Global invasive species database

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Common name
Darwin's Berberis (English), Darwin's Barberry (English), berbére (French)
Synonym
Similar species
Berberis thunbergii, Berberis vulgaris
Summary
Berberis darwinii exists as varying habits in New Zealand from shrubs with interlaced branches, reaching 3-4m in height and 3-6m wide in the open and at the forest edge to lianoid small trees growing to about 10m and spreading 15m under the forest canopy. Dispersal is key to B. darwinii's survival. Introduced bird species act as dispersers in New Zealand. Despite being considered a shade-tolerant species it has been shown that B. darwinii actually requires high light environments to germinate. It is tolerant of both frost and drought.
Species Description
Berberis darwinii exists as varying habits in New Zealand, from shrubs with interlaced branches, reaching 3-4m in height and 3-6m wide in the open and at the forest edge to lianoid small trees growing to about 10m and spreading 15m under the forest canopy (Allen & Wilson, 1992). Dispersal is key to Berberis darwinii's survival as shown by MacAlpine & Jesson (2008). They found great numbers of seeds dispersed at least 150m, with others also being consistantly detected up to 450m away from the parent population. This was further shown in their study with seedling survival; nearly all seedlings under the parent population died within the first 5 months of germination. Despite being considered a shade-tolerant species (Webb et al 1988), MacAlpine & Jesson (2008) and MacAlpine et al (2008) have shown that B. darwinii actually requires high light environments to germinate. It is tolerant of both frost and drought (Allen 1991; Timmins & Mackenzie 1995; as seen in MacAlpine & Jesson, 2007)
Lifecycle Stages
Berberis darwinii flowers in Spring (August to November) and fruits in Summer (December to February) in New Zealand, (MacAlpine & Jesson, 2008), although fruits and flowers can both be seen on the species nearly year-round (Webb et al, 1988; as seen in MacAlpine & Jesson, 2008).
Reproduction
The main pollinator in New Zealand of Berberis darwinii is the honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Allen & Wilson, 1992).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-06-08

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Berberis darwinii. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1622 on 15-12-2018.

Management Info
Preventative measures: On the Falkland Islands, Whitehead (2008; as seen in Oyley et al, 2008) conducted a risk assessment on potentially invasive species. Berberis darwinii scored 18. Any species with a score over 15 is considered invasive.

Physical: Several management techniques have been trialled on B. darwinii in New Zealand (Ward & Henzell, 2004), each a combination of physical and chemical methods. Cut-Stem treatment on saplings proved very effective and involves the cutting of all sapling stems coupled with an application of herbicide. A Wedge-Method and a Trunk Injection method, whilst not entirely physical, each proved very effective when also coupled with herbicide. The Wedge-Method involves the cutting of wedges out of the trees at constant intervals and applying herbicide within each wedge. The trunk Injection technique involves the drilling of holes into the main tree trunks and injecting herbicide within each hole. The Cut-Stem and Wedge-Method each had a 100% kill rate in trials, whereas the Trunk Injection had an 80-90% kill rate. These methods have only been trialled within New Zealand (Ward & Henzell, 2004).

Chemical: Several management techniques have been trialled on B. darwinii in New Zealand (Ward & Henzell, 2004), each a combination of physical and chemical methods. Cut-Stem treatment on saplings proved very effective and involves the cutting of all sapling stems coupled with an application of herbicide. A Wedge-Method and a Trunk Injection method, each proved very effective when also coupled with herbicide. The Wedge-Method involves the cutting of wedges out of the trees at constant intervals and applying herbicide within each wedge. The trunk Injection technique involves the drilling of holes into the main tree trunks and injecting herbicide within each hole. The Cut-Stem and Wedge-Method each had a 100% kill rate in trials, whereas the Trunk Injection had an 80-90% kill rate. The most effective herbicide found within these trials was the Vigilant herbicide (a mixture of 5% picloram potassium salt). These methods have only been trialled within New Zealand (Ward & Henzell, 2004).

Biological: MacAlpine et al (2008) suggest that controlling efforts should be directed at removing individuals in high light as opposed to across all environments, due to its fast growth capabilities in such an environment. MacAlpine & Jesson (2008) further suggest that control should focus on elimination of the seed source, however when this is not possible, efforts should ignore seedlings under parent populations as they generally don't survive anyway, and that the seed bank should be of no concern as most seeds do not last for more than 1 year.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Berberis darwinii
NATIVE RANGE
  • argentina
  • chile
Informations on Berberis darwinii has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Berberis darwinii in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
NEW ZEALAND
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
Management information
Preventative measures: On the Falkland Islands, Whitehead (2008; as seen in Oyley et al, 2008) conducted a risk assessment on potentially invasive species. Berberis darwinii scored 18. Any species with a score over 15 is considered invasive.

