Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
Common name
gorgojo del eucalipto (Spanish), eucalyptus snout beetle (English), eucalyptus weevil (English), gum tree weevil (English), Eukalyptusrüssler (German)
Synonym
Similar species
Gonipterus gibberus
Summary
Gonipterus scutellatus, or the eucalyptus snout beetle, is native to Australia. It is specific to Eucalyptus species, and G. scutellatus is considered to be one of the major defoliators of Eucalyptus spp. worldwide. It causes damage to eucalyptus in both larval and adult stages, in particular to the young leaves and repeated defoliation by G. scutellatus can lead to tree death. However, the egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens has been introduced as a successful biological control agent in several countries.
Species Description
Please see PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) Species Content Page Beetles: eucalyptus snout beetle Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal, 1833 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae) for high quality diagnostic and overview images.
Notes
Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature: a third species, Gonipterus platensis Marelli, was described in Argentina and said to be different from both G. gibberus and G. scutellatus (Marelli, 1927). Rosado-Neto (1993) treats it as a synonym of G. scutellatus (from EPPO, 2005).
Habitat Description
The only hosts are Eucalyptus spp., of which the most susceptible are Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus maidenii, Eucalyptus punctata, Eucalyptus robusta, Eucalyptus smithii and Eucalyptus viminalis (Griffith, 1959 in Walker 2008).
Pathway
Larvae and/or pupae may be present in soil. (EPPO 2005).Transportation of host. Larvae and/or pupae may be present in soil. (EPPO 2005). On clothing/footwear, hikers' clothes/boots - when disturbed, adult Gonipterus scutellatus readily drop from tree branches and cling to whatever they land on. (Hanks et al. 2000). Transportation of wood. (Wilcken et al. 2008). May be present on plants/plant material. (EPPO 2005).

Principal source: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (OEPP/EPPO), 2005. Gonipterus gibberus and Gonipterus scutellatus Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 35, 368–370

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-09-28

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Gonipterus scutellatus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1751 on 18-09-2020.

General Impacts
Feeding by Gonipterus spp. leads to characteristically scalloped leaf edges, with a resultant dieback of shoot tips and development of tufts of epicormic shoots (Walker 2008). G. scutellatus are important defoliators of Eucalyptus spp. Trees become stunted and may split and die.
Management Info
The mymarid solitary-egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens, an Australian native, has been used as a successful biocontrol agent against G. scutellatus in several countries. These include Brazil, Chile, Mauritius, New Zealand, South Africa, Spain and the United States. A. nitens larvae feed directly on and from within G. scutellatus host eggs. (Hanks et al. 2000; Santolamazza-Carbone et al. 2009; Wilcken et al. 2008; Williams et al. 1951; Withers 2001).

Chemical methods are not recommended for control of G. scutellatus as honey bees are frequent visitors of Eucalyptus spp. during its long flowering season. (EPPO 2005).

G. scutellatus is listed as an A2 quarantine pest for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO), and it is regulated by most EPPO countries, particularly the EU. Eucalyptus species introduced into endangered countries in form of plant or cuttings must originate from a pest-free area, or the plants must be free of soil, and treated for G. scutellatus. (EPPO 2005).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Gonipterus scutellatus
NATIVE RANGE
  • australia
Informations on Gonipterus scutellatus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Gonipterus scutellatus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Feeding by Gonipterus spp. leads to characteristically scalloped leaf edges, with a resultant dieback of shoot tips and development of tufts of epicormic shoots (Walker 2008). G. scutellatus are important defoliators of Eucalyptus spp. Trees become stunted and may split and die.
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
The mymarid solitary-egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens, an Australian native, has been used as a successful biocontrol agent against G. scutellatus in several countries. These include Brazil, Chile, Mauritius, New Zealand, South Africa, Spain and the United States. A. nitens larvae feed directly on and from within G. scutellatus host eggs. (Hanks et al. 2000; Santolamazza-Carbone et al. 2009; Wilcken et al. 2008; Williams et al. 1951; Withers 2001).

Chemical methods are not recommended for control of G. scutellatus as honey bees are frequent visitors of Eucalyptus spp. during its long flowering season. (EPPO 2005).

G. scutellatus is listed as an A2 quarantine pest for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO), and it is regulated by most EPPO countries, particularly the EU. Eucalyptus species introduced into endangered countries in form of plant or cuttings must originate from a pest-free area, or the plants must be free of soil, and treated for G. scutellatus. (EPPO 2005).

Locations
AUSTRALIA
BRAZIL
CHILE
NEW ZEALAND
SOUTH AFRICA
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Control
Bibliography
15 references found for Gonipterus scutellatus

Managment information
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (OEPP/EPPO), 2005. Gonipterus gibberus and Gonipterus scutellatus. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 35, 368�370
Summary: Available from: http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/insects/Gonipterus_gibberus/DS_Gonipterus_spp.pdf [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Hanks, L. M.; Millar, J. G.; Paine, T. D.; Campbell, C. D., 2000. Classical biological control of the Australian weevil Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in California. Environmental Entomology. 29(2). April, 2000. 369-375.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Paine, T. D.; Millar, J. G., 2002. Insect pests of eucalypts in California: Implications of managing invasive species. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 92(2). April, 2002. 147-151.
Santolamazza-Carbone, Serena; Pestana Nieto, Montserrat; Perez Otero, Rosa; Mansilla Vazquez, Pedro; Cordero Rivera, Adolfo, 2009. Winter and spring ecology of Anaphes nitens, a solitary egg-parasitoid of the Eucalyptus snout-beetle Gonipterus scutellatus. BioControl (Dordrecht). 54(2). APR 2009. 195-209.
Tribe, G. D. 2005. The present status of Anaphes nitens (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of the Eucalyptus snout beetle Gonipterus scutellatus, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa , The Southern African Forestry Journal, 203: 1, 49 � 54
Walker, K. 2008. eucalyptus snout beetle (Gonipterus scutellatus) Pest and Diseases Image Library
Summary: Available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=771 [Accessed 26 July 2010]
General information
CABI, 2010. Gonipterus scutellatus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, 2010, June, Map 344 (2nd revision)
Summary: Available from: http://www.cabi.org/dmpp/?loadmodule=review&page=1155&reviewid=141632&site=164 [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Huerta-Fuentes, Amanda; Chiffelle-Gomez, Italo; Serrano-Garzon, Maryi; Vazquez-Silva, Tatiana; Araya-Clericus, Jaime, 2008. Susceptibility of eucalyptus species to Gonipterus scutellatus and electrophoretic profiles of adult marker proteins. Agrociencia. 42(3). APR-MAY 2008. 327-334.
Lanfranco, D.; Dungey, H. S., 2001. Insect damage in Eucalyptus: A review of plantations in Chile. Austral Ecology. 26(5). October, 2001. 477-481.
Maltzeff, Paolo; Colonnelli, Enzo, 1994. Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal in central Italy (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Bollettino dell Associazione Romana di Entomologia. 48(1-4). 1993 (1994). 103-105.
Summary: Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal is reported from central Italy (Latium) for the first time. The Eucalyptus weevil was thus far reported in Europe only from Italian and French Riviera.
Rosado-Neto, Germano H., 1993. Gonipterinae of the eucalyptus: First record of Gonipterus scutellatus in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil and some notes on G. gibberus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia. 37(3). 1993. 465-467.
Summary: Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal, 1833 is reported for the first time in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some accounts, synonymies and distribution of this species and of G. gibberus Boisduval, 1835 in southern South America are added. A bibliographic list, mainly of South American references of both species, is also given.
Walker, K. (2007) Australian gum tree weevil (Gonipterus gibberus) Pest and Diseases Image Library.
Summary: Available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=874 [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Wilcken, C. F.; de Oliveira, N. C.; Sartorio, R. C.; Loureiro, E. B.; Bezerra Junior, N.; Rosado Neto, G. H., 2008. Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) occurrence in Eucalyptus plantations in Espirito Santo State Brazil. Arqivos do Instituto Biologico Sao Paulo. 75(1). JAN-MAR 2008. 113-115.
Summary: The eucalyptus snout beetle Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal was found in Espirito Santo State, Brazil, attacking clonal plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis (hybrid �urograndis�). The presence of this species in Brazil has been known since 1979, with a geographical distribution restricted to Brazil�s South and S�o Paulo State. The pest�s introduction to the state of Esp�rito Santo was probably accidental and its occurrence has been limited to the central region of the state. Field surveys did not detect the egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), which is the main natural enemy of G. scutellatus.
Withers, T. M., 2001. Colonization of eucalypts in New Zealand by Australian insects. Austral Ecology. 26(5). October, 2001. 467-476.
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Gonipterus scutellatus
  • EICAT impact category for this assessment:
  • EICAT impact mechanism (or 2-3 mechanisms):
  • Justification:
  • EICAT Confidence rating:
  • Country/Countries with max impact:
  • Description of impacts:
  • Assessors:
  • Date: