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  • Rattus exulans (Photo: N.Z. Department of Conservation)
  • Rattus exulans (Photo: Mere Roberts, Auckland University)
  • Rattus exulans (Photo: Mere Roberts, Auckland University)
  • Rattus exulans (Photo: Mere Roberts, Auckland University)
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Common name
Kleine Pazifikratte (German), kiore (Maori), Maori rat (English), Pacific rat (English), Polynesian rat (English), tikus Polynesia (English, Indonesia)
Synonym
Mus exulans , Peale, 1848
Mus maorium , Hutton, 1877, 1879
Similar species
Rattus norvegicus
Summary
The Pacific rat is the smallest of the three rats closely associated with humans. The fur is brown and its tail length is only slightly longer or shorter than the combined head and body length. Rattus exulans is recognised as a predator of native insects, lizards and birds, a browser of native flora and an agricultural pest. There appears to be no island groups reached by the Polynesians that did not receive Rattus exulans, although not all islands in a group were necessarily colonised.
Species Description
The Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) is the smallest of the three rats (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus and R. exulans) closely associated with humans. R. exulans has a slender body, pointed snout, large ears, and relatively small, delicate feet. A ruddy brown back contrasts with a whitish belly. Mature individuals are 4.5 to 6 inches long (11.5 to 15.0cm) from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail and weigh 1.5 to 3 ounces (40 to 80 g). The tail has prominent fine scaly rings and is about the same length as the head and body. Female R. exulans have 8 nipples, compared to 10 and 12 nipples normally found on R. rattus and R. norvegicus, respectively (Tobin 1994). Morphology (skull size) of R. exulans has been shown to vary with latitude (Bergman's rule: geographic races of species with smaller body size are found in warmer parts and larger body size in colder parts of the species range) and island size. This effect is most pronounced in the tropics (Atkinson and Towns 2001).

A useful feature distinguishing them from other rats is the dark outer edge of the upper side of the hind foot near the ankle, the remainder of the foot being pale.

Notes
The larger species of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus are known to displace the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) from its environmental niche (Spennemann, 1997).
The Polynesian rat is thought to have originated from the Malayan region, and to have been deliberately introduced to many islands by Polynesians who considered it a valuable food source (Spennemann, 1997).
Lifecycle Stages
In New Zealand: Gestation 19-21 days. Weaning 2-4 weeks. Sexual maturity 8-12 months, though maturity can be achieved during the same season as birth (Atkinson and Moller 1990). In captivity: Gestation minimum 23 days. Weaning 2-3 weeks. Sexual maturity 60-70 days (Tobin 1994). Total life is estimated between 12 - 15 months. Pacific rats have been observed to mature earlier and survive better, with some adults surviving to a second breeding season, where high quality food and year-round shelter were available (Atkinson and Towns, 2001). Strong seasonal fluctuations occur in the density of kiore populations on New Zealand’s northern offshore islands. Breeding is restricted to spring and summer, so densities reach a peak in autumn, then decline to low levels in spring (Campbell et al., 1984).
Habitat Description
Pacific rats can live in a wide range of habitats including grassland, scrub and forest, however they do require adequate food supplies and shelter (especially in temperate latitudes). They are able to climb trees easily where at least some of their feeding is done, but are not good swimmers. Snap trap success results have shown annual cycles in the abundance of R. exulans on Tiritiri Island in New Zealand. R. exulans are predominantly nocturnal, but become active just before dark during times of high density.
Husking stations have been found amongst tree roots, within wide fissures in tree trunks at ground level, amongst rock piles, under the enlarged bases of fronds shed from nikau palms, and occasionally up trees – all characteristically dry places (Campbell et al., 1984). Rattus exulans is considered to be a fairly sedentary animal with a limited home range (Spennemann, 1997).
Reproduction
Placental, sexual. Females are polyestrous and ovulate spontaneously. Breeding largely determined by food availability. Litter size normally 6 - 11, gestation is 21-24 days, young weaned at about 28 days. Females can be sexually active in the season of their birth, and can have up to six litters a year (Wittenberg, R. (ed.) 2005). In New Zealand, the Norway rat has been observed breeding throughout the year (Innes, 2001).
Nutrition
The Pacific rat eats a wide range of foods including earthworms, centipedes, larvae of some butterflies and moths, ants, beetles, weevils, cicadas, snails, spiders, lizards and birds. They also eat fleshy fruit and other seeds, flowers, stems, leaves, roots and other plant parts.
Campbell et al. (1984) found that Pacific rats feed on: invertebrates (eg. ants, wetas, moths - eggs, larvae and pupae but especially large insects over 12mm in length), amphipods, and chicks, and plant material such as seeds, leaves, shoots, bark, flowers and roots. They will strip bark and eat plant stems, particularly in winter. Pacific rats may not consume all edible parts of fruits in one sitting. They eat a wide range of plant and animal items of varying sizes and stages of development, living in habitats ranging from treetops to underground. A study on Lady Alice Island, New Zealand, (Newman and McFadden, 1990) found that Pacific rats eat 78% plant material together with a wide range of animal food, including weevils, scarab beetles, moth larvae, weta, seabird chicks and skinks (Atkinson and Towns, 2001). Pacific rats have been observed to carry food to “husking stations” to feed, where they are sheltered from predators, competitors and rain (Campbell et al., 1984).
Pathway
Rattus exulans is thought to have been deliberately introduced to many islands by Polynesians who considered it a valuable food source (Spennemann, 1997).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Rattus exulans. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=170 on 25-07-2016.

General Impacts
Atkinson and Towns (2001) report numerous species of New Zealand flora and fauna that are vulnerable to Pacific rats (Rattus exulans). Most vulnerable amongst invertebrates are large, flightless species; especially those that need to descend to ground level for part of their life-cycle. Lizard populations have also been shown to increase following the removal of Rattus exulans. In Hawai'i and New Zealand there are examples of detrimental effects on both burrowing petrels and on red-tailed tropicbirds. In the Leeward Islands of Hawai'i, it has been shown that predation on seabirds only becomes significant after storms have reduced the fruiting of food plants. Fatal attacks by R. exulans on adult Laysan albatrosses appear likely to be associated with the same factor. R. exulans is also known to browse native flora (including trees, shrubs, fungi, sedges, grasses, orchids and other herbaceous plants and lianes), although the magnitude of such effects has been difficult to determine (Atkinson and Atkinson, 2000).

R. exulans is a major agricultural pest throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Crops damaged by this species include rice, maize, sugarcane, coconut, cacao, pineapple, and root crops.

Management Info
Preventative measures: Research has shown that it can often be difficult to eradicate rats from islands in the early stages of invasion, hence it is better to prevent rodents arriving on islands in the first place. Eliminating a single invading rat can be disproportionately difficult because of atypical behaviour by the rat in the absence of conspecifics, and because bait can be less effective in the absence of competition for food (Russell et al. 2005). Weihong et al. (1999) provide useful information regarding the detection of rodent species using different trapping methods and bait, Dilks and Towns (2002) published by New Zealand’s Department of Conservation discusses how to detect and respond to rodent invasions on islands.

Physical: Control on mainland sites predominantly consists of snap-trapping.

Chemical: Over the last fifteen years, Pacific rats (Rattus exulans) have been eradicated from increasingly larger New Zealand offshore islands. To date, the largest eradication has been from Raoul Island (2938 ha), although confirmation of eradication from the larger Little Barrier Island (3083 ha) is due this year. Eradication of R. exulans populations on islands is achieved using chemical poisons. In New Zealand compound 1080 has not proved effective against R. exulans, but they are susceptible to anticoagulant poisons such as brodifacoum and bromadialone. Recent successful eradication campaigns have all sown Talon 20 P baits aerially by helicopter. Talon 20 P is a cereal-based (pollard) pellet of approximately 0.8 g containing the anticoagulant toxin brodifacoum at 20 ppm. Currently this is applied at 15kg/ha at a cost of ~$75US/ha (Atkinson and Towns 2001).

Fisher et al. (2004) suggest that diphacinone especially, and also coumatetralyl and warfarin, should be evaluated in field studies as alternative rodenticides in New Zealand. Brodifacoum, the most widely used rodenticide in New Zealand currently, can acquire persistent residues in non-target wildlife. Mineau et al. (2004) presented a risk assessment of second generation rodenticides at the 2nd National Invasive Rodent Summit. O'Connor and Eason (2000) discusses the variety of baits which are available for use on offshore islands in New Zealand.

Biological: Monitor lizards and mongooses were introduced to Pacific islands in early attempts to control R. exulans.
Contraceptive methods of control are currently experimental, but the potential for effective control using contraceptive methods is promising. National Wildlife Research Center (USA) scientists are working on several possible formulations that may make effective oral immunisation possible (Nash and Miller, 2004).

Guidelines for the Eradication of Rats From Islands Within the Falklands Group offers guidelines for the eradication of rats from islands, based on the experiences in eradicating rats from the Falklands group.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Rattus exulans
Informations on Rattus exulans has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Rattus exulans in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Atkinson and Towns (2001) report numerous species of New Zealand flora and fauna that are vulnerable to Pacific rats (Rattus exulans). Most vulnerable amongst invertebrates are large, flightless species; especially those that need to descend to ground level for part of their life-cycle. Lizard populations have also been shown to increase following the removal of Rattus exulans. In Hawai'i and New Zealand there are examples of detrimental effects on both burrowing petrels and on red-tailed tropicbirds. In the Leeward Islands of Hawai'i, it has been shown that predation on seabirds only becomes significant after storms have reduced the fruiting of food plants. Fatal attacks by R. exulans on adult Laysan albatrosses appear likely to be associated with the same factor. R. exulans is also known to browse native flora (including trees, shrubs, fungi, sedges, grasses, orchids and other herbaceous plants and lianes), although the magnitude of such effects has been difficult to determine (Atkinson and Atkinson, 2000).

R. exulans is a major agricultural pest throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Crops damaged by this species include rice, maize, sugarcane, coconut, cacao, pineapple, and root crops.

Outcomes
[9] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Primary production alteration
  • [7] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Modification of successional patterns
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
[15] Socio-Economic
  • [14] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Human nuisance 
Management information
Preventative measures: Research has shown that it can often be difficult to eradicate rats from islands in the early stages of invasion, hence it is better to prevent rodents arriving on islands in the first place. Eliminating a single invading rat can be disproportionately difficult because of atypical behaviour by the rat in the absence of conspecifics, and because bait can be less effective in the absence of competition for food (Russell et al. 2005). Weihong et al. (1999) provide useful information regarding the detection of rodent species using different trapping methods and bait, Dilks and Towns (2002) published by New Zealand’s Department of Conservation discusses how to detect and respond to rodent invasions on islands.

Physical: Control on mainland sites predominantly consists of snap-trapping.

Chemical: Over the last fifteen years, Pacific rats (Rattus exulans) have been eradicated from increasingly larger New Zealand offshore islands. To date, the largest eradication has been from Raoul Island (2938 ha), although confirmation of eradication from the larger Little Barrier Island (3083 ha) is due this year. Eradication of R. exulans populations on islands is achieved using chemical poisons. In New Zealand compound 1080 has not proved effective against R. exulans, but they are susceptible to anticoagulant poisons such as brodifacoum and bromadialone. Recent successful eradication campaigns have all sown Talon 20 P baits aerially by helicopter. Talon 20 P is a cereal-based (pollard) pellet of approximately 0.8 g containing the anticoagulant toxin brodifacoum at 20 ppm. Currently this is applied at 15kg/ha at a cost of ~$75US/ha (Atkinson and Towns 2001).

