Global invasive species database

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Common name
brown hare (English), European brown hare (English), European hare (English), liebre Europea (Spanish), lièvre d'Europe (French)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
Lepus europaeus is a herbivorous mammal belonging to the family Leporidae, and is commonly known as the European hare or brown hare. It has been introduced from its native range of Europe to many other countries and islands. L. europaeus is highly adaptable and is able to survive in a varied range of habitats, though it primarily invades agricultural areas, grasslands, scrub and shrublands and disturbed areas. It has been known to hybridise with native hare species in some areas, threatening genetic integrity and native species survival.
Notes
There are 15 subspecies: Lepus europaeus caspicus, L. e. connori, L. e. creticus, L. e. cyprius, L. e. cyrensis, L. e. europaeus, L. e. hybridus, L. e. judeae, L. e. karpathorum, L. e. medius, L. e. occidentalis, L. e. parnassius, L. e. ponticus, L. e. rhodius, L. e. syriacus, and L. e. transsylvanicus (Hoffmann and Smith 2005).

Climate change and the European hare: In the Australian Alps, foxes (Vulpes vulpes), hares (Lepus europaeus), house mice (Mus musculus), feral horses (Equus caballus) and weeds have all increased their presence at higher altitudes most likely due to changes in climate (Green and Pickering 2002).
Climate change models predict that summers in Ireland will become drier and warmer, giving rise to conditions favouring L. europaeus (increased arable activity, creating a more heterogenous landscape).

Lifecycle Stages
Lepus europaeus averages three litters/yr, but can vary from one to four litters/yr (Macdonald and Barrett 1993). Litter size can vary with respect to the season, smaller litters produced earlier in the season and larger litters later (Macdonald and Barrett 1993). The birth weight of L. europaeus is approximately 100 g (Macdonald and Barrett 1993). Gestation is 41-42 days and reproduction occurs year round (Macdonald and Barrett 1993). Average life expectancy for this hare is 1.04 years, with a maximum age span in the wild of 12.5 years recorded in Poland (Macdonald and Barrett 1993). Females reach maturity around seven to eight months and male at six months (Macdonald and Barrett 1993). The total length of L. europaeus is 48.0-70.0 cm (Macdonald and Barrett 1993) (from Smith & Johnston 2008)
Pathway
Lepus europaeus has been introduced as a game species extensively to countries across the globe (Smith & Johnston 2008).

Principal source: Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. 2008. Lepus europaeus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-06-08

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Lepus europaeus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1643 on 16-11-2018.

Management Info
Methods by which to monitor L. europaeus population and impacts in New Zealand have been studied with the view of setting target densities for control operations (Parkes 2001). Methods for density estimation investigated included faecal pellet counts, spotlight count, and line transect estimates. Impact estimation methods included plant biomass estimation of biomass, and species composition and biomass.
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Lepus europaeus
NATIVE RANGE
  • albania
  • austria
  • belarus
  • belgium
  • bosnia and herzegovina
  • bulgaria
  • croatia
  • czech republic
  • denmark
  • estonia
  • ex-yugoslavia
  • finland
  • france
  • germany
  • greece
  • hungary
  • iran, islamic republic of
  • iraq
  • israel
  • italy
  • latvia
  • liechtenstein
  • lithuania
  • luxembourg
  • macedonia, the former yugoslav republic of
  • moldova, republic of
  • montenegro
  • netherlands
  • poland
  • romania
  • serbia
  • slovakia
  • slovenia
  • spain
  • switzerland
  • syrian arab republic
  • turkey
  • ukraine
Informations on Lepus europaeus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Lepus europaeus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Red List assessed species 2: VU = 1; LC = 1;
View more species View less species
Locations
IRELAND
NEW ZEALAND
UNITED KINGDOM
Mechanism
[2] Competition
[2] Hybridisation
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [2] Reduction in native biodiversity
[2] Environmental Species - Population
  • [2] Alteration of genetic resources
Management information
Methods by which to monitor L. europaeus population and impacts in New Zealand have been studied with the view of setting target densities for control operations (Parkes 2001). Methods for density estimation investigated included faecal pellet counts, spotlight count, and line transect estimates. Impact estimation methods included plant biomass estimation of biomass, and species composition and biomass.
Locations
CHILE
FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS)
IRELAND
NEW ZEALAND
UNITED KINGDOM
Management Category
Prevention
Control
None
Monitoring
Bibliography
16 references found for Lepus europaeus

Managment information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Jaksic, Fabian M., J. Agust�in Iriarte, Jaime E. Jim�enez & David R. Mart�inez., 2002. Invaders without frontiers: cross-border invasions of exotic mammals. Biological Invasions 4: 157�173, 2002.
Otley H, Munro G, Clausen A and Ingham B. 2008. Falkland Islands State of the Environment Report 2008. Falkland Islands Government and Falklands Conservation, Stanley.
Reid, Neil, 2010. European hare (Lepus europaeus) invasion ecology: implication for the conservation of the endemic Irish hare (Lepus timidus hibernicus) Biol Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-010-9849-x
General information
BirdLife International 2008. Nestor notabilis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106001410/0 [Accessed 16 December 2012]
Flux, E. C. John, 1965. Timing of the breeding season in the hare Lepus europaeus Pallas and rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. Mammalia. Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 557�562
Green, K. and Pickering, C.M. 2002. A scenario for mammal and bird diversity in the Australian Snowy Mountains in relation to climate change. Mountain Biodiversity: a Global Assessment. C. Koerner and E. M. Spehn (eds). London, Parthenon Publishing.
Hoffmann, R. S. and Smith, A. T. 2005. Order Lagomorpha. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 185-211. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=552501 [Accessed 20 September 2010]
Neronov, Valery M., Ludmila A. Khlyap, Vladimir V. Bobrov and Andrey A. Warshavsky, 2008. Alien species of mammals and their impact on natural ecosystems in the biosphere reserves of Russia. Integrative Zoology 2008; 3: 83�94
Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. 2008. Lepus europaeus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/41280/0/full [Accessed 26 July 2010]
Varnham, K 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review JNCC Report No. 372
Summary: Available from: http://www.caymanbiodiversity.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/jncc372_web.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2010]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Lepus europaeus