Global invasive species database

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Common name
Port Jackson wattle (English), Port Jackson willow (English), orange wattle (English), golden-wreath wattle (English), blue-leaf wattle (English), Port Jackson (English, South Africa), weeping wattle (English)
Synonym
Acacia cyanophylla , Lindl.
Mimosa saligna , Labill.
Racosperma salignum , Labill.
Similar species
Acacia mearnsii, Acacia melanoxylon, Acacia cyclops, Acacia longifolia, Acacia pycnantha
Summary
Due it its many uses Acacia saligna, or the Port Jackson willow, has been globally distributed with up to 300 000 ha planted worldwide and was identified as one of three priority multipurpose species for arid and semi-arid zones by FAO’s Silvae Mediterranea Network in 1996. Native to Western Australia and suited to a wide range of enviromental conditions, it is a fast growing tree utilised for soil stabilisation, animal fodder, tannin production, windbreaks, ornamental use and as a source of fuel wood. In areas where it has become invasive A. saligna can have a wide range of negative effects on native biodiversity and ecosystems and is difficult to control due to its coppicing ability and the creation of large soil seed-banks.
Species Description
Acacia saligna is a bushy shrub dividing near the base into several stems, resulting in a dense bush that may be wider than high. The shrub form is usually 2 - 5 m tall but it can form a small tree 5 -9 m high, with a short but well-defined main stem (Midgely & Turnbull, 2003). Its natural occurence on the coastal plain of south-western Western Australia is mainly from sea-level up to 300 m and it occurs on many soil types, especially on poor and calcareous sands (Midgely & Turnbull, 2003). A. saligna coppices well and fodder biomass production is optimised by regular, annual harvesting, benefitting from fertilisation on infertile soils (Midgely & Turnbull, 2003). In common with many other acacias, A. saligna forms associations with VA mycorrhizal fungi (Midgely & Turnbull, 2003). It has an average lifespan of 30 - 40 years (Milton & Hall, 1981; in Wood & Morris, 2007).
Uses
Plantations of Acacia saligna in warm-temperate and semi-arid areas provide stock fodder, soil stabilisation, fuelwood and charcoal (Midgley & Turnbull, 2003). In Australia, A. saligna has been used as an ornamental plant, for low windbreaks and shade, and is increasingly planted in agroforestry systems for fodder production and soil conservation (Crompton, 1992; in Midgely & Turnbull, 2003). Its fast growing, coppicing ability and capacity to thrive on sands and soils of high pH in subhumid, semi-arid and arid temperaure areas has led to it being planted widely around the world with an estimated 300 000 ha planted globally, being identified as one of three priority multipurpose species for arid and semi-arid zones by FAO’s Silvae Mediterranea Network (Midgely & Turnbull, 2003). In Tunisia, it has been successfully processed into particle board, while in the Mediterranean, it is used for vine stakes and small agricultural implements (Michaelides, 1997; in Midgely & Turnbull, 2003). It is also used extensively for sand dune fixation and gully erosion control; planted in Australia to rehabilitate areas mined for coal and minerals (Langkamp, 1987; in Midgely & Turnbull, 2003).
Habitat Description
Acacia saligna is capable of thriving on many soil types, including high pH sands and soils in subhumid, semi-arid and arid temperate areas (Midgely & Turnbull, 2003).
Reproduction
Annual seed production of Acacia saligna is about 10 000 seeds per 1 square metre of canopy cover (Milton & Hall, 1981; in Henderson et al 1998). While most of these fall straight onto the ground; seeds are dispersed by birds (Henderson et al 1998). A large portion of these seeds remain dormant due to a water-impermeable testa (Rolston, 1978; in Henderson et al 1998), resulting in a large seed bank build up of about 46 000 seeds per square metre of canopy cover (Holmes et al 1987). Dormancy is broken following a fire, allowing for mass regeneration of A. saligna; resulting in dense thickets in some parts of its introduced range such as South Africa (Henderson et al 1998).
Pathway
Acacis saligna has been distributed on a global level due to its many uses and ability to thrive in harsh environments (Midgely & Turnbull, 2003).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Under expert review

Publication date: 2010-06-08

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2019) Species profile: Acacia saligna. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1590 on 24-06-2019.

