Global invasive species database

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Common name
sisal borer (English), sisal weevil (English), Agave weevil (English), black weevil (English), Agave snout weevil (English), Agave snout-nosed weevil (English), Agave snout-nosed beetle (English), Agave billbug (English), Acapiche del nardo (English)
Synonym
Scyphophorus anthracinus , Gyllenhal
Scyphophorus interstitialis , Gyllenhal
Scyphophorus robustior , Horn
Rhyncophorus asperulus , Dietz
Similar species
Summary
Scyphophorus acupunctatus is becoming a major pest of native Agavaceae and Dracaenaceae species worldwide. Native to Mexico, it has decimated populations of Agave crops there, in particular species used in the tequila and henequen industries. The importation of ornamental Agave plants worldwide has facilitated S. acupunctatus to establish in many parts of the world, particularly in Central America and the Carribean, in Africa, Asia and South America. On its host species, it causes rot and sometimes mortality due to its larvae boring holes which then facilitates micro-organims entering the host. Due to the species being found generally inside the host species, typical insecticides have proven ineffective. However research on the species' pheromones has shown that these could be a potential management tool, attracting individual adults away from hosts to collection sites.
Species Description
The adult wevil body length is between 10-19mm, body colour is black, without dorsal scales.
The genus Scyphophorus has two species: S. acupunctatus - Sisal weevil and S. yucca - Yucca weevil.

Please follow this link to the PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) species content page to view diagnostic images of S. acupunctatus as well as a list of characteristics that separate the two species. (Walker, 2008a).

Lifecycle Stages
The life cycle takes about 50 – 90 days (Netherlands Plant Protection Service, 2009)
Habitat Description
Scyphophorus acupunctatus is a specialist insect attacking plants belonging to the Agavaceae and Dracaenaceae (Ruiz-Montiel et al, 2008). It attacks sisal (Agave sisalana) and other plants such as ornamentals (Beaucarnea, Dasylirion and Yucca, Tuberose, Polianthes tuberosa) (Walker 2008c). Larvae and adults of this species are found in roots, lower leaves, and inside the heads, especially on plants already in the process of putrefaction.
Reproduction
Mating and oviposition take place predominantly on the bottom of the leaves or inside the agave head (Lock, 1962 as seen in Ruiz-Montiel et al, 2008)

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-06-02

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Scyphophorus acupunctatus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1586 on 15-11-2018.

General Impacts
Scyphophorus acupunctatus is becoming a major pest of native Agavaceae and Dracaenaceae species worldwide. Native to Mexico, it has decimated populations of Agave crops there, in particular species used in the tequila and henequen industries (Hernandez et al, 2006; Bolanos et al, 2007). The importation of ornamental Agave plants worldwide has facilitated S. acupunctatus to establish in many parts of the world, particularly in Central America and the Carribean, in Africa, Asia and South America. On its host species, it causes rot and sometimes mortality due to its larvae boring holes which then facilitates micro-organims entering the host that decompose the plant tissues (Hernandez et al, 2007). S. acupunctatus has also been shown to be a vector of Erwinia carotovora which decomposes the host, causing putrefaction (Solis-Aguillar et al, 2001).
Management Info
Preventative measures: The Division of Fish and Wildlife on the island of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, has undertaken public awareness information programmes to educate the public on native wildlife and what they can do to help protect them (Platenburg & Valiulis, 2009). The Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, on Curaçao, part of the Netherlands Antilles, has developed a presentation that discusses past introductions of alien species and their effects on native biodiversity as well as alert species that can pose new threats to the islands; Scyphophorus acupunctatus has been identified as a potential invasive. This presentation is given to Customs, Aerocargo, Department of Agriculture personnel, importers of plants, nature groups and the public in general in order to raise awareness (van Buurt, 2009).

Chemical: Due to individuals being found within host plants and not externally, typical insecticides have proven ineffective. However current research has shown that isolated pheromones (Ruiz-Montiel et al, 2008) combined with effective collection tools like a Victor Trap could prove to be a potential control agent (Valdez et al, 2005).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Scyphophorus acupunctatus
Informations on Scyphophorus acupunctatus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Scyphophorus acupunctatus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Scyphophorus acupunctatus is becoming a major pest of native Agavaceae and Dracaenaceae species worldwide. Native to Mexico, it has decimated populations of Agave crops there, in particular species used in the tequila and henequen industries (Hernandez et al, 2006; Bolanos et al, 2007). The importation of ornamental Agave plants worldwide has facilitated S. acupunctatus to establish in many parts of the world, particularly in Central America and the Carribean, in Africa, Asia and South America. On its host species, it causes rot and sometimes mortality due to its larvae boring holes which then facilitates micro-organims entering the host that decompose the plant tissues (Hernandez et al, 2007). S. acupunctatus has also been shown to be a vector of Erwinia carotovora which decomposes the host, causing putrefaction (Solis-Aguillar et al, 2001).
Red List assessed species 0:
Mechanism
[3] Competition
[1] Predation
[6] Parasitism
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [3] Reduction in native biodiversity
[6] Environmental Species - Population
  • [6] Plant/animal health
Management information
Preventative measures: The Division of Fish and Wildlife on the island of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, has undertaken public awareness information programmes to educate the public on native wildlife and what they can do to help protect them (Platenburg & Valiulis, 2009). The Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, on Curaçao, part of the Netherlands Antilles, has developed a presentation that discusses past introductions of alien species and their effects on native biodiversity as well as alert species that can pose new threats to the islands; Scyphophorus acupunctatus has been identified as a potential invasive. This presentation is given to Customs, Aerocargo, Department of Agriculture personnel, importers of plants, nature groups and the public in general in order to raise awareness (van Buurt, 2009).

Chemical: Due to individuals being found within host plants and not externally, typical insecticides have proven ineffective. However current research has shown that isolated pheromones (Ruiz-Montiel et al, 2008) combined with effective collection tools like a Victor Trap could prove to be a potential control agent (Valdez et al, 2005).

Locations
FRANCE
NETHERLANDS
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES
VIRGIN ISLANDS, U.S.
Management Category
Prevention
Control
Bibliography
26 references found for Scyphophorus acupunctatus

Managment information
Cooperative Extension Service (CES), University of the Virgin Islands, 2010. Agriculture - Integrated Pest Management
Summary: Available from: http://www.uvi.edu/sites/uvi/Pages/CES-Agriculture-Integrated_Pest_Management.aspx?s=RE [Accessed 9 April 2010]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Netherlands Plant Protection Service 2009. Wageningen, November 2009 Short PRA Scyphophorus acupunctatus, Sisal weevil
Platenberg, Renata and Jennifer Valiulis, 2009. Do One Thing For Wildlife, Newsletter. Department of Planning and Natural Resources Division of Fish and Wildlife US Virgin Islands
Summary: Available from: http://fw.dpnr.gov.vi/wild/Docs/Newsletters/Do%20One%20Thing%20in%20February.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2010]
Pott, J. N., 1976. A Yucca borer Scyphosphorus acupunctatus in Florida. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society. 88 1975. (1976) 414-416.
Ruiz-Montiel, Cesar; Garcia-Coapio, Guadalupe; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; del Real, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Hecotr, 2008. Aggregation pheromone of the agave weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 127(3). JUN 2008. 207-217.
Valdes-Rodriguez, Silvia; Ramirez-Choza, Jose Luis; Reyes-Lopez, Jorge; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro, 2004. Respone to the insect (Scyphophorus acupunctatua Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) by the manufacture of henequen attractant compounds. Acta Zoologica Mexicana Nueva Serie. 20(3). December 2004. 157-166.
van Buurt, Gerard, 2006. Conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Aruba, Cura�ao and Bonaire. Applied Herpetology 3: 307-321
Summary: Available from: http://www.mina.vomil.an/Pubs/Buurt-ConservationAmphiRepsABCislands-APHE2006.pdf [Accessed 21 April 2010]
General information
Colombo, M., 2000. First record of Scyphophorus acupunctatus (Coleoptera Curculionidae) in Italy. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura. 32(2). 2000. 165-170.
Hernandez, Maria C.; Gutierrez, Mirna; Aldana, Lucila; Valdes, Ma. Elena, 2006. Fecundity of the sisal weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae), on Polianthes tuberosa (Liliales : Agavaceae). Florida Entomologist. 89(4). DEC 2006. 518-520.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=188068 [Accessed 9 April 2010]
Longo, S., 2007. Sexual dimorphism differences between adult populations of Rynchophorus ferrugineus and Scyphophorus acupunctatus (Coleoptera Curculionidae) from Sicily. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura. 39(1). APR 30 2007. 45-50.
Longo, S., 2008. Morphological and biological remarks on the Agave weevil Scyphosphorus acupunctatus (Coleoptera Curculionidae) a serious pest of Agave in Sicily. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura. 40(1). APR 30 2008. 15-21.
Varnham, K 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review JNCC Report No. 372
Summary: Available from: http://www.caymanbiodiversity.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/jncc372_web.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2010]
Contact
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