Global invasive species database

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Common name
achicoria azul (English), bitter lettuce (English)
Bracyrhamphus intybaceus , (Jacq.) DC.
Lactuca intybacea , Jacq.
Similar species
Bitter lettuce (Launaea intybacea) is a native of Africa and has been introduced to parts of lower Northern America, the West Indies, Central America, South America, temperate and tropical Asia. A cosmopolitan weed it is adapted to dry conditions. It is reported to be spreading rapidly in disturbed areas on Grand Cayman.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment


Publication date: 2010-11-10

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2021) Species profile: Launaea intybacea. Downloaded from on 18-09-2021.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Launaea intybacea
  • angola
  • botswana
  • cape verde
  • eritrea
  • ethiopia
  • gambia
  • ghana
  • kenya
  • mauritania
  • mozambique
  • namibia
  • niger
  • senegal
  • somalia
  • south africa
  • sudan
  • tanzania, united republic of
Informations on Launaea intybacea has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Launaea intybacea in information
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Impact information
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
11 references found for Launaea intybacea

Management information
Abedrabbo, S. 1994. Control of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, on Santa Fe Island in the Galapagos Islands. pp. 219�227 in Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic ants: biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder. 332 pp.
J�ger, H. 1999. Impact of the introduced tree Cinchona pubescens Vahl on the native flora of the highlands of Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Islands). Diplomarbeit, Univ. Oldenburg, Germany.
Summary: Evaluates the impact on native vegetation in the Miconia and Fern-sedge Zones. Reveals drastic reduction in species diversity under canopy of quinine trees, including severe effects on many endemic plant species.
Lubin, Y. 1984. Changes in the native fauna of the Gal�pagos Islands following invasion by the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 21: 229- 242.
Roque, Albelo L., Causton, C. E. and Mieles, A. 2000. The ants of Marchena Island, twelve years after the introduction of the little fire ant, Wasmnnia auropunctata. Noticias de Gal�pagos.
General information
Andersson, L. and Taylor, C. M. 1994. Rubiaceae-Cinchoneae-Coptosapelteae. Flora of Ecuador, part 50. Dept of Systematic Botany, University of Goteborg.
Summary: Revision of the group, identification keys, full descriptions and synonymy.
Clark, D. B, Guayasamin, C., Pazmino, O., Donoso, C. and Paez de Villacis, Y. 1982. The tramp ant Wasmannia auropunctata: Autoecology and effects on ant diversity and distribution on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Biotropica 14(3): 196-207.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Launaea intybacea (Jacq.) P. Beauv.
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 5 October 2010]
Varnham, K. 2006 (Updated 2009). Database of non-native species occurring in UK Overseas Territories. JNCC Report 372, Peterborough, United Kingdom.
Williams, D. F. and Whelan, P. M. 1992. Bait attraction of the introduced pest ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Galapagos Islands. J. Entomol. Sci. 27(1): 29-34.
USDA, NRCS, 2010. Launaea intybacea (Jacq.) P. Beauv. achicoria azul. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 5 October 2010]
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Launaea intybacea
Heinke s main research focus is evaluating the impact of Cinchona pubescens (red quinine tree) on the native flora, soil and microclimate parameter of Santa Cruz Island, Gal�pagos, Ecuador. This also includes the impact of chemical and manual control of Cinchona pubescens on the native flora and an evaluation of methods applied.
PhD. student (plant ecology) Technical University of Berlin
Technische Universit�t Berlin Institut f�r �kologie FG �kosystemkunde/Pflanzen�kologie Rothenburgstr.12 12165 Berlin Germany
+ 49 (0) 30/ 314 71365
+ 49 (0) 30/ 314 71355
Expert on Invasive Plants
Charles Darwin Research Station, Galapagos
AP 17-01-3891, Quito, Ecuador
+593 5 526147
+593 5 526651
Launaea intybacea
achicoria azul, bitter lettuce
Date assessed
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Mechanism(s) of maximum impact
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Description of impacts
Recommended citation
(2021). Launaea intybacea. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).