General Impacts
In areas where it has become invasive, Acacia saligna is known to form dense monospecific stands, excluding native species and preventing their regeneration (Holmes & Cowling, 1997; Hadjikyriakou & Hadjisterkotis, 2002). It also alters vital ecosystem proceses; changing the soil processes like decomposition and nutrient cycling through incresed nitrogen levels (Witkowski, 1991a; Jovonovic et al 2009); altering the fire-regime with large soil seed-banks and more abundant biomass (Holmes, 2002); and impacting on streamflow reduction through incremental water use (Le Maitre et al 2000; in Jovonovic et al 2009). A. saligna is also known as an agricultural pest in some cultivated areas, taking up valuable agricultural space (Hadjikyriakou & Hadjisterkotis, 2002).
Management Info
Physical/Chemical: Physical and chemical control methods are possible but is very labour and cost intensive due to persistent seed banks and the coppicing capability of A. saligna (MacDonald & Wissel, 1992). These include cutting at ground level, mattocking, ringbarking and Glyphosate or Triclopyr based herbicides foliarly applied or painted onto cut stems (MacDonald & Wissel, 1992).

The reduction of the seed-bank is an important component of controlling A. saligna (Holmes, 1990; in Cohen et al., 2008). This is most often achieved with burning, with a slow intense fire more effective than a rapid one (Richardson & Kluge, 2008). Soil solarisation has also been shown to be effective in reducing A. saligna seed viability in moist soils and increasing germination rates in dry soils (Cohen et al 2008).

Biological: Biological control has been effective in South Africa, with the gall-forming rust fungus Uromycladium tepperianum being effective in reducing population density, tree longevity and reproductive output wherever A. saligna is found (Morris, 1997; Wood & Morris, 2007). An addtional biological control agent, Melanterius compactus, was released in 2001 to target the large seed-banks created before the release of U. tepperianum with preliminary monitoring showing success (Impson et al., 2009).

Please follow this link for more detailed information on the management of Acacia saligna

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Acacia saligna
Informations on Acacia saligna has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Acacia saligna in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
In areas where it has become invasive, Acacia saligna is known to form dense monospecific stands, excluding native species and preventing their regeneration (Holmes & Cowling, 1997; Hadjikyriakou & Hadjisterkotis, 2002). It also alters vital ecosystem proceses; changing the soil processes like decomposition and nutrient cycling through incresed nitrogen levels (Witkowski, 1991a; Jovonovic et al 2009); altering the fire-regime with large soil seed-banks and more abundant biomass (Holmes, 2002); and impacting on streamflow reduction through incremental water use (Le Maitre et al 2000; in Jovonovic et al 2009). A. saligna is also known as an agricultural pest in some cultivated areas, taking up valuable agricultural space (Hadjikyriakou & Hadjisterkotis, 2002).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
CYPRUS
ISRAEL
SOUTH AFRICA
Mechanism
[2] Competition
[1] Flammability
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[7] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [1] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
  • [2] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Modification of fire regime
  • [1] Modification of successional patterns
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
Management information
Physical/Chemical: Physical and chemical control methods are possible but is very labour and cost intensive due to persistent seed banks and the coppicing capability of A. saligna (MacDonald & Wissel, 1992). These include cutting at ground level, mattocking, ringbarking and Glyphosate or Triclopyr based herbicides foliarly applied or painted onto cut stems (MacDonald & Wissel, 1992).

The reduction of the seed-bank is an important component of controlling A. saligna (Holmes, 1990; in Cohen et al., 2008). This is most often achieved with burning, with a slow intense fire more effective than a rapid one (Richardson & Kluge, 2008). Soil solarisation has also been shown to be effective in reducing A. saligna seed viability in moist soils and increasing germination rates in dry soils (Cohen et al 2008).

