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  • Sesbania punicea (Photo: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
  • Sesbania punicea seeds (Photo: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
  • Sesbania punicea (Photo: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
  • Sesbania punicea (Photo: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
  • Sesbania punicea (Photo: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
  • Sesbania punicea (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr)
  • Sesbania punicea (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr)
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Common name
sesbania (English), ruttle bush (English), scarlett wisteria (English), Brazilian rattlebox (English), rooi sesbania (English), rattlepod (English), red sesbania (English), Chinese wisteria (English), Brazilian glory-pea (English), rattelbox (English), rattlebox (English), coffee weed (English)
Synonym
Daubentonia punicea , (Cav.) DC
Sesbania tripetii , (Poit.) hort. ex Hubb.
Daubentonia tripetii , Poit.
Piscidia punicea , Cav.
Sesbania tripetii
Similar species
Summary
Commonly known as Brazilian rattlebox, Sesbania punicea is a deciduous, leguminous shrub that has been widely distributed from its native South American range as an attractive ornamental species. Escapes from cultivation have led to naturalisation in some areas where S. punicea rapidly forms dense impenetrable stands in riparian areas, preventing river access, excluding native species and altering habitats. Hydrology of the rivers in these riparian areas can be affected especially during flood events, raising water levels and increasing the rate of erosion. Biological control of S. punicea has been achieved in South Africa using three different weevil species and trials from the United States and South Africa have shown its vulnerability to a range of herbicides.
Species Description
Sesbania punicea is a deciduous, leguminous shrub that grows up to 4m tall, it may live for up to 15 years (Hoffmann & Moran, 1998). It has compound leaves 10 - 20cm long comprised of 10 - 40 small, oblong, dark green leaflets in opposite pairs each ending in a tiny pointed tip (Rice, 1998). In spring or early summer, it produces a profusion of attractive red, coral or orange flowers in dense sprays which may be up to 25cm long that droop or project outwards (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; Rice, 1998). These flowers are typically 2 - 3cm long and are shaped like pea flowers (Rice, 1998). The seed pods of S. punicea are characteristic and are oblong, 6 -8cm long and 1cm wide; they are longitudinally four-winged and borne on short 1.5 cm stalks (Rice, 1998). These seed pods are pointed at the ends and contain 4 - 10 large (>5 mm) seeds separated by partitions (Rice, 1998; Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003). The mesocarp or inner tissues of these seed pods are spongy and allow floatation for up to ten days even if split open (Hunter, unpub. data; in Hunter & Platenkamp, 1998).
Lifecycle Stages
Following germination, Sesbania punicea seeds give rise to large seedlings 5 - 10cm long. These elongate and produce leaves, growing as a single unbranched shoot for 1 - 2 years followed by production of widely diverging lateral shoots and the development of a broad crown that may reach up to 4 -5m in height (Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003).
Uses
Sesbania punicea was introduced into the United States, South Africa and Australia as an ornamental garden species (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998).
Habitat Description
Sesbania punicea is adapted for coastal, wetland and riparian zones, possessing buoyant seed pods capable of being dispersed long distances on water currents (Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003) and requiring sufficient level of moisture for the survival of seedlings (Hoffmann & Moran, 1991a).
Reproduction
In typical conditions, Sesbania punicea begins producing seed in its second year producing between 100 and 1000 seed pods containing 5 - 10 large (> 5mm) seeds per pod (Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003). The mesocarp of these seed pods are spongy, allowing them to float for up to 10 days even if cracked (Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003). The large seeds are able to establish in a wider range of habitats than some native species. They germinate through abrasion and are capable of remaining in the seed bank for up to three years if no such abrasion occurs (Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003). At the Lower American River in California, Hunter & Platenkamp (2003) found seeds from previous years in the top 3 cm of soil with an average of about 1000 seeds per m² and with 16 % of these capable of germination following abrasion. In dense thickets, S. punicea can produce over 500 seeds per m² every year (Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003).
Pathway
Sesbania punicea is an attractive plant especially when in flower, and as such has been translocated from its native range as an ornamental species (Hoffmann & Moran, 1991a).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Auckland Regional Council (ARC)

Review: John Hoffmann, Zoology Department, University of Cape Town

Publication date: 2010-11-02

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2019) Species profile: Sesbania punicea. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1673 on 27-05-2019.

General Impacts
Sesbania punicea is capable of forming dense impenetrable thickets which can prevent river access, exclude native species and alter habitats (Hoffmann & Moran, 1988; in Hoffmann & Moran, 1991a; Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003). S. punicea can increase hydraulic roughness, thus raising the stage during flood events (Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003) and potentially causing water bodies to burst their banks as well as increase the rates of lateral erosion (Hoffmann & Moran, 1988; in Hoffmann & Moran, 1991a).
S. punicea is also known to contain saponine which is toxic to humans and other vertebrate species (Natali & Jeanmonod, 1996; in Brunel et al., 2010).
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Sesbania punicea for Hawaii and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a high score of 9.5 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawaii and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"
S. punicea is listed as a ‘P1 potential weed’ and prohibited from sale in Queensland Australia (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998). S. punicea is listed in the Auckland Regional Pest Strategy (2007-2012) in the Research Programme section; as a species requiring further research to determine any possible negative effects on biodiversity in the future (ARPS 2007-2012).

Physical : Smaller plants can easily be hand-pulled and larger ones weed wrenched where there are individual plants or sparse infestations (Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003; Sacramento Area Flood Control Agency [SAFCA], 2007).

Chemical: Herbicide use is recommended for heavier infestations with more developed seed banks (SAFCA, 2007). While many different herbicides can be used by spraying or cut and paint techniques (Erasmus et al., 1996; Working for Water, 2002) the tendency of S. punicea to grow in riparian areas or close to waterways should require the use of herbicides approved for use near aquatic environments.

Follow Up Treatments: Follow up treatments are necessary as seedlings sprouting during seed bank flushes are almost certain to appear following physical and/or chemical control (SAFCA, 2007; Buck et al., undated). The use of herbicides have been found to be effective along with a technique called \"flaming\" or \"blanching\" in effectively controlling these seedlings (SAFCA, 2007; Buck et al., undated).

Biological : The biological control of S. punicea in South Africa is considered to be a success. Three different weevil species have been used as biocontrol agents: the flower and leaf eating apionid Trichapion lativentre, the seed eating curculionid Rhyssomatus marginatus and the stem and trunk boring curculionid Neodiplogrammus quadrivittatus (Moran et al., 2003).

Please follow this link for detailed information on the management of Sesbania punicea

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Sesbania punicea
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • argentina
  • brazil
  • paraguay
  • uruguay
Informations on Sesbania punicea has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Sesbania punicea in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Sesbania punicea is capable of forming dense impenetrable thickets which can prevent river access, exclude native species and alter habitats (Hoffmann & Moran, 1988; in Hoffmann & Moran, 1991a; Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003). S. punicea can increase hydraulic roughness, thus raising the stage during flood events (Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003) and potentially causing water bodies to burst their banks as well as increase the rates of lateral erosion (Hoffmann & Moran, 1988; in Hoffmann & Moran, 1991a).
S. punicea is also known to contain saponine which is toxic to humans and other vertebrate species (Natali & Jeanmonod, 1996; in Brunel et al., 2010).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
AUSTRALIA
FRANCE
SOUTH AFRICA
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[4] Competition
Outcomes
[10] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [3] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [4] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [2] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Soil or sediment modification: erosion
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [2] Limited access to water, land and other
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Sesbania punicea for Hawaii and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a high score of 9.5 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawaii and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"
S. punicea is listed as a ‘P1 potential weed’ and prohibited from sale in Queensland Australia (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998). S. punicea is listed in the Auckland Regional Pest Strategy (2007-2012) in the Research Programme section; as a species requiring further research to determine any possible negative effects on biodiversity in the future (ARPS 2007-2012).

Physical : Smaller plants can easily be hand-pulled and larger ones weed wrenched where there are individual plants or sparse infestations (Hunter & Platenkamp, 2003; Sacramento Area Flood Control Agency [SAFCA], 2007).

Chemical: Herbicide use is recommended for heavier infestations with more developed seed banks (SAFCA, 2007). While many different herbicides can be used by spraying or cut and paint techniques (Erasmus et al., 1996; Working for Water, 2002) the tendency of S. punicea to grow in riparian areas or close to waterways should require the use of herbicides approved for use near aquatic environments.

Follow Up Treatments: Follow up treatments are necessary as seedlings sprouting during seed bank flushes are almost certain to appear following physical and/or chemical control (SAFCA, 2007; Buck et al., undated). The use of herbicides have been found to be effective along with a technique called \"flaming\" or \"blanching\" in effectively controlling these seedlings (SAFCA, 2007; Buck et al., undated).

Biological : The biological control of S. punicea in South Africa is considered to be a success. Three different weevil species have been used as biocontrol agents: the flower and leaf eating apionid Trichapion lativentre, the seed eating curculionid Rhyssomatus marginatus and the stem and trunk boring curculionid Neodiplogrammus quadrivittatus (Moran et al., 2003).

Please follow this link for detailed information on the management of Sesbania punicea

Bibliography
30 references found for Sesbania punicea

Managment information
Brunel, S., Schrader, G., Brundu, G., & Fried, G. 2010. Emerging invasive alien plants for the Mediterranean Basin. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 40, 219-238.
Buck, Peter; Loran May; Shannon Lucas and Eric Evans, n.d. Dry Creek Watershed Red Sesbania Control Project.
Summary: Available from: http://www.cal-ipc.org/symposia/archive/pdf/May%20sesbania.pdf [Accessed 19 July 2010]
California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC), 2003. Sesbania punicea plant assessment form.
Summary: Available from: http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/inventory/PAF/Sesbania%20punicea.pdf [Accessed July 22 2010]
California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC), 2010. Sesbania punicea (red sesbania, scarlet wisteria)
Summary: Available from: http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/plant_profiles/Sesbania_punicea.php#news [Accessed 19 July 2010]
Csurhes, S., & Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: candidate species for preventative control. Environment Australia: National Weeds Program.
Erasmus, D. J.; Viljoen, B. D.; Coetzer, R. L. J., 1996. Efficacy of selected herbicides applied to Sesbania punicea stumps. Applied Plant Science. 10(1). 1996. 12-15.
Graaff, J. L & Van Staden, J., 1983. Seed coat structure of Sesbania species. Zeitschrift fuer Pflanzenphysiologie. 111(4). 1983. 293-300.
Graaff, J. L. & Van Staden, J., 1987. The relationship between storage conditions and seed germination in two species of Sesbania. South African Journal of Botany. 53(2). 1987. 143-146.
Hoffmann, J. H., 1988. An early assessment of Trichapion lativentre Coleoptera Apionidae for biological control of the weed Sesbania punicea Fabaceae in South Africa. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. 51(2). 1988. 265-274.
Hoffmann, J. H., 1990. Interactions between three weevil species in the biocontrol of Sesbania puniceae Fabaceae, the role of simulation models in evaluation. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 32(1-2). 1990. 77-88.
Hoffmann J. H and Moran V. C., 1991b. Biocontrol of a perennial legume, Sesbania punicea, using a florivorous weevil, Trichapion lativentre: weed population dynamics with a scarcity of seeds. Oecologia 88: 574�576
Hoffmann, J.H., & Moran, V.C. 1991a. Biological control of Sesbania punicea (Fabaceae) in South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 37, 157-173.
Hoffmann, J. H.; Moran, V. C., 1992. Oviposition patterns and the supplementary role of a seed-feeding weevil, Rhyssomatus marginatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the biological control of a perennial leguminous weed, Sesbania punicea. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 82(3). 1992. 343-347.
Hoffmann, J. H.; Moran, V. C., 1995. Localized failure of a weed biological control agent attributed to insecticide drift. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 52(2-3). 1995. 197-203.
Hoffmann, J. H. & Moran, V. C., 1998. The population dynamics of an introduced tree, Sesbania punicea, in South Africa, in response to long-term damage caused by different combinations of three species of biological control agents. Oecologia 114: 343�348.
Hoffmann, J. H.; Moran, V. C. and Underhill, G., 1990. Relationships between the history of colonization and abundance of Trichapion lativentre Coleoptera Apionidae in the suppression of growth and reproduction of a weed Sesbania punicea Fabaceae. Environmental Entomology. 19(6). 1990. 1866-1872.
Moran, J.H. Hoffmann and T. Olckers, 2003. Politics and ecology in the management of alien invasive woody trees: the pivotal role of biological control agents that diminish seed production. In Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds Canberra, Australia, 27 April�2 May 2003 Edited by J.M. Cullen, D.T. Briese, D.J. Kriticos, W.M. Lonsdale, L. Morin and J.K. Scott
Moran, V. C. & Hoffmann, J. H., 1989. The effects of herbivory by a weevil species acting alone and unrestrained by natural enemies on growth and phenology of the weed Sesbania puniceae. Journal of Applied Ecology. 26(3). 1989. 967-978.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2005. Risk Assessment Sesbania punicea
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/wra/pacific/sesbania_punicea_htmlwra.htm [Accessed 19 July 2010]
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2008. Species info Sesbania punicea
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/sesbania_punicea.htm [Accessed 19 July 2010]
Rice, B. 1998. Red alert! Sesbania punicea. Global Invasive Species Team. The Nature Conservancy
Summary: Available from: http://www.invasive.org/gist/alert/alrtsesb.html [Accessed 22. 2010]
Strathie, L. W.; Hoffmann, J. H., 1993. Pre-winter settling by prepupae of a seed-feeding weevil Rhyssomatus marginatus Fahraeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biocontrol agent of Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth, (Fabaceae) in South Africa. African Entomology. 1(2). 1993. 141-144.
Working For Water, 2002. Policy on the Use of Herbicides for the Control of Alien Vegetation.
Summary: Available from: http://www.dwaf.gov.za/wfw/Legal/Docs/doc/Herb%20Policy%2015January%202002%20.pdf [Accessed 19 July 2010]
General information
Cromarty, P. & Scott, D.A. (eds). 1995. A Directory of Wetlands in New Zealand. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand
Integrated Taxonomic Information Syatem (ITIS), 2010. Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth.
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=26954 [Accessed 19 July 2010]
Ministry for the Environment (MAF), 1998. State of New Zealand s Environment. Chapter 7: key points.
Summary: Available from: http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/ser/ser1997/html/chapter7.3.html [Accessed July 21 2010]
USDA-NRCS, 2010. Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth. Rattlebox. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Summary: Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SEPU7 [Accessed 19 July 2010]
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Sesbania punicea
Hoffmann,
John
Organization:
Zoology Department, University of Cape Town
Address:
Rondebosch 7700, South Africa
Phone:
+27 21 6503604
Fax:
+27 21 6503301
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