Fisher et al. (2004) suggest that diphacinone especially, and also coumatetralyl and warfarin, should be evaluated in field studies as alternative rodenticides in New Zealand. Brodifacoum, the most widely used rodenticide in New Zealand currently, can acquire persistent residues in non-target wildlife. Mineau et al. (2004) presented a risk assessment of second generation rodenticides at the 2nd National Invasive Rodent Summit. O'Connor and Eason (2000) discusses the variety of baits which are available for use on offshore islands in New Zealand.

Biological: Monitor lizards and mongooses were introduced to Pacific islands in early attempts to control R. exulans.
Contraceptive methods of control are currently experimental, but the potential for effective control using contraceptive methods is promising. National Wildlife Research Center (USA) scientists are working on several possible formulations that may make effective oral immunisation possible (Nash and Miller, 2004).

Guidelines for the Eradication of Rats From Islands Within the Falklands Group offers guidelines for the eradication of rats from islands, based on the experiences in eradicating rats from the Falklands group.

Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
Control
None
Unknown
Monitoring
Bibliography
65 references found for Rattus exulans

Managment information
Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.
Summary: This report reviews available information on the adverse effects of 14 alien vertebrates considered to be �significant invasive species on islands of the South Pacific and Hawaii, supplementing the authors� experience with that of other workers.
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Brooke, M. de L. 1995. The breeding biology of the gadfly petrels Pterodroma spp. of the Pitcairn Islands: characteristics, population sizes and controls. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 213-231.
Summary: This reference by Mike Brooke describes the total loss of all chicks of Kermedaec petrels on Henderson Island to Pacific rat predation.
Cunningham, D.M. and Moors, P.J., 1993. Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents. Department of Conservation, NZ.
Summary: A Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents, information on trapping methods.
Dilks, P and Towns, D., 2002. Developing tools to detect and respond to rodent invasions of islands: workshop report and recommendations. DOC SCIENCE INTERNAL SERIES 59
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/DSIS59.pdf [Accessed 19 February 2008]
Doty, R. E. 1945. Rat control on Hawaiian sugar cane plantations. Hawaiian Planters Record 49(2): 71�241.
Gerber, G. 1997. Nesting Behavior of the Little Cayman rock iguana, Cyclura nubila caymanensis. Joint Annual Meeting, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists/Herpetologists League/Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. University of Washington, Seattle, U.S.A.
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Moors, P. J., Atkinson, I. A. E. and Sherley, G. H. 1992. Reducing the rat threat to island birds. Bird Conservation International 2: 93�114.
Morrell et. al. 1991. Eradication of Polnsin Rat (Rattus exulans) from Rose Atoll Nation Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa. DMWR Biological Report Series No. 20
O Connor, Cheryl E. and Charles, T. Eason., 2000. Rodent baits and delivery systems for island protection. SCIENCE FOR CONSERVATION 150
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc150.pdf [Accessed 19 February 2008]
Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006c. Aleipata Rat Eradication Project.
Summary: Available from: http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/Aleipata.html [Accessed 27 March 2006]
Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006d. Phoenix Islands Conservation Survey, Kiribati.
Summary: Available from: http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/Helen%20Reef.htm [Accessed 27 March 2006]
Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006e. Restoration of Vahanga Atoll, French Polynesia.
Summary: Available from: http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/Vahunga.htm [Accessed 27 March 2006]
Russell, James C., David R. Towns, Sandra H. Anderson and Mick N. Clout., 2005. Intercepting the first rat ashore. Brief communications Nature 437, 1107 (20 October 2005)
Summary: Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7062/pdf/4371107a.pdf [Accessed 19 February 2008]
Tobin, M. E. 1994. Polynesia rats. In Hygnstrom, S. E., Timm, R. M. and Larson, G. E. (eds.) Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. USA.
Towns, D. R. 1991. Response of lizard assemblages in the Mercury Islands, New Zealand, to removal of an introduced rodent: the kiore (Rattus exulans). Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 21: 119�136.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Atkinson, I.A.E. 1985. The spread of commensal species of Rattus to oceanic islands and their effects on island avifaunas. pp 35-81 In: Moors, P.J. (Ed.) Conservation of Island Birds, ICBP Technical Publication No.3 , Cambridge, England. In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom
Atkinson, I. A. E. 1985. The spread of commensal species of Rattus to oceanic islands and their effects on island avifaunas. In Moors, P. J. (ed.) Conservation of Island Birds. ICBP Technical Publication No.3: 35-81.
Atkinson, I. A. E. and Moller, H. 1990. Kiore. In King, C. M. (ed.) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals: 175-191.
Atkinson, I. A. E. and Taylor, R. H. 1991. Distribution of alien mammals on New Zealand islands. Lower Hutt and Nelson, DSIR Land Resources.
Summary: Covers the distribution and the status of Alien mammals in New Zealand Islands.
Atkinson, I. A. E. and Towns, D. R. 2001. Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990-2000: Pacific rat. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 31(1): 99-109.
Brooke, M. (1998) Conservation challenges in the smaller Overseas Territories. Ecos, 19: 31-35. In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom
Brooke, M de L. (1995) The breeding biology of the gadfly petrels Pterodroma spp. of the Pitcairn Islands: characteristics, population sizes and controls. In: Benton, T.G. & Spencer, T. The Pitcairn Islands: biogeography, ecology and prehistory. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 213-231. In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom
Brooke, M. de L. & Trevelyan, R., 2003. Environment Charter - Possible projects for the Pitcairn Islands. Unpublished report to the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom
Campbell, D. J. and Atkinson, I. A. E. 1999. Effects of kiore (Rattus exulans Peale) on recruitment of indigenous coastal trees on northern offshore islands of New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 29: 265�269.
Hilton, G. 2004, pers comm. (Senior Research Biologist, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, UK.) In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Rattus exulans
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Rattus+exulans&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Kepler, C. B. 1967. Polynesian rat predation on nesting Laysan albatrosses and other Pacific seabirds. Auk 84: 426�430.
Kepler. C.B. 1967. Polynesian rat predation on nesting Lysan Albatrosses and other Paclfic seabirds. Auk 84. 426-430.
Marples, R. R. 1955. Rattus exulans in Western Samoa. Pacific Science 9: 171�176.
Meyer, J.-Y. , Butaud, J.F. 2007. Rats as transformers of native forests in the islands of French Polynesia (South Pacific). In Rats, Humans, and their impacts on islands : integrating historical and contempory ecology. University of Hawai�i. Conference 27-31 March 2007. Communication orale.
Moller, H. and Craig, J. L. 1986. The population ecology of Rattus exulans on Tiritiri Island, and a model of comparative population dynamics in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 14: 305�328.
Moverly, A.V. (1953) Pitcairn Island: An economic survey. Transactions of the Fiji Society 4: 61-67. In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom
Pacific Biodiversity Information Forum (PBIF)., 2003. Pacific protected Areas Database: All Protected Areas: Leone Pala
Summary: Available from: http://www.pbif.org/PPADB/view2.asp [Accessed 19 February 2008]
Pacific Protected Areas Database, 2006. Pacific Biodiversity Information Forum (PBIF) Protected Area Information: America Samoa
Summary: The Pacific Protected Areas Database provides a list of known areas in the Pacific that have been designated as parks, conservations areas, or are managed for their biodiversity. The database includes descriptions, IUCN categories, and contact information for the managers of the areas.
The database is available from: http://www.pbif.org/ppa/index.html; this page is available from: http://www.pbif.org/ppa/search.asp?search=american+samoa [Accessed 11 Spetember 2006]