Biological: Biological control has been effective in South Africa, with the gall-forming rust fungus Uromycladium tepperianum being effective in reducing population density, tree longevity and reproductive output wherever A. saligna is found (Morris, 1997; Wood & Morris, 2007). An addtional biological control agent, Melanterius compactus, was released in 2001 to target the large seed-banks created before the release of U. tepperianum with preliminary monitoring showing success (Impson et al., 2009).

Please follow this link for more detailed information on the management of Acacia saligna

Management Category
Bibliography
71 references found for Acacia saligna

Managment information
Castro-Diez, P.; Langendoen, T.; Poorter, L.; Saldana-Lopez, A., 2011. Predicting Acacia invasive success in South Africa on the basis of functional traits, native climatic niche and human use. Biodiversity & Conservation. 20(12). NOV 2011. 2729-2743.
Cohen O., Riov J., Katan J., Gamliel A. Bar (Kutiel) P., 2008. Reducing Persistent Seed Banks of Invasive Plants by Soil Solarization-The Case of Acacia saligna. Weed Science. 56(6). Nov-Dec 2008. 860-865.
Craemer, C.; Neser, S.; Smith Meyer, M. K. P., 1997. Eriophyid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) as possible control agents of undesirable introduced plants in South Africa. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie. 1(3). 1997. 99-109.
Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE), 2012. Species Factsheet Acacia saligna
Summary: Available from: http://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesId=12823# [Accessed 11 May 2012]
Gutierres, F.; Gil, A.; Reis, E.; Lob, A.; Neto, C.; Calado, H.; Costa, J. C., 2011. Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. Wendl in the Sesimbra County: invaded habitats and potential distribution modeling. Journal of Coastal Research.(Part 1, Sp. Iss. 64). 2011. 403-407.
Henderson, L., 2007. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a summary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA). Bothalia. 37(2). OCT 2007. 215-248
Holmes, P. M. 1988. Implications of alien Acacia seed bank viability and germination for clearing. South African Journal of Botany. 54(3). 1988. 281-284.
Holmes P. M; Macdonald I. A. W; Juritz J., 1987. Effects of clearing treatment on seed banks of the alien invasive shrub Acacia saligna and Acacia cyclops in the Southern and South Western Cape South Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology. 24(3). 1987. 1045-1052
Impson, F. A. C.; Kleinjan, C. A.; Hoffmann, J. H.; Post, J. A.; Wood, A. R., 2011. Biological control of Australian Acacia species and Paraserianthes lophantha (Willd.) Nielsen (Mimosaceae) in South Africa. African Entomology. 19(2, Sp. Iss. SI). AUG 2011. 186-207
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Jeffery D. J., Holmes P. M., Rebelo A. G., 1988. Effects of dry heat on seed germination in selected indigenous and alien legume species in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany. 54(1). 1988. 28-34.
Jovanovic, N. Z.; Israel, S.; Tredoux, G.; Soltau, L.; Le Maitre, D.; Rusinga, F.; Rozanov, A.; van der Merwe, N., 2009. Nitrogen dynamics in land cleared of alien vegetation (Acacia saligna) and impacts on groundwater at Riverlands Nature Reserve (Western Cape, South Africa) Water SA (Pretoria). 35(1). JAN 2009. 37-44.
Kutiel, Pua Bar; Cohen, Oded ; Shoshany, Maxim., 2004. Invasion rate of the alien species Acacia saligna within coastal sand dune habitats in Israel. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. 52(2). 2004. 115-124.
Kutiel, Pua Bar; Cohen, Oded; Shoshany, Maxim, 2004. Invasion rate of the alien species Acacia saligna within coastal sand dune habitats in Israel. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. 52(2). 2004. 115-124.
Lehrer, David; Becker, Nir; Bar (Kutiel), Pua., 2011. The economic impact of the invasion of Acacia saligna in Israel. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology. 18(2). 2011. 118-127.
Le Maitre, David C.; Gaertner, Mirijam; Marchante, Elizabete; Ens, Emilie-Jane; Holmes, Patricia M.; Pauchard, Anibal; O Farrell, Patrick J.; Rogers, Andrew M.; Blanchard, Ryan; Blignaut, James; Richardson, David M., 2011. Impacts of invasive Australian acacias: implications for management and restoration. Diversity & Distributions. 17(5, Sp. Iss. SI). SEP 2011. 1015-1029.
Macdonald I. A. W and Wissel, C., 1992. Determining Optimal Clearing Treatments for the Invasive Aliens Shrub Acacia saligna in the Southwestern Cape South Africa. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 39(3-4). 1992. 169-186.
Macdonald I. A. W; Clark, D. L.; Taylor, H. C; 1989. The history and effects of of alien plant control in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve South Africa 1941-1987. South African Journal of Botany. 55(1). 1989. 56-75.
Mandle, Lisa; Bufford, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Isabel B.; Daehler, Curtis C., 2011. Woody exotic plant invasions and fire: reciprocal impacts and consequences for native ecosystems. Biological Invasions. 13(8). AUG 2011. 1815-1827.
Millar M. A., Byrne M. 2012 Biogeographic origins and reproductive mode of naturalised populations of <>iAcacia saligna. Australian Journal of Botany 60, 383�395.
Millar, M. A.; Byrne, M.; O Sullivan, W., 2011. Defining entities in the Acacia saligna (Fabaceae) species complex using a population genetics approach. Australian Journal of Botany. 59(2). 2011. 137-148.
Milton, S. J & Moll, E. J., 1982. Phenology of Australian acacias in the S.W. Gape, South Africa, and its implications for management (p 295-327) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 84(4). 1982. 295-328.
Moll E. J; Trinder-Smith T., 1992. Invasion and Control of Alien Woody Plants on the Cape Penninsula Mountains South Africa 30 Years on. Biological Conservation. 60(2). 1992. 135-143.
Morris, M. J. 1997. Impact of the gall-forming rust fungus Uromycladium tepperianum on the invasive tree Acacia saligna in South Africa. Biological Control. 10(2). 1997. 75-82.
Pieterse, P. J.; Boucher, C., 1997. A.C.A.C.I.A. (A Case Against Controlling Introduced Ccacias): 19 years later. Southern African Forestry Journal. 0(180). Nov., 1997. 37-44.
Pieterse, P. J.; McDermott, J. B., 1994. Season of application and glyphosate formulation as factors influencing the efficacy of glyphosate on phyllode-bearing Australian acacias. South African Journal of Plant & Soil. 11(1). 1994. 50-53.
Richardson, David M.; Kluge, Robert L., 2008. Seed banks of invasive Australian Acacia species in South Africa: Role in invasiveness and options for management. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution & Systematics. 10(3). 2008. 161-177.
Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M., 2003. Inferring process from pattern in plant invasions: A semimechanistic model incorporating propagule pressure and environmental factors. American Naturalist. 162(6). December 2003. 713-724.
Strydom, M.; Esler, K. J.; Wood, A. R., 2012. Acacia saligna<>/i seed banks: Sampling methods and dynamics, Western Cape, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany. 79 MAR 2012. 140-147.
Thompson, Genevieve D.; Bellstedt, Dirk U.; Byrne, Margaret; Millar, Melissa A.; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R. U.; Le Roux, Johannes J., 2012. Cultivation shapes genetic novelty in a globally important invader. Molecular Ecology. 21(13). JUL 2012. 3187-3199.
Thompson, Genevieve D.; Robertson, Mark P.; Webber, Bruce L.; Richardson, David M.; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Wilson, John R. U., 2011. Predicting the subspecific identity of invasive species using distribution models: Acacia saligna as an example. Diversity & Distributions. 17(5, Sp. Iss. SI). SEP 2011. 1001-1014.
Veldtman, Ruan; Lado, Thomas F.; Botes, Antoinette; Proches, Serban; Timm, Alicia E.; Geertsema, Henk; Chown, Steven L., 2011. Creating novel food webs on introduced Australian acacias: indirect effects of galling biological control agents. Diversity & Distributions. 17(5, Sp. Iss. SI). SEP 2011. 958-967.
