Global invasive species database

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Common name
hurricane grass (English), Barbados sour grass (English), Antigua hay (English), pitted beard grass (English), Indian couch grass (English), Comagueyana (Spanish), pitted bluestem (English)
Synonym
Andropogon pertusus , (L.) Willd
Holcus pertusus , L.
Similar species
Summary
Bothriochloa pertusa is a perenial grass that has been introduced to many Caribean islands and Australia. It has established itself in many native savannah, shrubland and riparian biotas where it is able to out compete many native species due to its ability to establish new individuals via stolon growth. In these areas it establishes dense mats and shades out any slower establishing species. In Australia it is used as a stock feed due to its ability to establish in the poor dry soils of Northern Queensland.
Species Description
Wagner et al (1999; as seen in PIER, 2008) describes Bothriochloa pertusa as a \"sprawling perrenial... 30-100m tall, hollow, freely branching, (leaves) 0.7-1.2mm long; blades 3-4mm wide, with scattered, elongate, papillose-based hairs along margins and above ligule. Inflorescences terminal, often purplish,... 2-5cm long\". For images of the species please click on the following link Images: Bothriochloa pertusa
Uses
A study by Hall & Walker (1994) assessed Bothriochloa pertusa potential use as a food source for grazing livestock in the northern areas of Queensland, Australia. It was found that in these dry grassland conditions, B. pertusa was well suited to handle grazing, competition and limited resources; which should have highlighted its potential as an invasive species. Not only did it produce the longest stolons (1.6m) but after 5 years it had also spread the most (2.7m). After 5 years it had also shown to have suppressed growth of exotic legumes, and caused native grasses to disappear from some plots. It is now an established invasive species within both Northern and Central Queensland. B. pertusa is also used for erosion control, a revegetator and has potential as a lawn/turf species. It is also a primary feed for Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa) on New Caledonia (Spaggiari & Garine-Wichatitsky, 2006).
Reproduction
Bothriochloa pertusa can reproduce by both seed and stolon growth (Hall & Walker, 1994).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-06-02

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Bothriochloa pertusa. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1584 on 30-07-2016.

Management Info
Physical: On the USA, Virgin Islands it has been suggested that Bothriochloa pertusa should be mechanically removed and the area immediately replanted with native seedlings of suitable trees and taller shrubs, which will prevent this shade intolerant grass from re-establishing itself (McNair & Lombard, 2004), however the applicability of this solution to other locations is not known.
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Bothriochloa pertusa
NATIVE RANGE
  • cambodia
  • china
  • india
  • indonesia
  • malaysia
  • nepal
  • pakistan
  • sri lanka
  • thailand
  • viet nam
Informations on Bothriochloa pertusa has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Bothriochloa pertusa in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Red List assessed species 1: CR = 1;
View more species View less species
Locations
ANGUILLA
NEW CALEDONIA
VIRGIN ISLANDS, U.S.
Mechanism
[4] Competition
Outcomes
[4] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [3] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Unspecified ecosystem modification
Management information
Physical: On the USA, Virgin Islands it has been suggested that Bothriochloa pertusa should be mechanically removed and the area immediately replanted with native seedlings of suitable trees and taller shrubs, which will prevent this shade intolerant grass from re-establishing itself (McNair & Lombard, 2004), however the applicability of this solution to other locations is not known.
Locations
ANGUILLA
AUSTRALIA
UNITED STATES MINOR OUTLYING ISLANDS
VIRGIN ISLANDS, U.S.
Management Category
None
Unknown
Bibliography
26 references found for Bothriochloa pertusa

Managment information
Anguilla National Trust 29th May 2007 Anguilla Invasive Species Workshop Report
Summary: Available from: http://www.bu.edu/scscb/working_groups/resources/invasives-workshop-report-anguilla.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Cowie, I. D. & P. A. Werner, 1993. Alien plant species invasive in Kakadu National Park, tropical Northern Australia. Biological Conservation Volume 63, Issue 2, 1993, Pages 127-135
Summary: Available from: http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/public/1-the-need-permin.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Lawes, R. A. & A. C. Grice, 2010. War of the weeds: Competition hierarchies in invasive species. Austral Ecology (2010)
Summary: Available from: http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/public/1-the-need-permin.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
O Connor, Rhon, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species strategy (2008) draft
Summary: Available from: http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20(2).pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2008. Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A.Camus, Poaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/bothriochloa_pertusa.htm [Accessed 3 April 2010]
General information
Burton F.J. 2007a. Vegetation Classification for the Cayman Islands. In: Burton, F.J. 2007. Threatened Plants of the Cayman Islands. Kew Publishers, London.
Summary: Available from: http://www.cyclura.com/mkern/VC%20Test%20PDF/VC_Cayman_Mst-1_3.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Freid, Ethan & Michael Vincent, 2007. Additions to the Flora of Mayaguana. Bahamas Naturalist & Journal of Science February 2007 Volume 2 Issue 1
Summary: Available from: http://www.bahamasmedia.com/resources/Download/BNJOS_vol2.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Hall, T. J.; Walker, R. W., 1994. Selection of perennial grasses as a component of legume-based pastures on light-textured soils in the dry tropics of Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 34(3). 1994. 355-365
Jones, R. J., 1997. Steer gains, pasture yield and pasture composition on native pasture and on native pasture oversown with Indian couch (Bothriochloa pertusa) at three stocking rates. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 37(7). 1997. 755-765.
Lawes, Roger and Anthony Grice, 2008. Exotic invasions of the Burdekin catchment, North Queensland. Sixteenth Australian Weeds Conference
Summary: Available from: http://www.caws.org.au/awc/2008/awc200811221.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
McIvor, J. G.; Singh, V.; Corfield, J. P.; Jones, R. J., 1996. Seed production by native and naturalised grasses in north-east Queensland: Effects of stocking rate and season. Tropical Grasslands. 30(2). 1996. 262-269.
Spaggiari, J. & M. De Garine-Wichatitsky, 2006. Home range and habitat use of introduced rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in a mosaic of savannah and native sclerophyll forest of New Caledonia. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 2006, Vol. 33: 175�183
Starr, Forest and Kim Starr, 2008. Plants of Hawaii Images Poaceae Bothriochloa pertusa Pitted beardgrass
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/starr/plants/images/species/?q=bothriochloa+pertusa [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Starr, Forest; Martz, Kim, 1999. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1999� Part 2: Notes
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/starr/publications/2000_new_plant_records_midway-op64.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Starr, Forest; Martz, Kim, 2000. New plant records from Midway Atoll for 1999. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers.(64). 15 September, 2000. 10-12.
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/starr/publications/botanical_survey_of_midway_text.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Walker, B & E. J. Weston, 1990. Pasture Development in Queensland- A Success Story. Tropical Grasslands (1990) Volume 24, 257-268
Summary: Available from: http://www.tropicalgrasslands.asn.au/Tropical%20Grasslands%20Journal%20archive/PDFs/Vol_24_1990/Vol_24_04_90_pp257_268.pdf [Accessed 3 April 2010]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Bothriochloa pertusa