Physical: Several management techniques have been trialled on B. darwinii in New Zealand (Ward & Henzell, 2004), each a combination of physical and chemical methods. Cut-Stem treatment on saplings proved very effective and involves the cutting of all sapling stems coupled with an application of herbicide. A Wedge-Method and a Trunk Injection method, whilst not entirely physical, each proved very effective when also coupled with herbicide. The Wedge-Method involves the cutting of wedges out of the trees at constant intervals and applying herbicide within each wedge. The trunk Injection technique involves the drilling of holes into the main tree trunks and injecting herbicide within each hole. The Cut-Stem and Wedge-Method each had a 100% kill rate in trials, whereas the Trunk Injection had an 80-90% kill rate. These methods have only been trialled within New Zealand (Ward & Henzell, 2004).

Chemical: Several management techniques have been trialled on B. darwinii in New Zealand (Ward & Henzell, 2004), each a combination of physical and chemical methods. Cut-Stem treatment on saplings proved very effective and involves the cutting of all sapling stems coupled with an application of herbicide. A Wedge-Method and a Trunk Injection method, each proved very effective when also coupled with herbicide. The Wedge-Method involves the cutting of wedges out of the trees at constant intervals and applying herbicide within each wedge. The trunk Injection technique involves the drilling of holes into the main tree trunks and injecting herbicide within each hole. The Cut-Stem and Wedge-Method each had a 100% kill rate in trials, whereas the Trunk Injection had an 80-90% kill rate. The most effective herbicide found within these trials was the Vigilant herbicide (a mixture of 5% picloram potassium salt). These methods have only been trialled within New Zealand (Ward & Henzell, 2004).

Biological: MacAlpine et al (2008) suggest that controlling efforts should be directed at removing individuals in high light as opposed to across all environments, due to its fast growth capabilities in such an environment. MacAlpine & Jesson (2008) further suggest that control should focus on elimination of the seed source, however when this is not possible, efforts should ignore seedlings under parent populations as they generally don't survive anyway, and that the seed bank should be of no concern as most seeds do not last for more than 1 year.

Locations
FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS)
NEW ZEALAND
Management Category
Prevention
Control
Bibliography
16 references found for Berberis darwinii

Managment information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Otley H, Munro G, Clausen A and Ingham B. 2008. Falkland Islands State of the Environment Report 2008. Falkland Islands Government and Falklands Conservation, Stanley.
Ward, B. G. and R.F. Henzell, 2001. Use of herbicidal gels on woody weeds. DOC Science Internal Series 162
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/dsis162.pdf [Accessed July 3 2010]
General information
Alien Plants in Ireland, 2010. Berberis darwinii Hook.
Summary: Available from: http://www.biochange.ie/alienplants/result_options.php?species=51&families=Berberidaceae&p=i&blz=1 [Accessed July 3 2010]
Allen, R. B., 1991. A preliminary assessment of the establishment and persistence of Berberis darwinii Hook., a naturalised shrub in secondary vegetation near Dunedin, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1991, Vol. 29: 353-360
Allen, R. B. & J. B. Wilson, 1992. Fruit and seed production in Berberis darwinii Hook., a shrub recently naturalised in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1992, Vol. 30: 45-55
Dallimore, W., 1919. The Falkland Islands. Forestry. Tussock Grass. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Gardens, Kew), Vol. 1919, No. 5 (1919)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Berberis darwinii Hook.
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=506843 [Accessed July 3 2010]
McAlpine, Kate G. and Linley K. Jesson, 2007. Biomass allocation, shade tolerance and seedling survival of the invasive species Berberis darwinii (Darwin�s barberry). New Zealand Journal of Ecology (2007) 31(1): 1-12
McAlpine, Kate G. and Linley K. Jesson, 2008. Linking seed dispersal, germination and seedling recruitment in the invasive species Berberis darwinii (Darwin�s barberry). Plant Ecol (2008) 197:119�129
McAlpine, Kate G., Linley K. Jesson and David, S. Kubien, 2008. Photosynthesis and water-use efficiency: A comparison between invasive (exotic) and non-invasive (native) species. Austral Ecology (2008) 33, 10�19
Please refer this to the updated Varnham, there is a secondary ref to the Guernsey Botanical Records
USDA, NRCS, 2010. Berberis darwinii Hook. Darwin s berberis. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Summary: Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BEDA [Accessed July 3 2010]
Williams, Peter A., 2006. The role of blackbirds (Turdus merula) in weed invasion in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology (2006) 30(2): 285-291
Summary: Available from: http://www.newzealandecology.org.nz/nzje/free_issues/NZJEcol30_2_285.pdf [Accessed July 3 2010]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Berberis darwinii