Wood, Alan R. & Michael J. Morris, 2007. Impact of the gall-forming rust fungus Uromycladium tepperianum on the invasive tree Acacia saligna in South Africa: 15 years of monitoring. Biological Control 41 (2007) 68�77
Wood, Alan R.; Morris, Michael J., 2007. Impact of the gall-forming rust fungus Uromycladium tepperianum on the invasive tree Acacia saligna in South Africa: 15 years of monitoring. Biological Control. 41(1). APR 2007. 68-77.
General information
Acosta, A.; Carranza, M. L.; Ciaschetti, G.; Conti, E.; Di Martino, L.; D Orazi, G.; Frattaroli, A.; Izzi, C. F.; Pirone, G.; Stanisci, A., 2008. Alien species growing in costal dunes of Central Italy. Webbia. 62(Part 1). 2007. 77-84.
Birnbaum, Christina; Barrett, Luke G.; Thrall, Peter H.; Leishman, Michelle R., 2012. Mutualisms are not constraining cross-continental invasion success of Acacia species within Australia. Diversity & Distributions. 18(10). OCT 2012. 962-976.
Derbel, Salma; Cortina, Jordi; Chaieb, Mohamed, 2009. Acacia saligna Plantation Impact on Soil Surface Properties and Vascular Plant Species Composition in Central Tunisia. Arid Land Research & Management. 23(1). 2009. 28-46.
Dormann, Carsten F.; King, Rachel, 2004. Comparing the palatability of Mediterranean or non-native plants in Crete. Ecologia Mediterranea. 30(2). 2004. 171-178.
French, Kristine; Major, Richard E., 2001. Effect of an exotic Acacia (Fabaceae) on ant assemblages in South African fynbos. Austral Ecology. 26(4). August, 2001. 303-310
George, N.; Byrne, M.; Yan, G., 2009. Observations of the reproductive biology of Acacia saligna (Labill.) HL Wendl. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 92(Part 1). MAR 2009. 5-14.
Hadjikyriakou, G.; Hadjisterkotis, E., 2002. The adventive plants of Cyprus with new records of invasive species. Zeitschrift fuer Jagdwissenschaft. 48(Supplement). December 2002. 59-71.
Henderson, L., 1998. Invasive alien woody plants of the southern and southwestern Cape region, South Africa. Bothalia. 28(1). May, 1998. 91-112.
Holmes, Patricia M., 2002. Depth distribution and composition of seed-banks in alien-invaded and uninvaded fynbos vegetation. Austral Ecology. 27(1). February, 2002. 110-120.
Holmes, Patricia M.; Cowling, R. M., 1997b. Diversity, composition and guild structure relationships between soil-stored seed banks and mature vegetation in alien plant-invaded South African fynbos shrublands. Plant Ecology. 133(1). Nov., 1997. 107-122.
Holmes, P. M. 1989. Decay rates in buried alien Acacia seed population of different density. South African Journal of Botany. 55(3). 1989. 299-303.
Holmes, P. M. 1990. Dispersal and predation of alien Acacia seeds effects of season and invading stand density. South African Journal of Botany. 56(4). 1990. 428-434.
Holmes, P. M. & R. M. Cowling, 1997a. The Effects of Invasion by Acacia saligna on the Guild Structure and Regeneration Capabilities of South African Fynbos Shrublands. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Apr., 1997), pp. 317-332
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=26424 [Accessed 23 April 2010]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Acacia saligna (Labill.) Wendl. f.
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=182091 [Accessed 23 April 2010]
Jovanovic N. Z., Israel S., Tredoux G., Soltau L., Le Maitre D., Rusinga F., Rozanov A., van der Merwe N., 2009. Nitrogen dynamics in land cleared of alien vegetation (Acacia saligna) and impacts on groundwater at Riverlands Nature Reserve (Western Cape, South Africa). Water SA (Pretoria). 35(1). JAN 2009. 37-44.
Kantiya Jeetendra; Sharma Suman C., 2008. Acacia saligna (Labill.) Wendl. (Mimosaceae) - A new record for Rajastan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 105(2). AUG 2008. 233-234.
Kraaij T., Cramer M. D., 1999. Do the gas exchange characteristics of alien Acacias enable them to successfully invade the fynbos? South African Journal of Botany. 65(3). June, 1999. 232-238.
Manor, Regev; Cohen, Oded; Saltz, David, 2008. Community homogenization and the invasiveness of commensal species in Mediterranean afforested landscapes. Biological Invasions. 10(4). APR 2008. 507-515.
Midgley, S. J.; Turnbull, J. W., 2003. Domestication and use of Australian acacias: Case studies of five important species. Australian Systematic Botany. 16(1). 25 March, 2003. 89-102.
Milton S. J., 1981. Litterfall of the exotic Acacias in the Southwestern Cape South Africa. Journal of South African Botany. 47(2). 1981. 147-156.
Milton S. J; Siegfried W. R., 1981. Aboveground biomass of Australian Acacias in the Southern Cape South Africa. Journal of South African Botany. 47(4). 1981. 701-716.
Musil, C. F., 1993. Effect of invasive Australian acacias on the regeneration, growth and nutrient chemistry of south African lowland fynbos. Journal of Applied Ecology. 30(2). 1993. 361-372.
Musil, C. F & Midgley, G. F., 1990. The relative impact of invasive Australian acacias, fire and season on the soil chemical status of a sand plain lowland fynbos community. South African Journal of Botany. 56(4). 1990. 419-427.
Sommerville J. E. M., 1981. A comparision of the seasonal growth of indigenous and non-indigenous species in the Southwestern Cape South Africa. Journal of South African Botany. 47(4). 1981. 797-806.
Stock, W. D.; Wienand, K. T.; Baker, A. C., 1995. Impacts of invading N-2-fixing Acacia species on patterns of nutrient cycling in two Cape ecosystems: Evidence from soil incubation studies and 15N natural abundance values. Oecologia (Berlin). 101(3). 1995. 375-382.
Taylor H. C; Macdonald S. A.; 1985. Invasive alien woody plants in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve South Africa 1. Results of 1st survey in 1966. South African Journal of Botany. 51(1). 1985. 14-20.
Taylor H. C; Macdonald S. A; Macdonald I. A. W.; 1985. Invasive alien woody plants in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve South Africa 2. Results of 2nd survey from 1976-1980. South African Journal of Botany. 51(1). 1985. 21-29.
Theron, J. M.; van Laar, A.; Kunneke, A.; Bredenkamp, B. V., 2004. A preliminary assessment of utilizable biomass in invading Acacia stands on the Cape coastal plains. South African Journal of Science. 100(1). January 2004. 123-125.
USDA, ARS, 2010. Taxon: Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L. Wendl. National Genetics Resourses Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database].
Summary: Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Acacia%20saligna [Accessed June 15 2010]
Van Wilgen B. W; Richardson D. M.; 1985. The effects of alien shrub invasions on vegetation structure and fire behavior in South African fynbos shrubland: A simulation study. Journal of Applied Ecology. 22(3). 1985. 955-966.
Witkowski, E. T. F., 1991a. Effects of the Invasive Alien Acacias on Nutrient Cycling in the Coastal Lowlands of the Cape South Africa Fynbos. Journal of Applied Ecology. 28(1). 1991. 1-15.
Witkowski, E. T. F., 1991b. Growth and competition between seedlings of Protea repens L. L. and the alien invasive Acacia saligna Labill. Wendl. In relation to nutrient availability. Functional Ecology. 5(1). 1991. 101-110.
Witkowski, E. T. F., 1994. Growth of seedlings of the invasives, Acacia saligna and Acacia cyclops, in relation to soil phosphorus. Australian Journal of Ecology. 19(3). 1994. 290-296
Yelenik, S. G.; Stock, W. D.; Richardson, D. M., 2004. Ecosystem level impacts of invasive Acacia saligna in the South African fynbos. Restoration Ecology. 12(1). March 2004. 44-51.
Yelenik, Stephanie G.; Stock, William D.; Richardson, David M., 2007. Functional group identity does not predict invader impacts: differential effects of nitrogen-fixing exotic plants on ecosystem function. Biological Invasions. 9(2). MAR 2007. 117-125.
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