Global invasive species database

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Common name
spiny sandbur (English), cadillo tigre (Spanish), cachorro (Spanish), cabeza de negro (Spanish), mozote (Spanish), mouku talatala (English, Tuvalu), hedgehog grass (English), cauit-cauitan (Filipino), mosie vihilango (English, Niue), motie vihilago (English, Niue), sandburr (English), cadillo (Spanish), se mbulabula (English), parango (Maori, Cook Islands), southern sandbur grass (English), southern sandbur (English), se mbulambula (Fijian), zacate banderilla (Spanish), quaramiyumut (English, Marshall Islands), te anti (English, Kiribati), te kateketeke (English, Kiribati), pega-pega (Spanish), sand burr (English), piri-piri (English, Tahiti), piripiri (Maori, Cook Islands), capim-carrapicho (Portuguese), sand bur (English), capim-timbete (Portuguese), capim-amoroso (Portuguese), roseta (Spanish), capim-roseta (Portuguese), burr grass (English), vao tui tui (English, Tokelau), puu ta‘a ta‘a (English, Marquesas), te uteute ae kateketeke (English, Kiribati), guizazo (Spanish), se bulabula (Fijian), vao tuitui (Samoan), vao papalagi (Samoan), golden grass (English), eakung (Nauruan), field sandbur (English), common sandbur (English), legalek (English, Marshall Islands), lellik (English, Marshall Islands), pua pipii (English, Marquesas), Mossman river grass (English), herbe e cateaeux (French, Mauritius), hefa (Tongan), burgrass (English), karumwij (English, Marshall Islands), iakung (English, Nauru), konpeito-gusa (English), bur grass (English), abrojo (Spanish), lek e lek (English, Marshall Islands), 'ume'alu (Hawaiian), cenchrus épineux (French), espolón (Spanish), caretón morado (Spanish), kãlõklõk (English, Marshall Islands), mau'u kuku (English, Hawaii)
Synonym
Cenchrus echinatus , var. hillebrandianus (A.S. Hitchc.) F. Br.
Similar species
Summary
Cenchrus echinatus is an annual grass that is a native of tropical America, but has now widely colonised tropical and temperate zones worldwide. Though it is typically associated with dry, sandy habitats it can also grow in moist areas, where it may be long-lived and reach a much larger size. It is recognisable by the burrs it produces, which readily attach themselves to animals and clothing, making C. echinatus easily dispersed. It is fairly easily managed by physical and chemical means, though the soil seed reservoir means followup treatments are necessary.
Species Description
Cenchrus echinatus is an annual, branched and somewhat tufted grass that grows up to 1 m tall. It is erect at the base, with fibrous roots and has the ability to form mats. The blades are either smooth or slightly hairy on the upper surface, smooth on the lower surface and are up to 9 mm wide. The inflorescence are spike-like, up to 10 cm long and has up to 50 or more spiny burrs (5 - 7 mm long), which are well-spaced, subsessile with 2 - 4 spikelets. These burrs are easily detached. (PIER 2010).
Notes
Cenchrus echinatus is declared as a species not wanted in southern Africa (GCW 2007).
Habitat Description
Cenchrus echinatus can grow in a variety of conditions, and grows readily in tropical and temperate zones. Though it is often associated with dry, sandy soils, C. echinatus thrives in moist conditions where it is generally longer lived and can grow much larger. It readily colonises open ground and is known to invade agricultural areas, riparian zones, disturbed areas, sand dunes and other coastal areas, pasture, road sides, gardens and swamp margins. (PIER 2010).
Pathway

Principal source: Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) 2010. Cenchrus echinatus L., Poaceae.
Flint E., Rehkemper C. 2002. Control and eradication of the introduced grass, Cenchrus echinatus, at Laysan Island, Central Pacific Ocean. In: C.R. Veitch, M.N. Clout (eds) Turning the Tide: The Eradication of Invasive Species. Proceedings of the Internation Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives. Pp 110.

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-06-08

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Cenchrus echinatus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1655 on 18-09-2020.

General Impacts
Cenchrus echinatus infests dry areas especially along leeward coastlines. Burs are a nuisance for people. They are reported as dangerous for hatchlings of seabirds on the Northwestern Islands. (Motooka et al. 2003). A prolific seeder, it forms mats and can displace native grasses (Flint & Rehkemper 2002).
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Cenchrus echinatus for Australia. The result is a score of 11 and a recommendation of: \"eject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific).\" C. echinatus is declared as an unwanted species in southern Africa (GCW 2007).

Physical/Chemical: Physical and chemical management techniques have been found to be effective against Cenchrus echinatus. Physical measures include hand-pulling individual plants, which can either be done on its own or following spray treatment with herbicide. Effective chemicals include glyphoshate, chlorazifop, altrazine and benfluralin. Follow up procedures are necessary due to the seed reservoir of C. echinatus. It has been noted that preemergence herbicides could be useful. (Flint & Rehkemper 2002; Motooka et al. 2003; PIER 2010).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Cenchrus echinatus
Informations on Cenchrus echinatus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Cenchrus echinatus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Cenchrus echinatus infests dry areas especially along leeward coastlines. Burs are a nuisance for people. They are reported as dangerous for hatchlings of seabirds on the Northwestern Islands. (Motooka et al. 2003). A prolific seeder, it forms mats and can displace native grasses (Flint & Rehkemper 2002).
Red List assessed species 2: CR = 1; VU = 1;
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Locations
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Cenchrus echinatus for Australia. The result is a score of 11 and a recommendation of: \"eject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific).\" C. echinatus is declared as an unwanted species in southern Africa (GCW 2007).

Physical/Chemical: Physical and chemical management techniques have been found to be effective against Cenchrus echinatus. Physical measures include hand-pulling individual plants, which can either be done on its own or following spray treatment with herbicide. Effective chemicals include glyphoshate, chlorazifop, altrazine and benfluralin. Follow up procedures are necessary due to the seed reservoir of C. echinatus. It has been noted that preemergence herbicides could be useful. (Flint & Rehkemper 2002; Motooka et al. 2003; PIER 2010).

Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
Bibliography
11 references found for Cenchrus echinatus

Managment information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2001. Risk Assessments: Cenchrus echinatus L., Poaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/wra/australia/ceech-wra.htm [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) 2010. Cenchrus echinatus L., Poaceae.
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/cenchrus_echinatus.htm [Accessed 23 September 2010]
Simberloff D. 2009. We can eliminate invasions or live with them. Successful management projects. In: D.W. Langor, J. Sweeney (eds) Ecological Impacts of Non-Native Invertebrates and Fungi on Terrestrial Ecosystems. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Pp 149-15.
General information
Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW) 2007. Cenchrus echinatus (Poaceae).
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/cenchrus_echinatus/ [Accessed 24 September 2010]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Cenchrus echinatus L..
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=40575 [Accessed 23 September 2010]
JSTOR Plant Science, 2010. Cenchrus echinatus L. [family POACEAE]
Summary: Available from: http://plants.jstor.org/taxon/flora/Cenchrus.echinatus [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Cenchrus echinatus
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