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  • Inflorescence a dense, many flowered, terminal cluster. Note the dense woolly felt covering the sepals and bracts. This    greyish velvety covering occurs on most parts of the plant and consists of star-shaped hairs. The hairs are easily    dislodged, toxic and cause respiratory problems in humans (Photo by R. P. Ellis available from www.ecoport.org)
  • Berries in dense terminal clusters. Globose, densely covered with star-shaped hairs. Become yellow on ripening. They are    poisonous to man and act as a host for the fruit-fly. Eagerly eaten by birds which disperse the seeds widely (Photo by R. P. Ellis available from www.ecoport.org)
  • Much-branched and unarmed with relatively large, woolly leaves (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org)
  • Leaves dull green and velvety above, up to 250 mm long x 100 mm wide; emit a strong smell when bruised (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org)
  • Leaves white-felty below, midrib thick and very conspicious (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org)
  • Flowers in compact terminal clusters. The inflorescences are very showy and although declared weeds, these plants are    sometimes cultivated as ornamentals (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org)
  • Corolla 5-lobed, lobes spreading and deep purple with a whitish central line. Stamens 5, inserted in corolla-tube;    filaments much shorter than anthers; anthers large, oblong, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Style long, terete, with    capitate stigma (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org)
  • Fruit in compact, branched, terminal clusters (Photo by R. Botha available from www.ecoport.org)
  • Soft wooded perennial shrub or small tree up to 4m high. Large leaves stalked, lower surface densely covered in whitish    felt, margins smooth. Widespread weed in South Africa, particularly of disturbed wooded areas and along streams, here from    Pretoria (Photo by R. P. Ellis available from www.ecoport.org)
  • Typical fruit (a relatively large number of fruit, each containing many seeds, per plant as can be seen from this image) of    the bugweed plants that provide food for fruit eating birds over a period of time in the summer months, Munster,    KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. This allows the for easy dissemination of the seed by the birds and for the rapid    establishement and spread of this invasive species (Photo by D. C. Nowell available from www.ecoport.org)
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Common name
pula (English, Tonga), wild tobacco (English), pua nana honua (English, Hawaii), woolly nightshade (English, New Zealand), bugweed (English), flannel weed (English, New Zealand), kerosene plant (English, New Zealand), rau 'ava'ava (English, Cook Islands), tobacco weed (English, New Zealand), igayintombi (Zulu), tree tobacco (English), umbanga banga (Zulu), groot bitterappel (Afrikaans), isigwayana (Zulu), luisboom (Afrikaans)
Synonym
Solanum auriculatum , Aiton 1789
Solanum carterianum , Rock 1913
Solanum tabaccifolium , Vell. 1829
Solanum verbascifolium , L. var. auriculatum (Aiton) Kuntze 1891
Solanum verbascifolium , L. ssp. auriculatum (Aiton) Hassl. 1918
Solanum verbascifolium , L. forma typicum Hassl. 1918
Similar species
Solanum stelligerum, Solanum densevestitum
Summary
Solanum mauritianum is a widespread invasive weed belonging to the nightshade family. It has the ability to crowd out native plants if growing densely, but, if occurring sparsely, it may act as a nursery crop. All parts of Solanum mauritianum plant are poisonous to humans, especially the berries. This plant is dispersed by birds, with the fruit being especially favoured by some species. Biological control of this species has been undertaken in South Africa.
Species Description
\"Shrubs or small trees 2-10m tall, branched above to form a rounded canopy, unarmed, all parts densely pubescent with\nsessile to long-stalked stellate hairs, loose and floccose on young growth. Leaves paler on lower surface, simple, alternate, elliptic, up to0 cm long and 12cm wide on young vigorous growth, usually ca 8 cm long and ca 7cm wide, on mature stems. When crushed they give off a smell of diesel fuel. Margins entire, apex acuminate, base cuneate, often oblique, petioles 3-9cm long, each with 1-2 smaller auriculate leaves in axils, these sessile, rounded, sometime absent from weak or distal shoots. Flowers perfect, actinomorphic, numerous in branched corymbs, peduncles up to 15cm long to first fork, pedicels 2-3mm long; calyx tube short, 2-3mm long, the lobes narrowly triangular, 2-3mm long; corolla lilac blue with a pale star-shaped area at base, stellate, 1.5-2.5cm in diameter; stamens 5, inserted low on corolla tube; filaments ca 1mm long; anthers oblong, 2-3.5mm long, opening by terminal pores; ovary densely pubescent; style pubescent in lower part, 5-7mm long; stigma green, terminal. Berries green, ripening to dull yellow, succulent, globose, 1-1.5cm in diameter, pubescent at least in early stages. Seeds numerous, flattened, 1.5-2mm long, testa minutely reticulate. Self-compatible .\"\" (Wagner et al., 1999, in PIER, 2002)\"
Lifecycle Stages
Flowers and fruits all year round (Wildy, 2002). Germination of seeds stored in soil is stimulated by fire (ESC, 2003). Seedlings that become established in summer can flower by autumn. Plants can grow to a height of several metres within 2-3 years. Mature plants begin to die after 15 years (Haley, 1997).
Uses
Can be used as a nursery crop in countries where it is less invasive than elsewhere (e.g. Australia). This is because it can provide a protective environment for native vegetation to germinate and grow underneath. This is dependent on the situation though, as it will not be effective if S. mauritianum is so thick that it shades out plants growing beneath it. The fruit may be a valuable food source for native bird species, although these tend to facilitate long-distance dispersal and further invasion (CGC, 2003; T. Olckers, pers. comm.).
Habitat Description
In Hawai‘i, naturalized on slopes and ridges in disturbed wet forest (Wagner et. al. 1999 in PIER, 2002). A coloniser of disturbed sites (KZN Wildlife). Tolerates various soil types and is shade-tolerant to a certain degree (Haley, 1997). In South Africa, the plant invades riparian zones, forestry plantations, natural forest, agricultural lands, urban open space and any other disturbed areas (e.g. along roadsides, powerlines etc.), particularly in the eastern, higher rainfall regions of the country (Henderson, 2001).
Reproduction
Seed. Some 20-80 berries are borne on each inflorescence, each of which contains about 150 seeds (T. Olckers, pers. comm.).
Pathway
Introduced to New Zealand as a garden plant. (Mather, 1998). Introduced for flowers and to attract fruit-feeding birds (T. Olckers, pers. comm.). Invaded rangelands (T. Olckers, pers. comm.). Invaded plantations (T. Olckers, pers. comm.)

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dr. Terry Olckers, ARC - Plant Protection Research Institute, South Africa.

Publication date: 2006-02-22

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Solanum mauritianum. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=209 on 25-07-2016.

General Impacts
Can invade urban areas, native forest margins and pastoral land. May form dense stands that inhibit the growth of other species through overcrowding and shading (Haley, 1997). Can retard the growth of young pine trees (Pinus spp.) (Wildy, 2002). All parts of the plant are poisonous to humans, especially the green berries (ESC, 2003). These berries also provide winter food for the Mediterranean and KwaZulu-Natal fruit flies, which are horticultural pests. The fine hairs on the leaves can be an irritant, especially when they are dislodged during removal operations (Wildy, 2002).
Management Info
Chemical: Easily killed with herbicides. In South Africa, several chemicals (e.g. glyphosate, triclopyr, imazapyr) are registered as foliar, basal stem or cut stump applications. Manual control involves ring-barking trees or removing seedlings by hand (Wildy, 2002).

\r\nBiological: Biological control has been instituted in South Africa, with the release of a sap-sucking lace bug (Gargaphia decoris) in 1999 (Olckers, 1999, 2000). However, this insect has proved ineffective to date. Permission for the release of the flowerbud weevil (Anthonomus santacruzi) that prevents fruiting is currently being sought in South Africa (T. Olckers, pers. comm.).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Solanum mauritianum
Informations on Solanum mauritianum has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Solanum mauritianum in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Can invade urban areas, native forest margins and pastoral land. May form dense stands that inhibit the growth of other species through overcrowding and shading (Haley, 1997). Can retard the growth of young pine trees (Pinus spp.) (Wildy, 2002). All parts of the plant are poisonous to humans, especially the green berries (ESC, 2003). These berries also provide winter food for the Mediterranean and KwaZulu-Natal fruit flies, which are horticultural pests. The fine hairs on the leaves can be an irritant, especially when they are dislodged during removal operations (Wildy, 2002).
Red List assessed species 0:
Outcomes
[24] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [7] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [16] Modification of successional patterns
[5] Environmental Species - Population
  • [5] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
[12] Socio-Economic
  • [2] Damage to agriculture
  • [2] Damage to forestry
  • [3] Human health
  • [4] Human nuisance 
  • [1] Limited access to water, land and other
Management information
Chemical: Easily killed with herbicides. In South Africa, several chemicals (e.g. glyphosate, triclopyr, imazapyr) are registered as foliar, basal stem or cut stump applications. Manual control involves ring-barking trees or removing seedlings by hand (Wildy, 2002).

\r\nBiological: Biological control has been instituted in South Africa, with the release of a sap-sucking lace bug (Gargaphia decoris) in 1999 (Olckers, 1999, 2000). However, this insect has proved ineffective to date. Permission for the release of the flowerbud weevil (Anthonomus santacruzi) that prevents fruiting is currently being sought in South Africa (T. Olckers, pers. comm.).

