Global invasive species database

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Common name
blitterfischl (German), pescardo (Spanish), gendarme (German), mutu (Finnish), vairon (German), Zaisan minnow (English), galesco (German), pfelle (German), Eurasian minnow (English), cippa (German), pilcodyn (Welsh), maipiere (German), buthe (German), kvidd (Swedish), mazelung (German), bitterziimpelchen (German), hunderttausendfischl (German), charbonnier (German), mollinger (German), grisette (German), strzebla potokowa (Polish), sanguinerola (Italian), burli (German), sprille (German), petit blanc (German), arlequin (German), orekyte (Norwegian), budd (German), brunnenpfrill (German), amarante (German), blutelritze (German), zaukerl (German), piscardo (Spanish), haberfischl (German), elritsa (Swedish), balte (German), riedlingehen (German), verdete (Romanian), ellering (German), craesc (Romanian), bammeli (German), boisca (Romanian), cuzeau (German), scrofita (Romanian), grümperl (German), craet (Romanian), elritze (German), gefrille (German), erleress (German), piek (German), weiling (German), bambel (German), sunnfischl (German), spierling (German), gievchen (German), rümpchen (German), fürge cselle (Hungarian)
Cyprinus phoxinus , L.
Cyprinus aphya , L.
Cyprinus chrysoprasius , Pallas 1814
Cyprinus galian , Gmelin 1789
Cyprinus isetensis , Georgi 1775
Cyprinus morella , Leske 1774
Cyprinus rivularis , 1773
Leuciscus phoxinus , L.
Phoxinus laevis ,Fitzinger 1832
Phoxinus laevis balchaschana , Kessler 1879
Phoxinus marsilii ,Heckel 1836
Phoxinus phoxinus carpathicus , Popescu-Gorj & Dumitriu 1950
Phoxinus phoxinus phoxinus , L.
Phoxinus rivularis ,Pallas 1773
Phoxinus varius , Perty 1832
Salmo rivularis ,Pallas 1773
Phoxinus csikii , Hankó 1922
Phoxynus montanus ,Ogérien 1863
Similar species
Phoxinus phoxinus is a gregarious, freshwater fish that is found in cold, well oxygenated lakes and rivers. It is often associated with salmonids and is most commonly found in shallow waters. P. phoxinus is found across Europe and Asia, and is native to basins of the Arctic, Atlantic, Baltic Sea, North Sea and northern Pacific Ocean, from the United Kingdom to Korea, up to the northern reaches of Russia and Scandinavia.
The systemics of the genus Phoxinus are unclear, so several species may be confused under the name Phoxinus phoxinus. (Freyhof & Kottelat 2008).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment


Publication date: 2010-10-07

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2021) Species profile: Phoxinus phoxinus. Downloaded from on 26-10-2021.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Phoxinus phoxinus
  • albania
  • armenia
  • azerbaijan
  • belarus
  • belgium
  • bosnia and herzegovina
  • bulgaria
  • china
  • croatia
  • czech republic
  • denmark
  • estonia
  • finland
  • france
  • georgia
  • germany
  • greece
  • hungary
  • italy
  • kazakhstan
  • korea, democratic people's republic of
  • korea, republic of
  • latvia
  • liechtenstein
  • lithuania
  • luxembourg
  • macedonia, the former yugoslav republic of
  • moldova, republic of
  • mongolia
  • montenegro
  • netherlands
  • norway
  • poland
  • romania
  • russian federation
  • serbia
  • slovakia
  • slovenia
  • spain
  • sweden
  • switzerland
  • turkey
  • ukraine
  • united kingdom
Informations on Phoxinus phoxinus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Phoxinus phoxinus in information
Arrival date
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Red List assessed species 0:
[1] Competition
[1] Disease transmission
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of food web
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
[2] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
  • [1] Plant/animal health
Management information
Management Category
8 references found for Phoxinus phoxinus

Management information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
General information
Cowx, I.G., Nunn, A.D., Harvey, J.P., Noble, R.A., Bolland, J.D. & Taylor R. 2008. Investigation into the distribution and abundance of coarse fish populations in still waters in the Isle of Man. Unpublished draft report to Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
FishBase, 2010. Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian minnow
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Phoxinus phoxinus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Hesthagen, T. and Sandlund, O.T. 2006. NOBANIS � Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet � Phoxinus phoxinus.
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Museth, Jon; Reidar Borgstr�m & John E. Brittain, 2010. Diet overlap between introduced European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) and young brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the lake, �vre Heimdalsvatn: a result of abundant resources or forced niche overlap? Hydrobiologia (2010) 642:93�100
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Varnham, K 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review JNCC Report No. 372
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 9 April 2010]
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Phoxinus phoxinus
Phoxinus phoxinus
blitterfischl, pescardo, gendarme, mutu, vairon, Zaisan minnow, galesco, pfelle, Eurasian minnow, cippa, pilcodyn, maipiere, buthe, kvidd, mazelung, bitterziimpelchen, hunderttausendfischl, charbonnier, mollinger, grisette, strzebla potokowa, sanguinerola, burli, sprille, petit blanc, arlequin, orekyte, budd, brunnenpfrill, amarante, blutelritze, zaukerl, piscardo, haberfischl, elritsa, balte, riedlingehen, verdete, ellering, craesc, bammeli, boisca, cuzeau, scrofita, grümperl, craet, elritze, gefrille, erleress, piek, weiling, bambel, sunnfischl, spierling, gievchen, rümpchen, fürge cselle
Date assessed
Year published
Eicat category
Justification for EICAT assessment
Confidence rating
Mechanism(s) of maximum impact
Countries of most severe impact
Description of impacts
Recommended citation
(2021). Phoxinus phoxinus. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).