Global invasive species database

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  • Ligustrum sinense flowers (Photo: James R. Allison, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, www.forestryimages.org)
  • Ligustrum sinense fruit (Photo: James R. Allison, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, www.forestryimages.org)
  • Ligustrum sinense immature fruits (Photo: Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, www.forestryimages.org)
  • Ligustrum sinense seedling (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org)
  • Chinese privet on the right, Japanese privet on the left (Photo: Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, www.forestryimages.org)
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Common name
common chinese privet (English), Chinese privet (English), hedge privet (English), xiao la (Chinese), small-leaf privet (English), Chinese ligustrum (English), Chinese liguster (Afrikaans)
Synonym
Ligustrum sinense , Lour. var. villosum (May) Rehder
Ligustrum calleryanum , Decne.
Ligustrum sinense , Lour. var. multiflorum Bowles
Ligustrum villosum , May
Olea consanguinea , Hance
Olea walpersiana , Hance
Ligustrum indicum , (Lour.) Merr.
Ligustrum microcarpum , Kaneh. & Sasaki
Ligustrum sinense , var. stauntonii (DC.) Rehder
Ligustrum stauntonii , DC.
Phillyrea indica , Lour.
Similar species
Viburnum obovatum, Foresteria, Ligustrum
Summary
Ligustrum sinense, or Chinese privet, is a shrub or small tree native to China, Vietnam and Laos that can grow up to 9 meters tall. Its flowers are small and somewhat unpleasantly fragrant and its fruits are dark blue or bluish-black. L. sinense has been reported in floodplains, wetlands and bogs, as well as in dry, moist and wet forests, waste places, roadsides and open stream systems. It is widespread and common, especially near towns, where it is deliberately planted. It may displace shrubs of alluvial forests and remain persistent in these areas. Chinese privet fruits are consumed by wildlife, particularly birds, which often excrete the seeds unharmed at distant locations where they may germinate and become established. L. sinense can easily escape cultivation to invade adjacent areas and can form dense monospecific thickets.
Species Description
Ligustrum sinense is a deciduous shrub or small tree that typically grows to about 6m but may reach 9m. Its trunks usually occur as multiple stems with many long, leafy branches. Its bark is whitish-tan to gray in color and smooth in texture. Slender twigs are straight, rounded or four-angled below the nodes, and gray-green in color. Leaves are opposite, oval, pubescent on the underside of the midvein, and less than 5cm long. Small, white flowers develop at the end of branches in 5-7.6cm long clusters. Its fruits are oval, fleshy, less than 1.3cm long, ripen to a dark purple to black color, and persist into winter (Invasive.org, 2010; Batcher, 2000 Ulyshen et al, 2009).
Notes
Ligustrum spp. leaves are high in phenolic compounds that defend against herbivores, especially insects. The compounds work by inhibiting digestive enzymes and proteins (Konno et al. 1998, in Batcher, 2000).
Lifecycle Stages
Germination rates for Ligustrum sinense have been variously reported as low as 5 to 27% (Tennessee Exotic Plants Council 1996, in Batcher, 2000) and as high as 77% (Schopmeyer 1974, in Batcher, 2000). The pure variegated form is not known to produce viable seeds (H. Gramling, Tampa Bay Wholesale Growers 1998 personal communication, in FLEPPC, Undated). The species is capable of producing more than 2,000 propagules annually as 2,800 fruit per stem has been reported as an average annual production (Westoby, Dalby & Adams-Acton 1983 in DPI, 2009).
Uses
PIER (2003) states that this species is commonly bought as an ornamental and used for hedges. It has been identified as an important forage plant for deer in the southeastern U.S. (Stromayer et al. 1998, in Batcher, 2000).
Habitat Description
Ligustrum sinense commonly forms dense thickets in fields or in the understory of forests (Invasive.org, 2010). It grows in a variety of forests, shrublands, woodlands, flood plains, wetlands, and coastal areas, but also has a particular affinity for disturbed or urbanized locations like cleared fields or along roadsides (Batcher, 2000; Greene & Blossey, 2009; Williams & Minogue, 2008; PIER, 2010). Occurrences have been recorded from lowland areas and up to 1830 meters elevation (Williams & Minogue, 2008; PIER, 2010). L. sinese tolerates a wide range of soil conditions and is shade tolerant, and tolerates, or even benefits from mutilation, cultivation, or fire (PIER, 2005).
Reproduction
Ligustrum sinense is a perennial shrub that grows readily from seed or from root and stump sprouts. It may escape from cultivation when the fruits are consumed by wildlife, particularly birds, which often excrete the seeds unharmed at distant locations where they may germinate and become established (Batcher, 2000). An average square meter of canopy produces about 1,300 fruits (Burrows and Kohen 1986, in FLEPPC, Undated)
Pathway
Ligustrum spp. have been cultivated and developed into several horticultural varieties, which were introduced to North America and New Zealand as a common hedge in landscaping (Batcher, 2000).

Principal source: Element Stewardship Abstract for Ligustrum spp. (Batcher, 2000)
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2010. Ligustrum sinense Lour., Oleaceae
Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, 2009. Impact Assessment - Small-leaf Privet (Ligustrum sinense) in Victoria

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Anon

Publication date: 2010-08-20

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Ligustrum sinense. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=241 on 27-07-2016.

General Impacts
Ligustrum sinense is extremely invasive and forms dense monospecific layers in forest interiors and edges that outcompete, displace and shade out native vegetation (Batcher, 2000; DPI, 2009; Invasive.org, 2010; Morris et al, 2002; Zhang, 2009). It reduces native plant abundance and diversity (Green & Blosey, 2009; Wilcox &Beck, 2007). These reductions in species richness and overstory reproduction associated with L. sinense could impact long-term forest structure and ecosystem function (Loewenstein & Loewenstein, 2005). It has been found to have toxic effects on animals and macroinvertebrates (DPI, 2009b; PIER, 2005), and one study observed that beetle richness increased greatly after its removal (Ulyshen et al, 2009). It is also believed to have a negative impact on water quality (DPI, 2009b).
Management Info
Restoration potential is likely to be lowest where Ligustrum spp. occur in high densities and there is a high likelihood of continued dispersal of seeds into the restoration area. If attacked during the early stages of colonization, the potential for successful management is high.
Manual and mechanical, environmental/cultural, and chemical methods are all useful in varying degrees in controlling Ligustrum spp.

For details on preventative measures, chemical, physical, biological control options, please see management information.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Ligustrum sinense
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
  • hong kong
  • lao people's democratic republic
  • taiwan
  • viet nam
Informations on Ligustrum sinense has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Ligustrum sinense in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Ligustrum sinense is extremely invasive and forms dense monospecific layers in forest interiors and edges that outcompete, displace and shade out native vegetation (Batcher, 2000; DPI, 2009; Invasive.org, 2010; Morris et al, 2002; Zhang, 2009). It reduces native plant abundance and diversity (Green & Blosey, 2009; Wilcox &Beck, 2007). These reductions in species richness and overstory reproduction associated with L. sinense could impact long-term forest structure and ecosystem function (Loewenstein & Loewenstein, 2005). It has been found to have toxic effects on animals and macroinvertebrates (DPI, 2009b; PIER, 2005), and one study observed that beetle richness increased greatly after its removal (Ulyshen et al, 2009). It is also believed to have a negative impact on water quality (DPI, 2009b).
Red List assessed species 6: CR = 1; VU = 1; LR/nt = 1; LR/lc = 3;
Locations
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of successional patterns
Management information
Restoration potential is likely to be lowest where Ligustrum spp. occur in high densities and there is a high likelihood of continued dispersal of seeds into the restoration area. If attacked during the early stages of colonization, the potential for successful management is high.
Manual and mechanical, environmental/cultural, and chemical methods are all useful in varying degrees in controlling Ligustrum spp.

For details on preventative measures, chemical, physical, biological control options, please see management information.

Bibliography
62 references found for Ligustrum sinense

Managment information
Baker, W. UNDATED. Plant Pest Control: Privet: Ligustrum lucidum, Ligustrum sinense. Bay of Plenty Regional Council, New Zealand.
Summary: Detailed report on introduction, origin, description and control.
Available from: http://envbop.govt.nz/publications/PDF/FactSheets/PP1098.pdf [Accessed 29 May 2003].
Batcher M.S. 2000. Element Stewardship Abstract for Ligustrum spp. The Nature Conservancy.
Summary: An Element Stewardship Abstract containing detail report on description, distribution, dispersal methods, impacts, habitats and control.
Available from: http://www.invasive.org/weedcd/pdfs/tncweeds/ligu_sp.pdf [Accessed 19 July 2010].
Brown, Christopher E.; Pezeshki, S. Reza, 2000. A study on waterlogging as a potential tool to control Ligustrum sinense populations in western Tennessee. Wetlands. 20(3). September, 2000. 429-437.
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida (IFAS), 2010. Chinese privet: Ligustrum sinense
Summary: Available from: http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/231 [Accessed 10 March 2010]
Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, 2009. Impact Assessment - Small-leaf Privet (Ligustrum sinense) in Victoria
Summary: Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/impact_small_leaved_privet [Accessed 10 March 2010]
Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, 2009. Invasiveness Assessment - Small-leaf Privet (Ligustrum sinense) in Victoria
Summary: Available from: http://dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/invasive_small_leaf_privet [Accessed 10 March 2010]
Ding, Jianqing; Reardon, Richard; Wu, Yun; Zheng, Hao; Fu, Weidong, 2006. Biological control of invasive plants through collaboration between China and the United States of America: a perspective. Biological Invasions. 8(7). OCT 2006. 1439-1450
Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS), 2010. Chinese privet Ligustrum sinense Lour.
Summary: Available from: http://www.eddmaps.org/distribution/state.cfm?sub=3035&id=us_tx [Accessed 10 March 2010]
Environment Waikato. 2002. Privet (Ligustrum spp.)
Harrington, Timothy B.; Miller, James H., 2005. Effects of application rate, timing, and formulation of glyphosate and triclopyr on control of Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense). Weed Technology. 19(1). JAN-MAR 2005. 47-54.
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Marvin, David C.; Bradley, Bethany A.; Wilcove, David S., 2009. A Novel, Web-based, Ecosystem Mapping Tool Using Expert Opinion. Natural Areas Journal. 29(3). JUL 2009. 281-292.
Matlack, Glenn R., 2002. Exotic plant species in Mississippi, USA: Critical issues in management and research. Natural Areas Journal. 22(3). July, 2002. 241-247.
Montaldo, Norberto H., 1993. Avian dispersal and reproductive success of two species of Ligustrum (Oleaceae) in a subtropical forest relict in Argentina. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 66(1). 1993. 75-85.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2010. Ligustrum sinense Lour., Oleaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/ligustrum_sinense.htm [Accessed 10 March 2010]
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2010. Risk Assessment: Ligustrum sinense Lour., Oleaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/wra/pacific/ligustrum_sinense_htmlwra.htm [Accessed 10 March 2010]
Pallin, N. 2000. Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve, Habitat restoration project, 15 years on. Ecological Management and Restoration 1(1):10 April 2000.
Summary: Discusses impacts species has had on a Reserve in Australia. Examines chemical and physical control methods and how control has been reached.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2003. Ligustrum spp.
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/ligustrum_spp.htm [Accessed 29 May 2003]
Swarbrick, J.T., S.M. Timmins, and K.M. Bullen. 1999. The biology of Australian weeds. 36. Ligustrum lucidum Aiton and Ligustrum sinense Lour. Plant Protection Quarterly 14:
Thetford, Mack; Berry, James B., 2000. Response of five woody landscape plants to Primo and pruning. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 18(3). September, 2000. 132-136.
Ulyshen, Michael D.; Scott Horn and James L. Hanula, 2009. Response of beetles (Coleoptera) at three heights to the experimental removal of an invasive shrub, Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), from floodplain forests. Biological Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-009-9569-2
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Vidra, Rebecca L.; Shear, Theodore H.; Stucky, Jon M., 2007. Effects of vegetation removal on native understory recovery in an exotic-rich urban forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 134(3). JUL-SEP 2007. 410-419.
Virginia Native Plant Society / Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VNPS/VDCR) Undated Invasive Alien Plant Species of Virginia: Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense) Virginia.
Summary: Summary on description, habitat, threats and control.
Available from: http://www.vnps.org/invasive/FSLIGUS.html [Accessed 29 May 2003].
Williams, Peter A.; Karl, Brian J.; Bannister, Peter; Lee, William G., 2000. Small mammals as potential seed dispersers in New Zealand. Austral Ecology. 25(5). October, 2000. 523-532.
Wirth, Ferdinand F.; Davis, Kathy J.; Wilson, Sandra B., 2004. Florida nursery sales and economic impacts of 14 potentially invasive landscape plant species. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 22(1). March 2004. 12-16
Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Hanula, James L.; Sun, Jiang-Hua, 2008. Survey for potential insect biological control agents of Ligustrum sinense (Scrophulariales : Oleaceae) in China. Florida Entomologist. 91(3). SEP 2008. 372-382.
Zhang, Yanzhuo; Sun, Jianghua; Hanula, James L., 2009. Biology and Life History of Argopistes tsekooni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in China, a Promising Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 102(3). MAY 2009. 508-516
General information
Burton, Michele L.; Samuelson, Lisa J., 2008. Influence of urbanization on riparian forest diversity and structure in the Georgia Piedmont, US. Plant Ecology. 195(1). MAR 2008. 99-115.
Burton, Michele L.; Samuelson, Lisa J.; Pan, Shufen, 2005. Riparian woody plant diversity and forest structure along an urban-rural gradient. Urban Ecosystems. 8(1). MAR 2005. 93-106.
Centre des ressources biologiques. Plantes tropicales. INRA-CIRAD. 2007.
Summary: Available from: http://collections.antilles.inra.fr/ [Accessed 31 March 2008]
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Ligustrum sinense Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de La R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=331cc28f8747a032890d0429b5a5f0e5 [Accessed 1 April 2008]
Drake, Sara J.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Parr, Patricia D., 2003. Assessment of non-native invasive plant species on the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Castanea. 68(1). March 2003. 15-30.
Fournet, J. 2002. Flore illustr�e des phan�rogames de guadeloupe et de Martinique. CIRAD-Gondwana editions.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Ligustrum sinense
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Ligustrum+sinense&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Kalesnik, Fabio; Acenolaza, Pablo, 2008. Regional distribution of native and exotic species in levees of the lower delta of the Parana river. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences. 30(4). OCT-DEC 2008. 391-402.
Langeland, K.A. and Burks, K. C (Eds) 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida s Natural Areas, University of Florida. Ligustrum sinense
Summary: Information on plants that pose threats to natural resource areas in Florida.
Available from: http://www.fleppc.org/ID_book/Ligustrum%20sinense.pdf [Accessed 10 June 2003]
Loewenstein, Nancy J.; Loewenstein, Edward F., 2005. Non-native plants in the understory of riparian forests across a land use gradient in the Southeast. Urban Ecosystems. 8(1). MAR 2005. 79-91.
McEwan, Ryan W.; Rieske, Lynne K.; Arthur, Mary A., 2009. Potential interactions between invasive woody shrubs and the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), an invasive insect herbivore. Biological Invasions. 11(4). APR 2009. 1053-1058.
Merriam, Robert W., 2003. The abundance, distribution and edge associations of six non-indigenous, harmful plants across North Carolina. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 130(4). October-December 2003. 283-291.
Merriam, Robert W.; Feil, Elisabeth, 2002. The potential impact of an introduced shrub on native plant diversity and forest regeneration. Biological Invasions. 4(4). 2002. 369-373.
Merriam, R.W. and E. Feil. 2002. The potential impact of an introduced shrub on native plant diversity and forest regeneration. Biological Invasions 4: 369-373
Summary: Reference suggested by the reviewer for information on impacts.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Morris, L.L., J.L. Walck, and S.N. Hidayati. 2002. Growth and reproduction of the invasive Ligustrum sinense and native Forestiera ligustrina (Oleaceae): implications for the invasion and persistence of a nonnative shrub. International Journal of Plant Sciences 163: 1001-1010.
Summary: Reference suggested by the reviewer for information on impacts.
Morris, Lorna L.; Walck, Jeffrey L.; Hidayati, Siti N., 2002. Growth and reproduction of the invasive Ligustrum sinense and native Forestiera ligustrina (Oleaceae): Implications for the invasion and persistence of a nonnative shrub.International Journal of Plant Sciences. 163(6). November 2002. 1001-1010.
Osland, Michael J.; Pahl, James W.; Richardson, Curtis J., 2009. Native Bamboo [Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl., Poaceae] Establishment and Growth after the Removal of an Invasive Non-Native Shrub (Ligustrum sinense Lour., Oleaceae): Implications for Restoration. Castanea. 74(3). SEP 2009. 247-258.
Stromayer, Karl A. K.; Warren, Robert J.; Harrington, Timothy B., 1998b. Managing Chinese privet for white-tailed deer. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 22(4). Nov., 1998. 227-230.
Stromayer, Karl A. K.; Warren, Robert J.; Johnson, A. Sydney; Hale, Philip E.; Rogers, Carolyn L.; Tucker, Christopher L., 1998a. Chinese privet and the feeding ecology of white-tailed deer: The role of an exotic plant. Journal of Wildlife Management. 62(4). Oct., 1998. 1321-1329.
Taylor, Constance E. S.; Magrath, Lawrence K.; Folley, Patricia; Buck, Paul; Carpenter, Sydney, 1996. Oklahoma vascular plants: Additions and distributional comments. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science. 76(0). 1996. 31-34.
USF-AFVP (University of South Florida - Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants) 2003. Institute for Systematic Botany: Dioscorea oppositifolia
Summary: Short list of common names and synonyms.
Available from: http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/main.asp?plantID=1935 [Accessed 5 June 2003]
Wilcox, Joshua; Beck, Christopher W., 2007. Effects of Ligustrum sinense Lour. (Chinese privet) on abundance and diversity of songbirds and native plants in a southeastern nature preserve. Southeastern Naturalist. 6(3). 2007. 535-550.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Ligustrum sinense
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax: