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  • Norway rat in tussock on Campbell Island (Photo: Peter and Judy Morrin Wildlife Photography)
  • Norway rat taking bait on Campbell Island (Photo: Peter and Judy Morrin Wildlife Photography)
  • Dead Norway rat on Campbell Island (Photo: Peter and Judy Morrin Wildlife Photography)
  • Norway rat eating penguin on Campbell Island (Photo: Peter and Judy Morrin Wildlife Photography)
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Common name
Rata de noruega (English, Dominican Republic), Wanderratte (German), Norway rat (English), brown rat (English), ratto grigio (Italian), surmolotto (Italian), rotta (Finnish), isorotta (Finnish), rat surmolot (French), rata noruega (Spanish), water rat (English), tikus riul (English, Indonesia), common rat (English), sewer rat (English), pouhawaiki (Maori), ratto di fogna (Italian), topo delle fogne (Italian)
Synonym
Mus norvegicus , Berkenhout, 1769
Mus decumanus , Pallas, 1778
Mus hibernicus , Thompson, 1837
Epimys norvegicus , Miller, 1912
Similar species
Rattus rattus, Rattus exulans
Summary
The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is globally widespread and costs primary industry hundreds of millions of dollars per year. It has caused or contributed to the extinction or range reduction of native mammals, birds, reptiles and invertebrates through predation and competition. It restricts the regeneration of many plant species by eating seeds and seedlings, eats food crops and spoils human food stores by urinating and defecating in them. Additional economic damage is caused by chewing through power cables and spreading diseases.
Species Description
The Norway rat has brown fur on the back with pale grey fur on its belly. The adults normally weigh 150 - 300g, and may reach up to 500g, and are up to 390mm long. They have relatively small ears - which usually do not cover the eyes when pulled forward. The tail is shorter than the head-body length - the opposite is true for the ship rat R. rattus (Wittenberg, R. (ed.) 2005). Females have 12 nipples.
Lifecycle Stages
On Fregate Island in the Seychelles, juvenile rats first ventured from the den when they were 30-50g in weight (Thorsen et al., 2000; in Innes, 2001).
Habitat Description
Norway rats can be widespread, utilising most habitat types, but they appear to show a preference for wetland habitats. The home range of the Norway rat averaged 5.8ha for males and 5.1ha for females, according to the results from a small study on Kapiti Island off New Zealand (Bramley, 1999; in Innes, 2001). In the UK, male rats had a mean range length of 678m, with that of females being smaller (Macdonald et al., 1999; in Innes, 2001). In Europe, the Norway rat exists primarily in close relationship with humans, but there are also ‘wild’ populations along water edges. The Norway rat is considered to be territorial throughout most of the year, but they will spread when food is scarce, and migrations have been observed (Wittenberg, R. (ed.) 2005). Norway rats rarely climb trees. In the Galapagos Islands, they prefer to move along underground cracks and crevices in the lava rocks (Key and Woods, 1996; in Innes, 2001). From the distribution and recorded reinvasions of Norway rats it appears that they can cross up to 1km of water comfortably, and up to 2km of open water more rarely when conditions are suitable (mudflats, intermediate rocky islets, tidal flow, etc.) (Russell and Clout, 2005).
Reproduction
Placental, sexual. Females are polyestrous and ovulate spontaneously. Breeding largely determined by food availability.
Litter size normally 6 - 11, gestation is 21-24 days, young weaned at about 28 days. Females can be sexually active in the season of their birth.
Nutrition
Omnivorous and opportunistic - including raw or cooked meat and vegetable matter, grains and other seeds and berries as well as roots and a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Adults require about 10% of their body weight per day in dry grain, and when on a dry diet they need to drink about 25ml of water. R. norvegicus in captivity has been observed to withdraw food to the nest, and sometimes store it there (Barnett and Spencer, 1951; in Campbell et al., 1984).

Norway rats on Breaksea Island, New Zealand, have been reported to eat invertebrates (beetles, spiders, wetas and flies), fish, shellfish, vegetation, and birds. A Japanese study showed that Rattus norvegicus is essentially omnivorous, eating plant matter and animal matter (eg. insects) in equal volumes (Yabe, 2004). Norway rats have also been known to attack and kill young rabbits (Bettesworth, 1972; B. Zonfrillo, pers. comm.; M. Imber, pers. obs.; in Imber et al., 2000).

Pathway
Rattus norvegicus can be transported in either bulk or loose equipment or simply by stowing away on a vessel. Their habit of living near wharves increases the chances of this happening.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Pete McClelland, Dept. of Conservation, Invercargill, New Zealand

Publication date: 2011-03-14

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Rattus norvegicus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=159 on 29-09-2016.

General Impacts
Norway rats are known to restrict the regeneration of many plant species by eating seeds and seedlings. They prey upon most animal species smaller than themselves such as reptiles, small birds, birds eggs and freshwater and intertidal species. Norway rats eat food crops and spoil human food stores by urinating and defecating in them. Additional economic damage is caused by rats chewing through power cables etc. and spreading diseases.

Both R. norvegicus and Rattus rattus transmit the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) via fleas in certain areas of the world. There have been a series of recent outbreaks in Madagascar in recent years (Boiser et al. 2002).

Management Info
Preventative measures: Research has shown that it can often be difficult to eradicate rats from islands in the early stages of invasion, hence it is better to prevent rodents arriving on islands in the first place. Eliminating a single invading rat can be disproportionately difficult because of atypical behaviour by the rat in the absence of conspecifics, and because bait can be less effective in the absence of competition for food (Russell et al., 2005). Weihong et al. (1999) provide useful information regarding the detection of rodent species using different trapping methods and bait, Dilks and Towns (2002) published by New Zealand’s Department of Conservation discusses how to detect and respond to rodent invasions on islands.

Physical: Trapping is often used on a local scale, however it generally fails to remove all individuals, as trap-shy animals can survive and repopulate the island (DoC, 2004).

Chemical: Use of anticoagulant poisons is the most common method of control. On islands, eradications have been achieved by the use of poisons. However, strict quarantine is required to prevent further spread of this species to additional islands. One of the world's largest successful eradication operations was on the 3,100 hectare Langara Island in British Columbia, Canada. The eradication campaign was begun (after preparation and trials) in July 1995 and the island was declared free of rats in May 1997 (Kaiser et al., 1997). Another example of a successful rat eradication was on Kapiti Island, New Zealand (1970 ha) where \"second-generation\" anticoagulant poisons have been used (Empson and Miskelly, 1999). The world's largest rat eradication project to date is on Campbell Island (11,300 ha), where eradication was declared in 2003. \r\n

Fisher et al. (2004) suggest that diphacinone especially, and also coumatetralyl and warfarin, should be evaluated in field studies as alternative rodenticides in New Zealand. Brodifacoum, the most widely used rodenticide in New Zealand currently, can acquire persistent residues in non-target wildlife. Mineau et al. (2004) discussed a risk assessment of second generation rodenticides at the 2nd National Invasive Rodent Summit. O'Connor and Eason (2000) discusses the variety of baits which are available for use on offshore islands in New Zealand.

An investigation Spurr et al. (2007) was carried out to assess the behavioural response of ship rats to four different bait station types. Yellow plastic pipe, wooden box (‘rat motel’), and wooden tunnel bait stations were found all suitable for surveillance of ship rats and the first two at least for Norway rats (all were readily entered and had a similar amount of bait eaten from them).