Bibliography
34 references found for Solanum mauritianum

Managment information
Agricultural Research Council, 2002. The Bugweed Lace Bug. Agricultural Research Council, South Africa.
Summary: A useful one-page document with information on Gargaphia decoris, a biological control agent for S. mauritianum. Contains contact details for further information.
Available from: http://www-dwaf.pwv.gov.za/wfw/Control/BioDossiers/04.%20Bugweed%20lace%20bug.pdf [Accessed 22 November 2002].
Environment Waikato. 2002. Woolly Nightshade (Solanum mauritianum)
Haley, N. 1997. Solanum mauritianum webpage. Environment B.O.P. (Bay of Plenty).
Summary: Contains information on identification, habitat, impacts and dispersal, as well as a tiny amount on management. Contains a broken link to an excellent fact sheet on chemical control.
Available from: http://www.envbop.govt.nz/publications/PDF/FactSheets/Pp0198.pdf.
Hivert, J. 2003. Plantes exotiques envahissantes - Etat des m�thodes de lutte mise en oeuvre par l Office National des For�ts � La R�union. ONF R�union.
Summary: Synth�se des m�thodes de lutte employ�es par l ONF � la R�union contre une vingtaine de plantes exotiques envahissantes.
Landcare Research, 2001. What s new in biological control of weeds? No. 17 February (page 6)
Summary: A short article on biological control of Solanum mauritianum in South Africa.
Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/weeds/wtsnew17.pdf [Accessed 7 April 2003].
Mather, J. 1998. Fact Sheet PP01/98, Environment B.O.P (Bay of Plenty).
McGregor, P.G. 1999. Prospects for biological control of woolly nightshade, Solanum mauritianum (Solanaceae: Solanoideae). Landcare Research Contract Report: LC9900/035. 15 pp.
Summary: An unpublished report which outlines the status, current control options and prospects for biological control of S. mauritianum in New Zealand.
Olckers, T. 1998. Biology and host range of Platyphora semiviridis, a leaf beetle evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Solanum mauritianum in South Africa. Biocontrol 43: 225-239
Summary: A paper outlining the evaluation process for a potential biological control agent in South Africa. This particular species was determined to be unsuitable for release in South Africa.
Olckers, T. 1999. Biological control of Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae) in South Africa: a review of candidate agents, progress and future prospects. African Entomology Memoir No. 1: 65-73.
Summary: A paper which reviews the biological control programme launched against S. mauritianum in South Africa and the prospects for success.
Olckers, T. 2000. Biology, host specificity and risk assessment of Gargaphia decoris, the first agent to be released in South Africa for the biological control of the invasive tree Solanum mauritianum. BioControl 45: 373-388.
Summary: A paper outlining the evaluation process for a potential biological control agent in South Africa. This particular species was determined to be suitable for release in South Africa and was subsequently released in 1999.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2002. Solanum mauritianum.
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/solanum_mauritianum.htm [Accessed 18 November 2002]
Swaziland s Alien Plants Database., Undated. Solanum mauritianum
Summary: A database of Swaziland s alien plant species.
Tasman District Council (TDC) 2001. Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Withers, T.M., Olckers, T. & S.V. Fowler. 2002. The risk to Solanum spp. in New Zealand from Gargaphia decoris (Hem.: Tingidae), a potential biocontrol agent against woolly nightshade, S.mauritianum New Zealand Plant Protection 55: 90-94.
Summary: A paper outlining the prospects for obtaining permission to release Gargaphia decoris for the biological control of S.mauritianum in New Zealand.
General information
Agricultural Research Council. S. mauritianum. An illustrated guide to selected alien invasive plants in South Africa � National Department of Agriculture & Agricultural Research Council, South Africa.
Summary: Good images, limited information.
Available from: http://www.ru.ac.za/institutes/rgi/mark/weeds/solmau.htm [Accessed 18 November 2002].
Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants, 2002. Institute for Systematic Botany.
Summary: Synonyms of the plant.
Available from: http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/main.asp?plantID=258 [Accessed 18 November 2002].
Baret, S., Rouget, M., Richardson, D. M., Lavergne, C., Egoh, B., Dupont, J., & Strasberg, D. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La R�union (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology, 31, 747-758.
Summary: L objectif de ce papier est d identifier les zones prioritaires en mati�re de gestion des invasions biologiques � La R�union en mod�lisant la distribution actuelle et potentiellle d une s�lection de plantes parmi les plus envahissantes.
Barthelat, F. 2005. Note sur les esp�ces exotiques envahissantes � Mayotte. Direction de l�Agriculture et de la For�t. 30p
Summary: Tableau synth�tique des plantes exotiques de Mayotte class�es en fonction de leur niveau d envahissement.
CGC (Community Greening Centre), 2003. Newcastle City Council.
Summary: A small amount of information about the use of Solanum mauritianum as a nursery plant.
Available from: http://www.newcastle.nsw.gov.au/services/environment/greening/plants.cfm?inc=wild_tobacco [Accessed 14 May 2003].
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Solanum mauritianum Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de la R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=d2a2c1da2acde3ed27003dba9c3c1ccc [Accessed 9 April 2008]
Eurobodalla Shire Council (ESC), 2003, South Coast Weeds.
Summary: A small amount of information on preferred habitat, impacts and look-alikes in Australia.Available from: http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/Sheets/trees/T%20Wild%20tobacco%20bush.htm [Accessed 7 April 2003]
Fournet, J. 2002. Flore illustr�e des phan�rogames de guadeloupe et de Martinique. CIRAD-Gondwana editions.
Henderson, L. 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants: A Complete Guide to Declared Weeds and Invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. 300 pp.
Summary: A handbook which provides a short description of S. mauritianum and a map of its distribution in South Africa (p. 195).
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Solanum mauritianum
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Solanum+mauritianum&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Kissmann, K.G. & D. Groth. 1997. Plantas Infestantes e Nocivas. Tomo 3, 2 Edicao. BASF, Sao Paulo, Brasil.
Summary: A book which provides more detailed botanical information on S. mauritianum in its native Brazil (pp. 551-554). Also covered are the closely related species, S. erianthum (pp. 527-530; probably a synonym) and S. granuloso-leprosum (pp. 541-543).
Kueffer, C. & Lavergne, C. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the Western Indian Ocean. R�union. FAO. 36 p
Summary: Available from: http://www.fao.org/forestry/webview/media?mediaId=6842&langId=2 [Accessed 26 March 2008]
KZN Wildlife. Wildlife management: alien plant invaders and their control. Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, South Africa.
Summary: Has one paragraph on S. mauritianum. Scant information.
Available from: http://www.rhino.org.za/mngt_alienp.htm [Accessed 18 November 2002]
Lorenzi, H. 1991. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil: terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais (Segunda Edicao). Editora Plantarum, Nova Odessa.
Summary: A book which provides a short description of S. mauritianum (listed as S. erianthum) and a map of its distribution in its native Brazil (p. 391).
MacKee, H.S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultiv�es en Nouvelle-Cal�donie, 2nd edn. MNHN, Paris.
Summary: Cet ouvrage liste 1412 taxons (esp�ces, sous esp�ces et vari�t�s) introduits en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. L auteur pr�cise dans la majorit� des cas si l esp�ce est cultiv�e ou naturalis�e.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Wildy, E. 2002. Alien Invader Plants. Wildlife & Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA).
Summary: Contains images, and a small amount of material on description, impacts and distribution. The most useful information covers chemical control methods, which details herbicides to use and where they should be applied.
Available from: http://www.geocities.com/wessaaliens/species/bugweed.htm [Accessed 18 November 2002].
Contact
The following 9 contacts offer information an advice on Solanum mauritianum
Baret,
St�phane
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Parc national de La R�union, Charg� de mission flore
Address:
112 rue Ste Marie - 97400 St Denis
Phone:
02 62 90 79 06
Fax:
02 62 90 11 39
Barthelat,
Fabien
Organization:
Assistant Technique Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature Initiative Cara�bes
Address:
C/O Parc National de Guadeloupe Habitation Beausoleil, Mont�ran 97120 Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe
Phone:
(+590) (0)590 80 86 00
Fax:
(+590) (0)590 80 05 46
Fowler,
Simon
Biological control of weeds (New Zealand). Would only be able to comment on biocontrol prospects for NZ
Organization:
Landcare Research
Address:
Mt. Albert Research Centre, Private Bag 92170, Auckland, NEW ZEALAND
Phone:
64 9 815 4200
Fax:
64 9 849 7093
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax:
McGregor,
Peter
Biological control of weeds (New Zealand)
Organization:
Landcare Research
Address:
Private Bag 11 052, Palmerston North, NEW ZEALAND
Phone:
64 6 356 7154
Fax:
64 6 355 9230
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Olckers,
Terry
Biological control of solanaceous weeds (South Africa)
Organization:
ARC- Plant Protection Research Institute
Address:
Cedara Weeds Research Unit, Private Bag X6006, Hilton 3245, SOUTH AFRICA
Phone:
27 33 255 9420
Fax:
27 33 355 9423
Triolo,
Julien
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Office National des For�ts
Address:
ONF. Domaine Forestier de la Providence, 97488 Saint Denis cedex
Phone:
692345283
Fax:
Whithers,
Toni
Biological control of weeds (New Zealand)
Organization:
Forest Research
Address:
Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, NEW ZEALAND
Phone:
64 7 343 5899
Fax:
64 7 343 5333