New data on the vascular flora of the Tundzha Hilly Country, the Thracian Lowland and the Eastern Balkan Range. Phytologia Balcanica. 7 (3): 327-329.
Summary: This paper reports on some new plant species recorded in Bulgaria, including C. demersum.
Duggan, I., Clayton, J., James, M. and Rowe, D. 2002. Claustrophobic fish: how do aquatic plants affect fish that feed on invertebrates? Water and Atmosphere. 10 (1): 22-23.
Summary: This article discusses how C. demersum can affect the freshwater ecosystems it invades.
Freshwater Biodata Information System New Zealand (FBIS), 2005
Summary: The Freshwater Biodata Information System (FBIS) contains fish, algae, aquatic plant and invertebrate data and metadata gathered from New Zealand s freshwater streams, rivers and lakes. FBIS provides different ways to search for biodata: choose a predefined search from a list of common searches; use the map view to draw a box on a map and search for biodata; or create your own search for maximum search flexibility. FBIS is offered as a nationally available resource for the New Zealand public, institutions and companies who need access to a well-maintained long-term data repository.
Available from: https://secure.niwa.co.nz/fbis/validate.do?search=common [Accessed 5 August 2005]
Fukuhara, H., Tanaka, T. and Izumi, M. 1997. Growth and turion formation of Ceratophyllum demersum in a shallow lake in Japan. Japanese Journal of Limnology. 58 (4); 335-347.
Summary: This article examines the growth and reproduction patterns of C. demersum.
Gross, E.M., Erhard, D. and Ivanyi, E. 2003. Allelopathic activity of Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Najas marina ssp. intermedia (Wolfgang) Casper. Hydrobiologia. 506-509: 583-589.
Summary: This article examines the allelopathic properties of C. demersum.
Hofstra, D.E., Clayton, J., Green, J.D. and Auger, M. 1999. Competitive performance of Hydrilla verticillata in New Zealand. Aquatic Botany. 63: 305-324.
Summary: This paper describes the effects of Hydrilla verticillata on other invasive aquatic species in New Zealand, including C. demersum.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Ceratophyllum demersum
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=533317 [Accessed March 2005]
Janauer, G.A. 2003. Overview and final remarks. Algological Studies. 147 (1-2): 217-229.
Summary: This report presents an overview of a detailed survey of the aquatic vegetation of the Danube River.
Kassim, T.I. and Al-Saadi, H.A. 1995. Seasonal variation of epiphytic algae in a marsh area (southern Iraq). Acta Hydrobiologica. 37 (3): 153-161.
Summary: This paper reports on the seasonal variation of vegetation at Al-Hammar marsh in southern Iraq.
Katenin, A.E. 2000. The first record of Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae) in Far Eastern sector of Russian arctic. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Leningrad). 85 (9): 134-137.
Summary: This reports the first record of C. demersum growing in the Chukotka tundra of far east Russia, and outlines possible causes for its appearance here.
Keskinkan, O., Goksu, M.Z.L., Basibuyuk, M. and Forster, C.F. 2004. Heavy metal adsorption properties of a submerged aquatic plant (Ceratophyllum demersum. Bioresource Technology. 92: 197-200.
Summary: This article describes the ability of C. demersum to be used for heavy metal removal under dilute metal concentrations.
Khedr, A-H. A. 1998. Vegetation zonation and management in the Damietta estuary of the River Nile. Journal of Coastal Conservation. 4 (1): 79-86.
Summary: This paper presents details of the vegetation along the Damietta estuary of the River Nile in Egypt.
Korner, S. and Nicklisch, A. 2002. Allelopathic growth inhibition of selected phytoplankton species by submerged macrophytes. Journal of Phycology. 38 (5): 862.
Summary: This paper presents results of research showing that C. demersum and other macrophytes act to inhibit growth of some phytoplankton species by allelopathy.
Madsen, J.D., Bloomfield, J.A., Sutherland, J.W., Eichler, L.W. and Boylen, C.W. 1996. The aquatic macrophyte community of Onondaga Lake: Field survey and plant growth bioassays of lake sediments. Lake and Reservoir Management. 12 (1): 73-79.
Summary: This paper gives details of the macrophyte community of the polluted Onondaga Lake in New York, USA.
Mastrantuono, L. and Mancinelli, T. 1999. Long-term changes of zoobenthic fauna and submerged vegetation in the shallow Lake Monterosi (Italy). Limnologica. 29 (2): 160-167.
Summary: This paper reports on changes in Lake Monterosi in Italy following the introduction of an exotic plant, and increasing trophy of the lake.
Mierzejewska, K., Wlasow, T., Kapusta, A. and Szymanczyk, K. 2004. Fish digeneans from the Seven Islands ornithological reserve at Oswin Lake Poland. Part 1. Posthodiplostomum cuticola von Nordmann, 1832. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria. 34 (1): 73-84.
Summary: This study was carried out in Oswin Lake in north-eastern Poland, which is completely covered by C. demersum in some parts.
Mjelde, M. and Faafeng, B.A. 1997. Ceratophyllum demersum hampers phytoplankton development in some small Norwegian lakes over a wide range of phosphorous concentrations and geographical latitude. Freshwater Biology. 37: 355-365.
Summary: This article discusses the apparent limitation on phytoplankton growth in Norwegian lakes with C. demersum.
Nichols, S.A. 1994. Evaluation of invasions and declines of submersed macrophytes for the Upper Great Lakes Region. Lake and Reservoir Management. 10 (1): 29-33.
Summary: Abstract mentions the presence of C. demersum as an invasive species in the Upper Great Lakes region.
NIWA. 2005. Aquatic Plant Species Guide: Ceratophyllum demersum.
Summary: The Aquatic Plant Species Guide gives basic details about some aquatic plants in New Zealand, including C. demersum.
Available from: http://www.niwa.co.nz/rc/prog/aquaticplants/species/submerged [Accessed 18 August 2005]
Otahelova, H. and Valachovic, M. 2002. Effects of the Gabcikovo hydroelectric-station on the aquatic vegetation of the Danube River (Slovakia). Preslia (Prague). 74 (4): 323-331.
Summary: This paper mentions the appearance of C. demersum following the construction of a hydroelectric-station in 1993 along the Danube River in Slovakia.
Pinowska, A. 2002. Effects of snail grazing and nutrient release on growth of the macrophytes Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis and the filamentous green alga Cladophora sp. Hydrobiologia. 479: 83-94.
Summary: This paper looks at the impacts of snail grazing on macrophytes such as C. demersum in Poland.
Ramdani, M., Flower, R.J., Elkhiati, N., Kraiem, M.M., Fathi, A.A., Birks, H.H. and Patrick, S.T. 2001. North African wetland lakes: characterization of nine sites included in the CASSARINA Project. Aquatic Ecology. 35: 281-302.
Summary: This paper gives distribution information about aquatic plants in North African lakes, including C. demersum.
Sandstrom, A., Isaeus, M., Schreiber, H. and Karas, P. 2004. Effects of boating activities on aquatic vegetation in the Stockholm archipelago, Baltic Sea. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science. 61 (2): 339-349.
Summary: This paper reports that C. demersum appears to be positively associated with man-made harbours (marinas) in the Stockholm archipelago in Sweden.
Sarbu, A. 2003. Inventory of aquatic plants in the Danube Delta: A pilot study in Romania. Algological Studies. 147 (1-2): 205-216.
Summary: This paper outlines some of the aquatic plants present in the Danube Delta in Romania.
Sipos, V.K., Kohler, A., Koeder, M. and Janauer, G.A. 2003. Macrophyte vegetation of Danube canals in Kiskunsag (Hungary). Algological Studies. 147 (1-2): 143-166.
Summary: This paper gives information about the macrophyte vegetation of Danube canals in Kiskunsag, Hungary, including C. demersum.
Stankovic, Z., Pajevic, S. and Vuckovic, M. 2000. Concentrations of trace metals in dominant aquatic plants of the Lake Provala (Vojvodina, Yugoslavia). Biologia Plantarum (Prague). 43 (4): 583-585.
Summary: This article discusses the concentrations of trace metals in submerged and floating plants, including C. demersum.
Stilinovic, B. and Hrenovic, J. 2000. Nutrient removal from leachate of the Zagreb landfill Jakusevec. Acta Botanica Croatica. 59 (1): 215-223.
Summary: This article includes recommendations for the remediation of a dump site in Europe.
Su, W-H., Zhang, G-F., Zhang, Y-S., Xiao, H. and Xia, F. 2004. The photosynthetic characteristics of five submerged aquatic plants. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica. 28 (4): 391-395.
Summary: This paper gives information about the light requirements of some aquatic plants, including C. demersum.
Tracy, M., Montante, J.M., Allenson, T.E. and Hough, R.A. 2003. Long-term responses of aquatic macrophyte diversity and community structure to variation in nitrogen loading. Aquatic Botany. 77: 43-52.
Summary: This paper discusses the change in community structure in south-eastern Michigan lakes following a drought in 1987-1988.
Vekhoff, N.V. 1997. New species of hydrophilous flowering plants for aquatories and wetlands of the Latcha lake (environs of the Kargopol, Arkhangelsk region). Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Leningrad). 82 (11): 98-101.
Summary: This paper records new species for Latcha lake in Russia, including C. demersum in 1994.
Webb, D.A., J. Parnell and D. Doogue 1996. An Irish Flora.
Wells, R.D.S., De Winton, M.D. and Clayton, J.S. 1997. Successive macrophyte invasions within the submerged flora of Lake Tarawera, Central North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 31: 449-459.
Summary: This article gives details about the spread of C. demersum in Lake Tarawera, and its impacts on submerged flora.
Available from: http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjmfr/1997/38.pdf [Accessed 2 August 2005]
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