Global invasive species database

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Common name
yar (Breton), kip (Dutch), gallina (Catalan), oilasko (Basque), puddu (Sardinian), gall bankiva (Catalan), galinha (Portuguese), slepice (Czech), gaina (Romanian), gallo comune (Italian), kilhog (Breton), gjeli (Albanian), Gà rừng jabou (Vietnamese), pilence kokoška (Bulgarian), frango (Portuguese), arg (Estonian), kura (Polish), puddone (Sardinian), ayam hutan (Malay), kukko (Finnish), eean (Manx), gallo bankiva (Spanish), poulet (French), pollo (Spanish), pollastre (Catalan), pišcanec (Slovenian), pragozdna kokoš (Slovenian), cearc (English, Ireland), oilo (Basque), punaviidakkokana (Finnish), sekishokuyakei (Japanese), kesykana (Finnish), haushuhn (German), pulschain (Romansh), pui (Romanian), hen kiark (Manx), domestic fowl (English), høne (Norwegian), hænsn (Icelandic), puna-džunglikana (Estonian), calis (Latvian), junglefowl (English), bankivahuhn (German), bankivahane (Norwegian), bankivahoen (Dutch), red junglefowl (English), csirke (Hungarian), cyw (Welsh), coq bankiva (French), cipka (English), caboniscu (Sardinian), høsn (Faroese), Röd djungelhöna (Swedish), caboni (Sardinian), ayam hutan merah (Indonesian Bahasa), cyplenok (Russian), kurjetko (English), koko (English), wild chicken (English), moa (Hawaiian), kurje (English), fellus (Maltese), kur bankiwa (Polish), kura divá (Slovak), kur bankivský (Czech), piliç (Turkish), kurica (Russian), pile (Croatian), kurka (Ukrainian), kuryca (Belarusian), hin (Frisian), tigiega (Maltese), galo (English, Ireland), kurjo (English), vuonccis (Northern Sami), feral chicken (English), kyckling (Swedish), manok-ihalas (Cebuano), kokoška (Macedonian), malkureome (Palauan), vista (Latvian), tavuk (Turkish), kylling (Norwegian), poul (English, Haiti), wild junglefowl (English), poleç (Friulian), bankivine viéta (Lithuanian), bankivahøne (Danish), bankivska kokoš (Slovenian), galiña (English, Ireland), höna (Swedish)
Synonym
Gallus domesticus
Similar species
Summary
Gallus spp. include the many forms of domesticated chicken which have been bred and distributed widely across the world as an important food source. In addition to potentially spreading disease to other avian fauna, as generalist feeders, Gallus spp. may also negatively impact upon native flora and fauna.
Species Description
Gallus spp. are highly variable medium sized birds capable of short ranged flight. While there are many different forms of Gallus spp. , a number of characteristics are considered to indicate a pure G. gallus individual. These are the presence of an \"eclipse\" plumage in the males, absence of a comb and wattles in the female, slender dark legs, tail posture, call characteristics, and a generally wild and wary behaviour (Peterson & Brisbin, 1999).
Sexual dimorphism is common in this genus, with males being generally larger, with a larger comb and wattles.
Notes
Gallus gallus is thought to have provided the genetic stock for various domesticated breeds of chicken Gallus spp. which are widely distributed across the world. As the subspecies are capable of interbreeding, it is possible that the original pure genetic strain of G. gallus could actually be extinct or critically endangered (Peterson & Brisbin, 1999). A survey of 745 museum specimens suggests that most wild populations of G. gallus have been contaminated by introgression of genes from domesticated and feral chickens (Peterson & Brisbin, 1999).
Uses
Gallus gallus has been bred to produce many different domesticated variants which are used and widely distribued as a source of food (Pyle & Pyle, 2009).
Nutrition
Gallus spp. are generalist feeders on a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates as well as plants and seeds.
Pathway
Gallus spp. have been widely distributed and bred as a food source for humans (Pyle & Pyle, 2009).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-06-09

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Gallus gallus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1661 on 19-11-2018.

General Impacts
Gallus spp. also can carry a number of diseases which may be harmful to other avian fauna such as Newcastle Disease (NDV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and the proventricular parasite Dispharynx sp. on the Galapagos Islands (Gottdenka et al., 2005).

In populations of Gallus spp. bred for food, there are risks of carrying disease causing pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii and Salmonella spp. (Dubey, 2009). Although not confirmed, there were also fears that Gallus spp. could be a vector for the H5N1 avian bird flu (Daily Gazette, 2006).

Having a highly generalist diet, Gallus spp. could negatively impact native invertebrates and verbrates as well as native plants (Varnham, 2006). Feral Gallus spp. are also known to be a pest on farms, damaging crops and potentially spreading disease to domesticated Gallus spp. populations (Varnham, 1996; Daily Gazette, 1998.).

In high numbers, Gallus spp. can become a human nuisance due to the noise made by males.
They are potential risks to aircraft near airports (Daily Gazette, 1998).

Management Info
Physical control: Feral individual Gallus spp. are often controlled via shooting or trapping as carried out on Bermuda and the Cayman Islands (Varnham, 2006). On the Cayman Islands, trapped feral individuals were then distributed to people who kept chickens (Varnham, 2006).

Chemical control: On Lord Howe Island, Gallus spp. were one of the species identified to be put at risk from use of brodifacoum for rodent eradication (Lord Howe Island Board, 2009). However, no information could be found regarding chemical control programs for Gallus spp.. On Bermuda, chemical control was not considered due to the risk of non-target effects on other avian fauna and farmer's crops (Daily Gazette, 2006).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Gallus gallus
NATIVE RANGE
  • bangladesh
  • bhutan
  • cambodia
  • china
  • india
  • indonesia
  • lao people's democratic republic
  • malaysia
  • myanmar
  • nepal
  • pakistan
  • philippines
  • puerto rico
  • singapore
  • thailand
  • timor-leste
  • viet nam
Informations on Gallus gallus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Gallus gallus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Gallus spp. also can carry a number of diseases which may be harmful to other avian fauna such as Newcastle Disease (NDV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and the proventricular parasite Dispharynx sp. on the Galapagos Islands (Gottdenka et al., 2005).

In populations of Gallus spp. bred for food, there are risks of carrying disease causing pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii and Salmonella spp. (Dubey, 2009). Although not confirmed, there were also fears that Gallus spp. could be a vector for the H5N1 avian bird flu (Daily Gazette, 2006).

Having a highly generalist diet, Gallus spp. could negatively impact native invertebrates and verbrates as well as native plants (Varnham, 2006). Feral Gallus spp. are also known to be a pest on farms, damaging crops and potentially spreading disease to domesticated Gallus spp. populations (Varnham, 1996; Daily Gazette, 1998.).

In high numbers, Gallus spp. can become a human nuisance due to the noise made by males.
They are potential risks to aircraft near airports (Daily Gazette, 1998).

Locations
Mechanism
[1] Competition
[2] Predation
[1] Disease transmission
[1] Grazing/Herbivory/Browsing
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[4] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [3] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Plant/animal health
Management information
Physical control: Feral individual Gallus spp. are often controlled via shooting or trapping as carried out on Bermuda and the Cayman Islands (Varnham, 2006). On the Cayman Islands, trapped feral individuals were then distributed to people who kept chickens (Varnham, 2006).

Chemical control: On Lord Howe Island, Gallus spp. were one of the species identified to be put at risk from use of brodifacoum for rodent eradication (Lord Howe Island Board, 2009). However, no information could be found regarding chemical control programs for Gallus spp.. On Bermuda, chemical control was not considered due to the risk of non-target effects on other avian fauna and farmer's crops (Daily Gazette, 2006).

Locations
AUSTRALIA
BERMUDA
BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY
CAYMAN ISLANDS
Management Category
Control
None
Bibliography
31 references found for Gallus gallus

Managment information
Bomford, M. 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Bomford, M. 2008. Risk assessment models for establishment of exotic vertebrates in Australia and New Zealand. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Risk_Assess_Models_2008_FINAL.pdf [Accessed 19 August 2010]
Department of Environment and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), 2007. UK National Control Programme for Salmonella in Layers (Gallus gallus)
Summary: Available from: http://www.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/farmanimal/diseases/atoz/zoonoses/documents/salmonella-layers.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Dubey, J. P., 2009. Toxoplasma gondii Infections in Chickens (Gallus domesticus): Prevalence, Clinical Disease, Diagnosis and Public Health Significance. Zoonoses and Public Health Volume 57 Issue 1, Pages 60 - 73
Duncan, Richard P., Mary Bomford, David M. Forsyth, Louise Conibear, 2001. High Predictability in Introduction Outcomes and the Geographical Range Size of Introduced Australian Birds: A Role for Climate. Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 70, No. 4 (Jul., 2001), pp. 621-632
Fassbinder-Orth; Carol A. Hofmeister, Erik K.; Weeks-Levy, Carolyn; Karasov, William H., 2009. Oral and Parenteral Immunization of Chickens (Gallus gallus) Against West Nile Virus with Recombinant Envelope Protein. Avian Diseases. 53(4). DEC 2009. 502-509
Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Timothy Walsh; Hernan Vargas; Jane Merkel; Gustavo U. Jim�nez; R. Eric Miller; Murray Dailey; Patricia G. Parker, 2005. Assessing the risks of introduced chickens and their pathogens to native birds in the Gal�pagos Archipelago. Biological Conservation 126 (2005) 429�439
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Miller, E., Parker P., Duncan M., Merkel J., Padi l la L., Vargas H., Snel l H., 2003. Developing an Early Warning System to Monitor Avian Health in the Gallapagos Islands. Verh.ber. Erkrg. Zootiere (2003) 41.
Summary: Available from: http://library.vetmed.fu-berlin.de/resources/global/contents/VET164623/IZW/Rome%20PDF/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Miller.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Montserrat Centre Hills Project. 2005. Enabling the effective conservation and management of natural resources within Montserrat�s Centre Hills.
Summary: Available form http://darwin.defra.gov.uk/documents/14027/1216/Annex%208%20-%20Montserrat%20CHP%20Leaflet.pdf [Accessed 8 April 2010]
Rauw, Fabienne; Gardin, Yannick; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Benedicte, 2009. Vaccination against Newcastle disease in chickens.. Biotechnologie Agronomie Societe et Environnement. 13(4). 2009. 587-596.
Sol, Daniel and Louis Lefebvre, 2000. Behavioural Flexibility Predicts Invasion Success in Birds Introduced to New Zealand Oikos, Vol. 90, No. 3 (Sep., 2000), pp. 599-605
The Daily Gazette. 2006. Chicken cull to combat bird flu.
Summary: Available from http://www.royalgazette.com/rg/Article/article.jsp?sectionId=60&articleId=7d628923003001c [Accessed 8 April 2010]
General information
Anderson, Atholl, 2009. The rat and the octopus: initial human colonization and the prehistoric introduction of domestic animals to Remote Oceania. Biological Invasions. 11(7). AUG 2009. 1503-1519.
Avibase, 2003. Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) (Linnaeus, 1758)
Summary: Available from: http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/species.jsp?avibaseid=3749777E14C923E9 [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Bergman, David L., Monte D. Chandler and Adrianne Locklear, undated. The Economic Impacts of Invasive Species to Wildlife Service Cooperators. Human Conflicts with Wildlife: Economic Considerations
Summary: Available from: http://168.68.129.70/wildlife_damage/nwrc/symposia/economics_symposium/bergmanHR.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
BirdLife International 2009. Gallus gallus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/141319/0 [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Cook Islands Biodiversity & Natural Heritage, 2007. Species Page Gallus gallus Moa / Moa Rere-vao Domestic Fowl
Summary: Available from: http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/species.asp?id=8486 [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Cronk, Q. C. B., 1980. Extinction and Survival in the Endemic Vascular Flora of Ascension Island. Biological Conservation 17 (1980) 207-219
Fitzpatrick, Scott M. & Richard Callaghan, 2009. Examining dispersal mechanisms for the translocation of chicken (Gallus gallus) from Polynesia to South America. Journal of Archaeological Science Volume 36, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 214-223
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=176086 [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Lord Howe Island Board 2009, Draft Lord Howe Island Rodent Eradication Plan, Lord Howe Island Board, Lord Howe Island.
Summary: Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/pestsweeds/draftLHIrodentplan.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Mironov, S. V.; Perez, T. M.; Palma, R. L., 2009. A New Genus of Feather Mite of the Family Pterolichidae (Acari: Stigmata) from Gallus gallus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in the Galapagos Islands. Acarina. 17(1). 2009. 57-64.
Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. 2009. The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status. B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. Version 1 (31 December 2009)
Summary: Available from: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/birds/rlp-monograph/pdfs/02-Galliformes-Procellariiformes/REJU.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Spaggiari, J. & M. De Garine-Wichatitsky, 2006. Home range and habitat use of introduced rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in a mosaic of savannah and native sclerophyll forest of New Caledonia. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 2006, Vol. 33: 175�183
The Daily Gazette. 1998. As feral cats die off, chickens multiply.
Summary: Available from http://www.royalgazette.com/rg/Article/article.jsp?sectionId=60&articleId=7ce409330030008 [Accessed 8 April 2010]
The Daily Gazette. 2006. Govt.: Poisoning feral chickens is illegal.
Summary: Available from http://www.royalgazette.com/rg/Article/article.jsp?sectionId=60&articleId=7d4aa0e30030014 [Accessed 8 April, 2010]
Townsend Peterson, A., and I. Lehr Brisbin, Jr., 1999. Genetic Endangerment of wild Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus? Bird Conservation International (1999) 9: 387-394
Townsend Peterson, A., and I. Lehr Brisbin, Jr., 2005. Phenotypic status of red Junglefowl Gallus gallus populations introduced on Pacific Islands. Bull. B.O.C 2005 125 (1)
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Gallus gallus