Pascal, M., Barr�, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Fr�tey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements n�o-cal�doniens de vert�b�br�s : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom
Summary: Synth�se des introductions d esp�ces de vert�br�s en Nouvelle-Cal�donie et �valuation de leurs impacts.
Robinet, O., JL, C., & Chardonnet, L. 1998. Impact of rat species in Ouvea and Lifou (Loyalty Islands) and their consequences to conserving the endangered Ouvea parakeet. Biological Conservation, 86, 223-232.
Storer, T. I. 1962. Pacific island rat ecology: report of a study made on Ponape and adjacent islands 1955� 1958. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 225.
Taylor, R. H. 1975. What limits kiore (Rattus exulans) distribution in New Zealand? New Zealand Journal of Zoology 2: 473�477.
UNEP-WCMC (United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre), 2006. Protected Areas and World Heritage Programme, Wetlands Leone Bay
Summary: Available from: http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wetlands/leone_ba.htm [Accessed 11 September 2006]
Vickery, J. 1994. The Pitcairn Islands: paradise past, paradise present? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9: 316. In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom
Whitaker, A. H. 1973. Lizard populations on islands with and without Polynesian rats, Rattus exulans (Peale). Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society 20: 121�130.
Williams, J. M. 1973. The ecology of Rattus exulans (Peale) reviewed. Pacific Science 27: 120�127.
Yom-Tov, Y., Yom-Tov, S. and Moller, H. 1999. Competition, coexistence, and adapatation amongst rodent invaders to Pacific and New Zealand islands. J. of Biogeography 26: 947-58.
Contact
The following 11 contacts offer information an advice on Rattus exulans
Brescia,
Fabrice
Geographic region: Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Institut Agronomique n�o-Cal�donien
Address:
Institut Agronomique n�o-Cal�donien. Axe 2: Diversit�s biologique et fonctionnelle des �cosyst�mes.BP 73. 98 890 Pa�ta
Phone:
687 43 74 28
Fax:
Faulquier,
Lucie
Geographic region: Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Soci�t� d Ornithologie de Polyn�sie fran�aise
Address:
Soci�t� d Ornithologie de Polyn�sie B.P. 21098 98713 - Papeete Tahiti Polyn�sie Fran�aise
Phone:
(689) 52 11 00
Fax:
Ghestemme,
Thomas
Geographic region: Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Soci�t� d Ornithologie de Polyn�sie fran�aise
Address:
Soci�t� d Ornithologie de Polyn�sie B.P. 21098 98713 - Papeete Tahiti Polyn�sie Fran�aise
Phone:
(689) 52 11 00
Fax:
Lorvelec,
Olivier
Geographic region: Caribbean, Europe, Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Address:
Equipe �cologie des Invasions Biologiques - UMR (INRA/Agrocampus Rennes) �cologie et Sant� des �cosyst�mes - INRA - Campus de Beaulieu - B�timent 16 - 35 000 Rennes
Phone:
Fax:
Matisoo-Smith,
Lisa
Archaeology of Pacific nations using R. exulans
Organization:
Auckland University
Address:
Department of Anthropology, Auckland University, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
Phone:
+64 9 3737599
Fax:
McClelland,
Pete
Eradication of introduced mammals
Organization:
Department of Conservation
Address:
PO Box 743 Invercargill, New Zealand
Phone:
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Pascal,
Michel
Geographic region: sub-Antarctic; North Africa; Pacific; Caribbean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Address:
INRA - SCRIBE - Campus de Beaulieu - F35 042 Rennes
Phone:
(33) (0)2 23 48 53 79
Fax:
Roberts,
Mere
Ecology and biology of R. exulans in New Zealand and the Pacific
Organization:
Auckland University
Address:
School of Geography and Environmental Science, Auckland University, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
Phone:
+64 9 3737599
Fax:
Saunders,
Alan
Alan is the coordinator of the Cooperative Islands Initiative based at the University of Auckland. He has extensive experience in pest control, species recovery and ecological restoration during his employment with the New Zealand Department of Conservation.
Organization:
Coordinator, Cooperative Islands Initiative
Address:
SGES/Tamaki Campus, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
Phone:
+64 9 3737599 Ext 86805
Fax:
Towns,
Dave
Studies of the effects of R. exulans on native biodiversity (particularly offshore islands)
Organization:
N.Z. Department of Conservation
Address:
Private Bag 68908 Newton, Auckland
Phone:
+64 9 3079279
Fax: