AntWeb, 2006. Solenopsis geminataSummary:
AntWeb illustrates ant diversity by providing information and high quality color images of many of the approximately 10,000 known species of ants. AntWeb currently focusses on the species of the Nearctic and Malagasy biogeographic regions, and the ant genera of the world. Over time, the site is expected to grow to describe every species of ant known. AntWeb provides the following tools: Search tools, Regional Lists, In-depth information, Ant Image comparision tool PDF field guides maps on AntWeb and Google Earth and Ant genera of the world slide show.
AntWeb is available from: http://antweb.org/about.jsp [Accessed 20 April 2006]
The species page is available from: http://antweb.org/getComparison.do?rank=species&genus=solenopsis&name=geminata&project=&project= [Accessed 2 May 2006]
Commonwealth of Australia. 2006a. Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.Summary:
This plan establishes a national framework to guide and coordinate Australia�s response to tramp ants, identifying the research, management, and other actions necessary to ensure the long term survival of native species and ecological communities affected by tramp ants. It identifies six national priority species as an initial, but flexible, list on which to focus attention. They are the red imported fi re ant (Solenopsis invicta
), tropical fire ant (S. geminata
), little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata
), African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala
), yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes
), and Argentine ant (Linepithema humile
Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants.pdf [Accessed 17 November 2009]
Graham, R. 2006. Tropical Fire Ant (Solenopsis geminata) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 29/08/2006 12:05:34 PM. Summary:
PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria s Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=182 [Accessed 30 May 2006]
Harris, R.; Abbott, K.; Barton, K.; Berry, J.; Don, W.; Gunawardana, D.; Lester, P.; Rees, J.; Stanley, M.; Sutherland, A.; Toft, R. 2005: Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand. BAH/35/2004-1.Summary:
The invasive ant risk assessment project, prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, synthesises information on the ant species that occur in New Zealand (native and introduced species), and on invasive ants that pose a potential threat to New Zealand.
There is a great deal of information in this risk assessment on invasive ant species that is of global interest, including; biology, distribution, pest status, control technologies.
The assessment project has five sections.1) The Ants of New Zealand: information sheets on all native and introduced ants established in New Zealand 2) Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment: risk scorecard to quantify the threat to New Zealand of 75 ant species. 3) Information sheets on invasive ant threats: information sheets on all ant species scored as medium to high risk (n = 39). 4) Pest risk assessment: A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes
, Lasius neglectus
, Monomorium destructor
, Paratrechina longicornis
, Solenopsis geminata
, Solenopsis richteri
, Tapinoma melanocephalum
, Wasmannia auropunctata
) 5) Ranking of high risk species: ranking of the eight highest risk ant species in terms of the risks of entry, establishment, spread, and detrimental consequences.
NB. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta
) is considered to be the worst ant pest in the world. However, Solenopsis invicta
was specifically excluded from consideration in this risk assessment as this species has already been subject to detailed consideration by Biosecurity New Zealand
(This invasive ant pest risk assessment was funded by Biosecurity New Zealand and Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Undertaken by Landcare Research in collaboration with Victoria University of Wellington and Otago Museum)
Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Ants/ant_pest_risk.asp [Accessed 20 May 2007]
Hoffmann, Benjamin D and O Connor, Simon., 2004. Eradication of two exotic ants from Kakadu National Park. Ecological Management & Restoration, August 2004, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 98-105(8)
Holway, D.A., Lach, L., Suarez, A.V., Tsutsui, N.D. and Case, T.J. 2002. The Causes and Consequences of Ant Invasions, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33: 181-233.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.Summary:
This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Lewis, L.V. 1912. A few notes on Solenopsis geminata. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2: 175�178.
McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
Nafus, D.M. 1993. Movement of introduced biological control agents onto nontarget butterflies, Hypolimnas spp. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Environmental Entomology, 22 (2): 265�272.
Summary: Impact of ant invasions on butterfly sp in Guam.
Ness, J.H and Bronstein, J.L. 2004. The Effects of Invasive Ants on Prospective ant Mutualists, Biological Invasions 6: 445-461.
Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California � Davis.Summary:
PIAkey (Pacific Invasive Ant key) is an electronic guide designed to assist users identify invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region. The guide covers four subfamilies, 20 genera and 44 species.
The primary tool offered by PIAkey is an interactive key designed using Lucid3 software. In addition to being fully illustrated, the Lucid key allows users to enter at multiple character points, skip unknown characters, and find the most efficient path for identifying the available taxa. Each species is linked to its own web page. These species pages, or factsheets, are linked to an illustrated glossary of morphological terms, and include the following seven sections: 1) Overview of the species; 2) Diagnostic chart illustrating a unique combination of identification characters; 3) Comparison chart illustrating differences among species of similar appearance; 4) Video clip of the species behavior at food baits (where available); 5) Image gallery that includes original specimen images and live images (where available); 6) Nomenclature section detailing the taxonomic history of the species, and 7) Links and references section for additional literature and online resources.
Available from: http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html [Accessed 17 December 2008]
ScienceDaily Magazine. Dec 12th 2003. Source: CSIRO Australia, Exotic Ants Threaten Aboriginal Communities.
Summary: An account of ant invasion in the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory.
Bhatkar, A. P. 1990. Reproductive strategies of the Fire Ant. In: Applied myrmecology - a world perspective, (eds. R. K Vander Meer, K.Jaffe & A. Cedeno) pp. 138 - 149. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Blard, F. 2006. Les fourmis envahissantes de l��le de la R�union�: Interaction comp�titives et facteurs d�invasion. Th�se de doctorat. Universit� de la R�union. 97 pp
Summary: Cette �tude porte sur les relations comp�titives entre trois esp�ces ainsi que sur les facteurs li�s � leur succ�s dans l invasion des milieux.
Bolton, B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History, Entomology, no. 54: 263�452.
DeFauw, S. L., Vogt, J.T. & Boykin, D. L. (2008). Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Bioturbationand Its Influences on Soils and Turfgrass in a Sod Production Agroecosystem. Journal of Entomological Science 43(1): 121-127.
Harris, R. & Berry, J. (n.d.).: Solenopsis geminata. Invasive Ant Threat, Information Sheet 24. Landcare Research.
Heraty, J. M. 1994. Biology and importance of two eucharitid parasites of Wasmannia and Solenopsis. In Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic ants: Biology, impact, and control of introduced species, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.: 104-120.
Hoffmann, B. 2004. Exotic ants threaten indigenous lands, Australasian Science 25 (6).
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Solenopsis geminataSummary:
An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Solenopsis+geminata&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Jourdan, H., Mille, C. 2006. Les invert�br�s introduits dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : esp�ces envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes. Premi�re �valuation et recommandations pour leur gestion. In M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Summary: Cette synth�se sur les invert�br�s envahissants et potentiellement envahissants dans l archipel cal�donien a �t� r�alis�e dans le cadre d une expertise coll�giale men�e par l IRD.
Kempf, W. W. 1972. Cat�logo abreviado das formigas da regi�o neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Studia Entomol. 15: 3-344.
McInnes, D. A. and Tschinkel, W. R. 1995. Queen dimorphism and reproductive strategies in the fire ant Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 36, 367-375.
Morrison, L. W. and Gilbert, L. E. 1998. Parasitoid-host relationships when host size varies: the case of Pseudacteon flies and Solenopsis fire ants. Ecological Entomology 23(4): 409�416.
Perfecto, I. and Vandermeer, J. 1996. Microclimatic changes and the indirect loss of ant diversity in a tropical agroecosystem [abstract], Conservation Ecology 108 (3): 577 � 582.
Plentovich, S., Hebshi, A. & Conant, S. (2009). Detrimental effects of two widespread invasive ant species on weight and survival of colonial nesting seabirds in the Hawaiian Islands. Biological Invasions 11: 289-298.
Roque-Albelo, L. and Causton, C. 1999. El Ni�o and Introduced Insects in the Gal�pagos Islands: Different Dispersal Strategies, Similar Effects, Noticias de Gal�pagos (60).
Valles, S.M., Strong, C.A., Oi, D.H., Porter, S.D., Pereira, R.M., Vander Meer, R.K., Hashimoto, Y., Hooper-Bu, L.M., Sanchez-Arroyo, H., Davis, T., Karpakakunjaram, V., Vail, K.M., Graham, L.C., Briano, J.A., Calcaterra, L.A., Gilbert, L.E., Ward, R., Ward, K., Oliver, J.B., Taniguchi, G. & Thompson, D.C. (2007). Phenology, distribution, and host specificity of Solenopsis invicta virus- 1. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 96: 18�27.
Wetterer, J. K., and B. C. O Hara. 2002. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Dry Tortugas, The outermost Florida Keys. Florida Entomologist 85(2):303-307.