Biological: Contraceptive methods of control are currently experimental, but the potential for effective control using contraceptive methods is promising. National Wildlife Research Center (USA) scientists are working on several possible formulations that may make effective oral immunisation possible (Nash and Miller, 2004).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Rattus norvegicus
Informations on Rattus norvegicus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Rattus norvegicus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Norway rats are known to restrict the regeneration of many plant species by eating seeds and seedlings. They prey upon most animal species smaller than themselves such as reptiles, small birds, birds eggs and freshwater and intertidal species. Norway rats eat food crops and spoil human food stores by urinating and defecating in them. Additional economic damage is caused by rats chewing through power cables etc. and spreading diseases.

Both R. norvegicus and Rattus rattus transmit the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) via fleas in certain areas of the world. There have been a series of recent outbreaks in Madagascar in recent years (Boiser et al. 2002).

Red List assessed species 67: EX = 7; CR = 13; EN = 15; VU = 20; NT = 10; LC = 2;
View more species View less species
Locations
Mechanism
[32] Predation
[3] Disease transmission
[5] Grazing/Herbivory/Browsing
Outcomes
[34] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [31] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [3] Habitat degradation
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Plant/animal health
[8] Socio-Economic
  • [3] Damage to agriculture
  • [2] Human health
  • [1] Human nuisance 
  • [1] Damage to infrastructures
  • [1] Alteration of recreational use and tourism
Management information
Preventative measures: Research has shown that it can often be difficult to eradicate rats from islands in the early stages of invasion, hence it is better to prevent rodents arriving on islands in the first place. Eliminating a single invading rat can be disproportionately difficult because of atypical behaviour by the rat in the absence of conspecifics, and because bait can be less effective in the absence of competition for food (Russell et al., 2005). Weihong et al. (1999) provide useful information regarding the detection of rodent species using different trapping methods and bait, Dilks and Towns (2002) published by New Zealand’s Department of Conservation discusses how to detect and respond to rodent invasions on islands.

Physical: Trapping is often used on a local scale, however it generally fails to remove all individuals, as trap-shy animals can survive and repopulate the island (DoC, 2004).

Chemical: Use of anticoagulant poisons is the most common method of control. On islands, eradications have been achieved by the use of poisons. However, strict quarantine is required to prevent further spread of this species to additional islands. One of the world's largest successful eradication operations was on the 3,100 hectare Langara Island in British Columbia, Canada. The eradication campaign was begun (after preparation and trials) in July 1995 and the island was declared free of rats in May 1997 (Kaiser et al., 1997). Another example of a successful rat eradication was on Kapiti Island, New Zealand (1970 ha) where \"second-generation\" anticoagulant poisons have been used (Empson and Miskelly, 1999). The world's largest rat eradication project to date is on Campbell Island (11,300 ha), where eradication was declared in 2003. \r\n

Fisher et al. (2004) suggest that diphacinone especially, and also coumatetralyl and warfarin, should be evaluated in field studies as alternative rodenticides in New Zealand. Brodifacoum, the most widely used rodenticide in New Zealand currently, can acquire persistent residues in non-target wildlife. Mineau et al. (2004) discussed a risk assessment of second generation rodenticides at the 2nd National Invasive Rodent Summit. O'Connor and Eason (2000) discusses the variety of baits which are available for use on offshore islands in New Zealand.

An investigation Spurr et al. (2007) was carried out to assess the behavioural response of ship rats to four different bait station types. Yellow plastic pipe, wooden box (‘rat motel’), and wooden tunnel bait stations were found all suitable for surveillance of ship rats and the first two at least for Norway rats (all were readily entered and had a similar amount of bait eaten from them).

Biological: Contraceptive methods of control are currently experimental, but the potential for effective control using contraceptive methods is promising. National Wildlife Research Center (USA) scientists are working on several possible formulations that may make effective oral immunisation possible (Nash and Miller, 2004).

Locations
BELGIUM
BRAZIL
CANADA
CAYMAN ISLANDS
DENMARK
FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS)
FRANCE
FRENCH SOUTHERN TERRITORIES
MALTA
MAURITIUS
MEXICO
NEW ZEALAND
PALAU
SAINT HELENA
SEYCHELLES
SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS
UNITED KINGDOM
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
Control
None
Unknown
Bibliography
76 references found for Rattus norvegicus

Managment information
Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.
Summary: This report reviews available information on the adverse effects of 14 alien vertebrates considered to be �significant invasive species on islands of the South Pacific and Hawaii, supplementing the authors� experience with that of other workers.
BirdLife Malta Undated. The Yelkouan Shearwater Project
Summary: Available from: http://lifeshearwaterproject.org.mt/en/project/ [Accessed 25 July 2007]
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Cunningham, D.M. and Moors, P.J., 1993. Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents. Department of Conservation, NZ.
Summary: A Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents, information on trapping methods.
Dilks, P and Towns, D., 2002. Developing tools to detect and respond to rodent invasions of islands: workshop report and recommendations. DOC SCIENCE INTERNAL SERIES 59
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/DSIS59.pdf [Accessed 19 February 2008]
Doty, R. E. 1945. Rat control on Hawaiian sugar cane plantations. Hawaiian Planters Record 49(2): 71�241.
Empson, R. A. and Miskelly, C. M. 1999. The risks, costs and benefits of using brodifacoum to eradicate rats from Kapiti Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 23: 241-254.
Hill, M. J.; T. Vel, N. J. Shah., 2003. The morphology, distribution and conservation implications of introduced rats, Rattus spp. in the granitic Seychelles. African Journal of Ecology 41 (2) , 179�186
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Kaiser, G. W., Taylor, R. H., Buck, P. D., Elliott, J. E., Howald, G. R. and Drever, M. C. (1997) The Langara Island Seabird Habitat Recovery Project: Eradication of Norway Rats � 1993�1997. Technical Report Series No. 304, Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, British Columbia.
Moors, P. J., Atkinson, I. A. E. and Sherley, G. H. 1992. Reducing the rat threat to island birds. Bird Conservation International 2: 93�114.
O Connor, Cheryl E. and Charles, T. Eason., 2000. Rodent baits and delivery systems for island protection. SCIENCE FOR CONSERVATION 150
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc150.pdf [Accessed 19 February 2008]
Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006. Eradicating invasive species from Kayangel Atoll, Palau
Summary: Available from: http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/demo/kayangel.html [Accessed 12 March 2010]
Poncet, S. 2011. Falkland Islands Rat Eradication Register Last Updated 20 October 2011
Summary: An annotated register of rat eradications carried out in the Falkland Islands with notes on methods, operation notes, pre-baiting survey notes, post-operation checks, causes of failure etc.
Russell, James C., David R. Towns, Sandra H. Anderson and Mick N. Clout., 2005. Intercepting the first rat ashore. Brief communications Nature 437, 1107 (20 October 2005)
Summary: Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7062/pdf/4371107a.pdf [Accessed 19 February 2008]
South Georgia Heritage Trust, 11 December 2010. Environmental Impact Assessment for the Eradication of Rodents from the Island of South Georgia
Summary: Available from: http://www.sght.org/sites/default/files/SGHR%20project%20EIA%2011%20Dec%202010%20MASTER.pdf [Accessed 14 March 2011]
South Georgia Heritage Trust, 15 December 2010. Initial Environmental Evaluation for the eradication of rodents from Thatcher Peninsula, South Georgia
Summary: Available from: http://www.sght.org/sites/default/files/Thatcher%20IEE%2C%20version%202.doc [Accessed 14 March 2011]
South Georgia Heritage Trust, 4 December 2010. Operational Plan for the Eradication of Rodents from South Georgia: Phase 1
Summary: Available from: http://www.sght.org/sites/default/files/SGHR%20Operational%20Plan%2004%20December%202010%20MASTER.pdf [Accessed 14 March 2011]
South Georgia Heritage Trust, 6 December 2009. Initial Environmental Evaluation for the eradication of rodents from the Mercer baiting zone, South Georgia
Summary: Available from: http://www.sght.org/sites/default/files/Mercer%20IEE%20final.doc [Accessed 14 March 2011]
South Georgia Heritage Trust, 8 December 2010. Initial Environmental Evaluation for the eradication of rodents from Saddle Island, South Georgia
Summary: Available from: http://www.sght.org/sites/default/files/Saddle%20IEE%20v1.doc [Accessed 14 March 2011]
South Georgia Heritage Trust, 9 December 2009. Initial Environmental Evaluation for the eradication of rodents from Greene Peninsula, South Georgia
Summary: Available from: http://www.sght.org/sites/default/files/Greene%20IEE%20final.doc [Accessed 14 March 2011]
Spurr, E.B., G.A. Morriss, J. Turner, C.E. O�Connor, P. Fisher., 2007. Bait station preferences of ship rats
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/drds271.pdf [Accessed 19 June 2007]
Taylor R. H., Kaiser G. W. & Drever M. C. 2000. Eradication of Norway rats for recovery of seabird habitat on Langara Island, British Columbia. Restoration Ecology 8: 151 - 160.
Taylor R. H. & Thomas B. W. 1989. Eradication of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Hawea island, Fjordland, using brodifaceum. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 12: 23 - 32.
The Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team (GOERT)., 2007. Exotic vertebrate species in Garry oak and associated ecosystems in British Columbia
Summary: Available from: http://www.goert.ca/pubs_invasive.php#vertebrate_species [Accessed 13 February 2008]
Thorsen, M.; R. Shorten, R. Lucking and V. Lucking., 2000. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) on Fr�gate Island, Seychelles: the invasion; subsequent eradication attempts and implications for the island s fauna. Biological Conservation Volume 96, Issue 2, December 2000, Pages 133-138
Tompkins J. 2001. Eradication of Rattus norvegicus from Seabird habitat in Canada. CWS, British Columbia, Canada.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Zeppelini, Douglas; Rita Mascarenhas & Guntram G. Meier, 2007. Rat Eradication as Part of a Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) Conservation Program in an Urban Area in Cabedelo, Para�ba State, Brazil. Marine Turtle Newsletter No. 117, 2007 - Page 5 and 6
Summary: Available from: http://www.seaturtle.org/mtn/archives/mtn117/ [Accessed 18 February 2008] Available from: http://www.seaturtle.org/mtn/PDF/MTN117.pdf [Accessed 3 August 2007]
General information
Atkinson, I. A. E. 1985. The spread of commensal species of Rattus to oceanic islands and their effects on island avifaunas. In Moors, P. J. (ed.) Conservation of Island Birds. ICBP Technical Publication No.3: 35-81.
Bertram D. F. 1995. The role of introdued rats and commercial fishing in the decline of Ancient Murrelets on Langara Island, British Columbia. Conservation Biology 9: 865 - 872.
Bertram D. F. & Nagorsen D. W. 1995. Introduced rats on Queen Charlotte Island: Implications for seabird conservation. Canadian Field-Naturalist 109: 6 - 10.
BirdLife International 2004. Puffinus yelkouan. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144886/0 [Accessed 12 March 2010]
BirdLife International 2007. BirdLife s online World Bird Database: the site for bird conservation. Version 2.1. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
Summary: Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sites/index.html?action=SitHTMDetails.asp&sid=47&m=0 [Accessed 25 July 2007]
Boisier, P., Rahalison, L., Rasolomaharo, M., Ratsitorahina, M., Mahafaly, M., Razafimahefa, M., Duplantier, J.M., Ratsifasoamanana, L. & Chanteau, S. 2002. Epidemiologic features of four successive annual outbreaks of bubonic plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8, 311-316.
Brown, P. E. 1949. The breeding of avocets in England, 1948. British Birds 42: 2-13.
Summary: Including the impact of predation by rats.
Chapuis, J., Bouss�s, P., & Barnaud, G. 1994. Alien mammals, impact and management in the French Subantartic Islands. Biological Conservation, 67, 97-104.
Summary: Cet article pr�sente la situation actuelle et les impacts des populations introduites de mammif�res dans les �les subantarctiques fran�aises. Les moyens de contr�le en place ou planifi�s sont �galement pr�sent�s.
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Mam�feros. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - mammals is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Mam%C3%ADferos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Mam�feros is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Mam%C3%ADferos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Drever M. C. & Harestad A. . 1998. Diets of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) on Langara Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia: Implications for conservation of breeding seabirds. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112: 676 - 683.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Rattus norvegicus
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Rattus+norvegicus&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Lattanzio, R. M. and Chapman, J. A. 1980. Reproductive and physiological cycles in an island population of Norway rats. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 12: 1-68.
Lecorre, com pers, 2007
Summary: Personnal communication with Matthieu Lecorre, from the University of La R�union.
Lorvelec, O., Pascal, M., Delloue, X., Chapuis, J.L. 2007. Les mammif�res terrestres non volants des Antilles fran�aises et l�introduction r�cente d�un �cureil. Rev.Ecol. (Terre Vie), 62, 295-314
Summary: Bilan des introductions des mamif�res terrestres dans les Antilles fran�aises et analyse de leurs impacts.
Lorvelec, O., Pascal, M., & Pavis, C. 2001. Inventaire et statut des Mammif�res des Antilles fran�aises (hors Chiropt�res et C�tac�s). In Rapport n� 27 de l Association pour l Etude et la Protection des Vert�br�s et V�g�taux des Petites Antilles, Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe.
Summary: Article de synth�se sur les mammif�res (hors chiropt�res et c�tac�s) des Antilles fran�aises. L origine des esp�ces introduites et leurs impacts av�r�s ou potentiels sont discut�s.
Available from: http://www.fnh.org/francais/fnh/uicn/pdf/biodiv_mammiferes_antilles.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2008]
Louette M. 1999. La Faune terrestre de Mayotte - Mus�e Royal de l Afrique Centrale, 247 p.
Summary: Synth�se g�n�rale sur la faune terrestre de Mayotte
Mendelssohn H & Y Yom-Tov, 1987. Eds. Vol 7: Mammals. Plants and Animals of the Land of Israel. Ministry of Defence/The Publishing House, Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel.
Meyer, J.-Y. , Butaud, J.F. 2007. Rats as transformers of native forests in the islands of French Polynesia (South Pacific). In Rats, Humans, and their impacts on islands : integrating historical and contempory ecology. University of Hawai�i. Conference 27-31 March 2007. Communication orale.
Micol, T. & Jouventin, P. 1995. Restoration of Amsterdam Island, South Indian Ocean, following control of feral cattle. Biol. Conserv., 72, 199-206.
Moors, P. J. 1990. Norway rat. In King, C. M. (ed.) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. Oxford University Press, Auckland: 192-206.
Moors P. M. 1985. Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) on the Noises and Motukawao Islands, Hauraki Gulf, New Zaland. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 8: 37 - 54.
Mus�um national d Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2003-2006 . Rattus norvegicus. Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel, site Web : http://inpn.mnhn.fr. Document t�l�charg� le 28 mars 2008 .
Summary: Available from: http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=61585 [Accessed March 2008]
Pascal, M., Barr�, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Fr�tey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements n�o-cal�doniens de vert�b�br�s : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom
Summary: Synth�se des introductions d esp�ces de vert�br�s en Nouvelle-Cal�donie et �valuation de leurs impacts.
Picot F. 2005. - Plan de conservation du Mazambron marron, Aloe macra Haw., Aloe section Lomatophyllum Rowley. CBNM, non publi�
Probst J.-M. 1997. Animaux de la R�union. Azal�es Editions. 168 pp.
Pye, T. and Bonner, W. N. 1980. Feral brown rats, Rattus norvegicus, in South Georgia (South Atlantic Ocean). Journal of Zoology, London 192: 237-255.
Urtizberea, pers.comm., 2007
Summary: Personal communication with Frank Urtizberea, from the Direction de l Agriculture et de la For�t .
Contact
The following 14 contacts offer information an advice on Rattus norvegicus
Brescia,
Fabrice
Geographic region: Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Institut Agronomique n�o-Cal�donien
Address:
Institut Agronomique n�o-Cal�donien. Axe 2: Diversit�s biologique et fonctionnelle des �cosyst�mes.BP 73. 98 890 Pa�ta
Phone:
687 43 74 28
Fax:
Faulquier,
Lucie
Geographic region: Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Soci�t� d Ornithologie de Polyn�sie fran�aise
Address:
Soci�t� d Ornithologie de Polyn�sie B.P. 21098 98713 - Papeete Tahiti Polyn�sie Fran�aise
Phone:
(689) 52 11 00
Fax:
Ghestemme,
Thomas
Geographic region: Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Soci�t� d Ornithologie de Polyn�sie fran�aise
Address:
Soci�t� d Ornithologie de Polyn�sie B.P. 21098 98713 - Papeete Tahiti Polyn�sie Fran�aise
Phone:
(689) 52 11 00
Fax:
Gillies,
Craig
Felis catus ecology and management
Organization:
N.Z. Department of Conservation
Address:
Science & Technical Centre, Northern Regional Office, P.O. Box 112, Hamilton, New Zealand
Phone:
+64 7 8397247
Fax:
+64 7 8580001
Lecorre,
Matthieu
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Universit� de la R�union
Address:
Laboratoire d Ecologie marine (ECOMAR)-Facult� des Sciences et Technologies-Universit� de la R�union- BP 7151. Saint Denis. R�union
Phone:
0262.93.86.86
Fax:
Lorvelec,
Olivier
Geographic region: Caribbean, Europe, Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Address:
Equipe �cologie des Invasions Biologiques - UMR (INRA/Agrocampus Rennes) �cologie et Sant� des �cosyst�mes - INRA - Campus de Beaulieu - B�timent 16 - 35 000 Rennes
Phone:
Fax:
Maillard,
Jean-Fran�ois
Geographic region: Caribbean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage. Cellule technique de Martinique
Address:
s/c DIREN 4 Bd de Verdun 97200 Fort de France
Phone:
Fax:
McClelland,
Pete
Eradication of introduced mammals
Organization:
Department of Conservation
Address:
PO Box 743 Invercargill, New Zealand
Phone:
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Pascal,
Michel
Geographic region: sub-Antarctic; North Africa; Pacific; Caribbean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Address:
INRA - SCRIBE - Campus de Beaulieu - F35 042 Rennes
Phone:
(33) (0)2 23 48 53 79
Fax:
Rocamora,
G�rard
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Island Conservation Society / Fondation pour la Conservation des Iles (ou CRBPO, Museum National d�Histoire Naturelle, Paris)
Address:
Island Conservation Society, PO Box 775, Pointe Larue, Mah�, Seychelles
Phone:
(248) 71 44 11
Fax:
Russell,
James
Webpage
Research into rodent eradications and reinvasions. Low density dynamics of invasive species. Statistical and molecular methods.
Organization:
PhD student University of Auckland
Address:
Private Bag 92019, Auckland New Zealand
Phone:
Fax:
Saunders,
Alan
Alan is the coordinator of the Cooperative Islands Initiative based at the University of Auckland. He has extensive experience in pest control, species recovery and ecological restoration during his employment with the New Zealand Department of Conservation.
Organization:
Coordinator, Cooperative Islands Initiative
Address:
SGES/Tamaki Campus, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
Phone:
+64 9 3737599 Ext 86805
Fax:
Urtizberea,
Frank
Geographic region: North America
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Direction de l Agriculture et de la For�
Address:
La Direction de l Agriculture et de la For�t 3, rue Albert Briand - B.P. 4244 97500 Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
Phone:
0508412104; 0508552100
Fax: