Global invasive species database

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Common name
iwashako (Japanese), chucor (English), coturnice orientale (Italian), perdrix choukar (French), chukar (English), chukarhuhn (German), orebice cukar (Czech), berghöna (Swedish), perdiz chucar (Spanish), vuoripyy (Finnish), aziatische steenpatrijs (Dutch), perdiz-chukar (Portuguese), kuropta cukar (Slovak), chukor (English), Indian chukor (English), chukar partridge (English), chukor partridge (English), rock partridge (English), chukarhøne (Danish), góropatwa azjatycka (Polish), berghæna (Icelandic), berghøne (Norwegian)
Synonym
Alectoris kakelik
Tetrao kakelik
Similar species
Summary
Alectoris chukar has a wide distribution, stretching from the Aegean Sea through to Central and Eastern Asia. There does however seem to be two genetic clades within the species, those from the Mediterranean through to Central Asia and those from Eastern Asia. This is important as individuals used in the introduction into North America and Hawaii were from individuals from Eastern Asia; whereas individuals causing hybrization problems in Europe come from the Mediterranean and Central Asian clade. This hybridization is causing major problems to the genetic purity of the native Alectoris rufa in the Iberian Peninsula, and strict measures in regards to potential hybridization, and the importation and introduction of farm-reared individuals needs to be introduced.
Notes
Alectoris chukar has a wide distribution, stretching from the Aegean Sea through to Central and Eastern Asia (Barbanera et al, 2009b). There does however seem to be two genetic clades within the species, those from the Mediterranean through to Central Asia and those from Eastern Asia (Barbanera et al, 2009b). The Himalayas seem to represent some sort of barrier between the two. Naturally A. chukar and A. rufa distributions do not cross, however recently A. chukar has been released for shooting alongside A. rufa in the United Kingdom, France and Italy which has lead to hybridisation in the wild occuring between the two species (Barbanera et al 2005).
Pathway
Alectoris chukar has been introduced to many areas of Europe to help restock levels of game-relatives such as A. rufa (Blanco-Aguiar et al, 2008)

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-06-08

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Alectoris chukar. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1616 on 18-12-2018.

General Impacts
Alectoris chukar is causing genetic purity issues in A. rufa, a native to the Iberian Peninsula through hybridization (Blanco-Aguiar et al, 2008).

Despite consuming large amounts of exotic plant material within the United States, A. chukar does not seem to spread these species through faecal distribution and thus may actually aid in their control (Larsen et al, 2007).

Management Info
Biological: Due to hybridization that can occur easily between Alectoris chukar and other Alectoris species, identifying populations that are more genetically pure than others is essential for the management of A. chukar. This concept, mentioned by Allendorf & and Luikart (2007; as seen in Barbanera et al, 2009a) was applied in a study by Barbanera et al, (2009a), in which they surveyed populations within the Mediterranean. This process though is applicable world-wide.
It now also seems that the genetic pollution caused by A. chukar is also occuring intra-specifically, as the two clades, one from the Mediterranean and Central Asia and the other from Eastern Asia, seem to be mixing with increased human movement (Barbanera et al, 2009b).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Alectoris chukar
NATIVE RANGE
  • india
  • iran, islamic republic of
  • iraq
  • israel
  • jordan
  • kazakhstan
  • kyrgyzstan
  • lebanon
  • mongolia
  • nepal
  • oman
  • pakistan
  • russian federation
  • saudi arabia
  • syrian arab republic
  • tajikistan
  • turkey
  • turkmenistan
  • ukraine
  • united arab emirates
  • uzbekistan
Informations on Alectoris chukar has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Alectoris chukar in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Alectoris chukar is causing genetic purity issues in A. rufa, a native to the Iberian Peninsula through hybridization (Blanco-Aguiar et al, 2008).

Despite consuming large amounts of exotic plant material within the United States, A. chukar does not seem to spread these species through faecal distribution and thus may actually aid in their control (Larsen et al, 2007).

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
ITALY
SPAIN
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[2] Hybridisation
[1] Grazing/Herbivory/Browsing
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Species - Population
  • [2] Alteration of genetic resources
  • [1] other
Management information
Biological: Due to hybridization that can occur easily between Alectoris chukar and other Alectoris species, identifying populations that are more genetically pure than others is essential for the management of A. chukar. This concept, mentioned by Allendorf & and Luikart (2007; as seen in Barbanera et al, 2009a) was applied in a study by Barbanera et al, (2009a), in which they surveyed populations within the Mediterranean. This process though is applicable world-wide.
It now also seems that the genetic pollution caused by A. chukar is also occuring intra-specifically, as the two clades, one from the Mediterranean and Central Asia and the other from Eastern Asia, seem to be mixing with increased human movement (Barbanera et al, 2009b).
Bibliography
20 references found for Alectoris chukar

Managment information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Larsen, Randy T.; Flinders, Jerran T.; Mitchell, Dean L.; Perkins, Ernest R., 2007. Conservation risks of exotic chukars (Alectoris chukar) and their associated management: implications for a widely introduced phasianid. Wildlife Research. 34(4). 2007. 262-270.
General information
Avibase, 2010. Chukar (Alectoris chukar) (Gray,JE, 1830)
Summary: Available from: http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/species.jsp?lang=EN&avibaseid=87CBEBF7C53AF64C [Accessed 3 July 2010]
Banks, R. C., 1981. Summary of foreign game bird liberations 1969-1978. U S Fish & Wildlife Service Special Scientific Report-Wildlife.(239). 1981. 1-23.
Barbanera, Filippo; Guerrini, Monica; Khan, Aleem A.; Panayides, Panicos; Hadjigerou, Pantelis; Sokos, Christos; Gombobaatar, Sundev; Samadi, Sarah; Khan, Bakht Y.; Tofanelli, Sergio; Paoli, Giorgio; Dini, Fernando, 2009b. Human-mediated introgression of exotic chukar (Alectoris chukar, Galliformes) genes from East Asia into native Mediterranean partridges. Biological Invasions. 11(2). FEB 2009. 333-348
Barbanera, Filippo; Marchi, Chiara; Guerrini, Monica; Panayides, Panicos; Sokos, Christos; Hadjigerou, Pantelis, 2009a. Genetic structure of Mediterranean chukar (Alectoris chukar, Galliformes) populations: conservation and management implications. Naturwissenschaften. 96(10). OCT 2009. 1203-1212.
Barbanera, F.; Negro, J. J.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Bertoncini, F.; Cappelli, F.; Dini, F., 2006. Analysis of the genetic structure of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, Galliformes) populations by means of mitochondrial DNA and RAPD markers: a study from central Italy. Biological Conservation. 122(2). March 2005. 275-287.
Barilani, Marina; Bernard-Laurent, Ariane; Mucci, Nadia; Tabarroni, Cristiano; Kark, Salit; Perez Garrido, Jose Antonio; Randi, Ettore, 2007. Hybridisation with introduced chukars (Alectoris chukar) threatens the gene pool integrity of native rock (A. graeca) and red-legged (A. rufa) partridge populations. Biological Conservation. 137(1). JUN 2007. 57-69.
Barilani, Marina; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Giannakopoulos, Alexis; Mucci, Nadia; Tabarroni, Cristiano; Randi, Ettore, 2007. Detecting introgressive hybridisation in rock partridge populations (Alectoris graeca) in Greece through Bayesian admixture analyses of multilocus genotypes. Conservation Genetics. 8(2). APR 2007. 343-354.
BirdLife International 2009. Alectoris chukar. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/141217/0 [Accessed July 3 2010]
Blanco-Aguiar, J. A.; Gonzalez-Jara, P.; Ferrero, M. E.; Sanchez-Barbudo, I.; Virgos, E.; Villafuerte, R.; Davila, J. A., 2008. Assessment of game restocking contributions to anthropogenic hybridization: the case of the Iberian red-legged partridge. Animal Conservation. 11(6). DEC 2008. 535-545
Cole, F. Russell; Loope, Lloyd L.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Raikes, Jane A.; Wood, Cynthia S., 1995. Conservation implications of introduced game birds in high-elevation Hawaiian shrubland. Conservation Biology. 9(2). 1995. 306-313.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Alectoris chukar (J. E. Gray, 1830)
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=175908 [Accessed July 3 2010]
Lewis, Colin A., 2008. Late Glacial and Holocene avifauna of St Helena, South Atlantic Ocean. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa Vol. 63(2) 128 � 144
Ml�kovsk�, Jiri, 2006. Nomenclatural and taxonomic status of birds described by Johan Peter Falck in 1786. Casopis N�rodn�ho muzea, Rada pr�rodovedn� (Journal of the National Museum, Natural History Series) Vol. 175 (1�2): 17�25, 2006
Olson, L. Storrs, 1975. Paleornithology of St. Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology Number 23
Summary: Available from: http://si-pddr.si.edu/dspace/bitstream/10088/1952/2/SCtP-0023-Lo_res.pdf [Accessed 3 July 2010]
Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. 2009. The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status. B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. Version 1 (31 December 2009)
Summary: Available from: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/birds/rlp-monograph/pdfs/02-Galliformes-Procellariiformes/REJU.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Tejedor, M. Teresa; Monteagudo, Luis V.; Mautner, Selma; Hadjisterkotis, Eleftherios; Arruga, M. Victoria, 2007. Introgression of Alectoris chukar genes into a Spanish wild Alectoris rufa population. Journal of Heredity. 98(2). MAR 2007. 179-182.
Walter, Hanspeter, 2002. Natural history and ecology of the Chukar (Alectoris chukar) in the northern Great Basin. Great Basin Birds 5(1) 2002, pp. 28�37
Summary: Available from: http://www.gbbo.org/gbbarticles/2002%20-%20Walter%20-%20Natural%20history%20and%20ecology%20of%20the%20Chukar%20(Alectoris%20chukar)%20in%20the%20northern%20Great%20Basin.pdf [Accessed July 3 2010]
Watson G. E., 1966. The Chukar Partridge (Ayes) of Saint Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Proc Biol Soc Wash 79:179-182
Contact
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