Global invasive species database

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Common name
guava mealybug (English), pink mealybug (English), pink hibiscus mealybug (English), hibiscus mealybug (English), hibiscus-schmierlaus (German), cochenille de l'hibiscus (French)
Synonym
Phenacoccus hirsutus , (Green)
Similar species
Summary
Maconellicoccus hirsutus or the pink hibiscus mealybug, is a polyphagous pest on a wide range of ornamental and agricultural plant species. Native to tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa, M. hirsutus forms colonies covered by a white waxy, elastic ovisac material. Feeding causes plant deformation and lowered aesthetics, which can result in heavy economic losses. The overall potential annual cost of control and damages to the US economy from M. hirsutus has been estimated to be around US$ 700 million, with the global estimate being around US$ 5 billion. While chemical and physical control methods are generally ineffective, effective biological control of M. hirsutus has been acheived in a number of countries.
Species Description
The adult female Maconellicoccus hirsutus is 2.5 – 4 mm long, soft-bodied, elongate oval and slightly flattened while males have one pair of very simple wings, long antennae, white wax filaments projecting posteriorly and no mouthparts (EPPO, 2005). The taxonomy is almost entirely based on the adult female and a good slide preparation of a female is required for identification on species level (EPPO, 2006). Slide-mounted females show the combination of 9-segmented antennae, anal lobe bars, numerous dorsal oral rim ducts on all parts of the body except the limbs and long and flagellate dorsal setae (EPPO, 2005). Eggs are pink, and appearance in life is orange pink to reddish, with the entire colony covered in a white, sticky, elastic, woolly, waxy ovisac material (EPPO, 2005; 2006). Immature instars, commonly referred to as \"crawlers\" are about 0.3 mm long and pink with the imature and newly developed adult females being greyish pink (EPPO, 2005). A guide to the distinguishing features of the different instars of M. hirsutus and other mealybug speces can be found in Gullan (2000). Additionally, a detailed identification key can be found in EPPO (2006) adapted from Williams (1996) distinguishing M. hirsutus from other species in the same genus. Ezzat (1958; in Francis & Francis, 2001) separates the genus Maconellicoccus from Paracoccus, the closest known relatives, by the following features in the adult female: Pseudo articulation in the 9th (terminal) antennal joint, Anterior leg with unequal tarsal digitules and Small oral collar tubular ducts present on both the dorsal and ventral sides of the body.
Lifecycle Stages
The life cycle of Maconellicoccus hirsutus has been studied in India. Each adult female lays 150–600 eggs over a period of about one week, and these hatch in 6–9 days. A generation is completed in about five weeks in warm conditions. In countries with a cool winter, the species survives cold conditions as eggs (Bartlett, 1978; in EPPO, 2005). There may be as many as 15 generations per year (Pollard, 1995; in EPPO, 2005) with three immature instars in the female and four in the male (Chong et al., 2008). Immature stages are often referred to as \"crawlers\" and are easily dispersed by water, wind or animal agents (EPPO, 2005).
Habitat Description
While the primary host of Maconellicoccus hirsutus is the ornamental Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, M. hirsutus will also feed on and inhabit a wide range of predominantly woody plants, including many ornamentals (EPPO, 2005). Host records extend to 76 families and over 200 genera, with some preference for Fabaceae, Malvaceae and Moraceae (Mani, 1989 & Garland, 1998; in EPPO, 2005).
Reproduction
The reproduction of Maconellicoccus hirsutus is noted as pathenogenic in some areas such as Egypt and Bihar but bi-parental in others, such as West Bengal and probably the Caribbean (EPPO, 2005), however in a laboratory setting, pathenogenesis could not be induced (Chonget al., 2008). Life table analysis suggests that M. hirsutus has an enormous potential to increase its population level within a short period of time with each female capable of producing more than 150 female progeny in about 40 days under laboratory conditions (Chong et al., 2005).
Nutrition
While the primary host of Maconellicoccus hirsutus is the ornamental Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, M. hirsutus will also feed on a wide range of predominantly woody plants, including many ornamentals (EPPO, 2005). Host records extend to 76 families and over 200 genera, with some preference for Fabaceae, Malvaceae and Moraceae (Mani, 1989 & Garland, 1998; in EPPO, 2005). Colonies of M. hirsutus will form on and feed on the new growth of the host plant, severely distorting and stunting their growth (EPPO, 2005). While the insect feeds, it excretes sugary honeydew on which sooty mold develops, deteriorating the quality of the agricultural or forest product (Gonzalez-Gaona et al., 2010). As the plant dies back, M. hirsutus will migrate to healthy tissue, with the colonies migrating from shoot tips to twigs to branches and finally down the trunk (EPPO, 2005).
Pathway
Long distance dispersal is likely achieved through transportation of host plants and possibly to a lesser extent, the transportation of fruit and flowers (EPPO, 2005)

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Under expert review

Publication date: 2010-06-02

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Maconellicoccus hirsutus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1580 on 24-08-2016.

General Impacts
Maconellicoccus hirsutus feeds on a large number of plant species, including many important horticultural and agricultural crops such as coffee, guava, citrus, grape, peanuts, rose, beans, coconuts, maize, sugar cane, soursop, soybean, cotton, and other fiber crops (Ranjan, 2006; Ujjan & Shahzad, 2007; Reddy et al., 2009). The feeding of M. hirsutus causes malformation of shoots and leaves believed to be caused by the injection of a toxic saliva (Kairo et al., 2000). In addition to lowering the aesthetics of the plant, this deformation can also result in lowered crop yields and plant mortality in heavy infestations (Kairo et al., 2000; Chong et al., 2008). Like other sap sucking insects, M. hirsutus also excretes a sugary honeydew on which sooty mold develops, further deteriorating the quality of the agricultural or forest product (Gonzalez-Gaona et al., 2010). The presence of large quantities of wax, characteristic of M. hirsutus infestations, also reduces the aesthetic and commercial value of ornamentals (Kairo et al., 2000). The overall potential annual cost of control and damages to the US economy from M. hirsutus has been estimated to be around US$ 700 million, with the global estimate being around US$ 5 billion (Ranjan, 2006).
Management Info
Monitoring: Methods such as visual analysis and trapping of males using captive live virgin females have been utilised in the past with limited success (Gonzalez-Gaona et al., 2010). On the other hand, the use of sex pheremones inside delta-style traps has been shown to be effective for specific monitoring and determining the geographic distribution of M. hirsutus (Gonzalez-Gaona et al., 2010).

Preventative measures: Improvement of legislation and quarantine systems showed limited success in the Caribbean, with M. hirsutus still managing to spread to over 20 islands since 1994 (Kairo et al., 2000). Various quarantine security methods have shown promising results, including methyl bromide, irradiation, heat vapour treatment and hot water immersion (Zettler et al., 2002; Jacobsen & Hara, 2003; Follett, 2004; Hara & Jacobsen, 2005).

Chemical control: Use of pesticides in controlling M. hirsutus is generally ineffective partly because of its habit of hiding in crevices (EPPO, 2005) and because pesticides cannot penetrate the heavy layers of wax that shield the body (Kairo et al., 2000). Furthermore, rapid recolonisation and an extremely large host range and large host size in some cases makes it almost impossible to have a spraying program capable of bearing the cost and coping with the practicalities of treating the whole range of infested plants in an affected area (Sagarra & Peterkin, 1999).

Physical control: Physical control methods such as pruning and burning of infested hosts have been ineffective in slowing the spread of M. hirsutus (Sagarra & Peterkin, 1999).

Biological control: Biological control is seen as the most effective method of control (Kairo et al., 2000). A number of different parasitoids and predators have been trialled, the most effective of these being the parasitoid wasp Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from China, and the generalist predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Australia (Kairo et al., 2000).

Please follow this link for more details on the management and control of Maconellicoccus hirsutus.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Maconellicoccus hirsutus
NATIVE RANGE
  • australia
  • bangladesh
  • benin
  • brunei darussalam
  • burkina faso
  • cambodia
  • cameroon
  • central african republic
  • chad
  • china
  • congo
  • congo, the democratic republic of the
  • cote d'ivoire
  • egypt
  • gabon
  • gambia
  • india
  • indonesia
  • japan
  • kenya
  • lao people's democratic republic
  • lebanon
  • liberia
  • malaysia
  • maldives
  • myanmar
  • nepal
  • niger
  • nigeria
  • oman
  • pakistan
  • philippines
  • saudi arabia
  • senegal
  • seychelles
  • singapore
  • somalia
  • sri lanka
  • sudan
  • taiwan
  • tanzania, united republic of
  • thailand
  • united arab emirates
  • viet nam
  • yemen
  • zambia
Informations on Maconellicoccus hirsutus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Maconellicoccus hirsutus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Maconellicoccus hirsutus feeds on a large number of plant species, including many important horticultural and agricultural crops such as coffee, guava, citrus, grape, peanuts, rose, beans, coconuts, maize, sugar cane, soursop, soybean, cotton, and other fiber crops (Ranjan, 2006; Ujjan & Shahzad, 2007; Reddy et al., 2009). The feeding of M. hirsutus causes malformation of shoots and leaves believed to be caused by the injection of a toxic saliva (Kairo et al., 2000). In addition to lowering the aesthetics of the plant, this deformation can also result in lowered crop yields and plant mortality in heavy infestations (Kairo et al., 2000; Chong et al., 2008). Like other sap sucking insects, M. hirsutus also excretes a sugary honeydew on which sooty mold develops, further deteriorating the quality of the agricultural or forest product (Gonzalez-Gaona et al., 2010). The presence of large quantities of wax, characteristic of M. hirsutus infestations, also reduces the aesthetic and commercial value of ornamentals (Kairo et al., 2000). The overall potential annual cost of control and damages to the US economy from M. hirsutus has been estimated to be around US$ 700 million, with the global estimate being around US$ 5 billion (Ranjan, 2006).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
ANGUILLA
CAYMAN ISLANDS
EGYPT
GRENADA
INDIA
PAKISTAN
SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS
SAINT LUCIA
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
TAIWAN
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS
UNITED STATES
VIRGIN ISLANDS, BRITISH
Mechanism
[14] Parasitism
[2] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [2] Habitat degradation
[2] Environmental Species - Population
  • [2] Plant/animal health
[14] Socio-Economic
  • [13] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Damage to ornamentals
Management information
Monitoring: Methods such as visual analysis and trapping of males using captive live virgin females have been utilised in the past with limited success (Gonzalez-Gaona et al., 2010). On the other hand, the use of sex pheremones inside delta-style traps has been shown to be effective for specific monitoring and determining the geographic distribution of M. hirsutus (Gonzalez-Gaona et al., 2010).

Preventative measures: Improvement of legislation and quarantine systems showed limited success in the Caribbean, with M. hirsutus still managing to spread to over 20 islands since 1994 (Kairo et al., 2000). Various quarantine security methods have shown promising results, including methyl bromide, irradiation, heat vapour treatment and hot water immersion (Zettler et al., 2002; Jacobsen & Hara, 2003; Follett, 2004; Hara & Jacobsen, 2005).

Chemical control: Use of pesticides in controlling M. hirsutus is generally ineffective partly because of its habit of hiding in crevices (EPPO, 2005) and because pesticides cannot penetrate the heavy layers of wax that shield the body (Kairo et al., 2000). Furthermore, rapid recolonisation and an extremely large host range and large host size in some cases makes it almost impossible to have a spraying program capable of bearing the cost and coping with the practicalities of treating the whole range of infested plants in an affected area (Sagarra & Peterkin, 1999).

Physical control: Physical control methods such as pruning and burning of infested hosts have been ineffective in slowing the spread of M. hirsutus (Sagarra & Peterkin, 1999).

Biological control: Biological control is seen as the most effective method of control (Kairo et al., 2000). A number of different parasitoids and predators have been trialled, the most effective of these being the parasitoid wasp Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from China, and the generalist predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Australia (Kairo et al., 2000).

Please follow this link for more details on the management and control of Maconellicoccus hirsutus.

Locations
ANGUILLA
BARBADOS
BELIZE
CAYMAN ISLANDS
DOMINICA
GRENADA
GUADELOUPE
GUAM
INDIA
MEXICO
MONTSERRAT
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
PAKISTAN
PUERTO RICO
SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS
SAINT LUCIA
SAINT MARTIN (FRENCH PART)
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
UNITED STATES
VIRGIN ISLANDS, BRITISH
VIRGIN ISLANDS, U.S.
Management Category
Control
None
Unknown
Monitoring
Bibliography
47 references found for Maconellicoccus hirsutus

Managment information
Amalin, Divina M., Kenneth A. Bloem, Dale Meyerdirik, and Ru Nguyen, 2003. Biological Control of Pink Hibiscus Mealybug in South FloridaI: A One-year Assessment.
Baskaran, R. K. Murali; Mahendhiran, G.; Suresh, K., 2007. Field evaluation of Scymnus coccivora Ayyar for the management of guava mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green. Journal of Entomological Research (New Delhi). 31(2). JUN 2007. 137-140.
Connor, R.A. 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy (Draft) 2008. Department Of Environment: Anguilla.
Summary: Available from: http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20(2).pdf [Accessed 7 May 2010]
Etienne, J., Matile-Ferrero, D., LeBlanc, F., Marival, D., 1998. First record of the mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) from Guadeloupe; present state of this pest of crops in the French Caribbean (Hem., Pseudococcidae). Bulletin de la Soci�t� Entomologique de France
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), 2005. Data sheets on quarantine pests Maconellicoccus hirsutus
Summary: Available from: http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/insects/Maconellicoccus_hirsutus/DS_Maconellicoccus_hirsutus.pdf [Accessed 19 April 2010]
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), 2006. Diagnostic Maconellicoccus hirsutus
Follett, Peter A., 2004. Generic vapor heat treatments to control Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 97(4). August 2004. 1263-1268.
Francis, Antonio; Bloem, Kenneth A.; Roda, Amy L.; Lapointe, Stephen L.; Zhang, Aijun; Onokpise, Oghenekome., 2007. Development of trapping methods with a synthetic sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae). Florida Entomologist. 90(3). SEP 2007. 440-446.
Gautam, R. D., Pilgrim, R. N., Stewart, V. E., 2000. The pink mealybug. Protocols for the protection of agricultural production and trade: the systems approach (SA)
Hall, David G.; Roda, Amy; Lapointe, Stephen L.; Hibbard, Ken, 2008. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps. Florida Entomologist. 91(2). JUN 2008. 305-310
Hara, Arnold H.; Jacobsen, Christopher M., 2005. Hot water immersion for surface disinfestation of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 98(2). APR 05. 284-288
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Jacobsen, Christopher M.; Hara, Arnold H., 2003. Irradiation of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) for phytosanitation of agricultural commodities. Journal of Economic Entomology. 96(4). August 2003. 1334-1339.
Lai, Yi-Chun; Chang, Niann-Tai, 2007. The association of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) with bigheaded ant, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius) on hibiscus. Formosan Entomologist. 27(3). SEP 2007. 229-243
Mani, M.; Krishnamoorthy, A., 2008. Field efficacy of Australian ladybird beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant in the suppression of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) on Sapota. Journal of Biological Control. 22(2). 2008. 471-473
McComie, Lilory D. 1996b. Incidence and treatment of the hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green) one year after its discovery in Trinidad. Regional Symposium on the Pink Mealybug, (Grenada), 24-27 Jun 1996
Morais, Michael, 1997. Releases of the parasitic wasp Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in the field to control the pink mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) and preliminary results on efficacy. Proceedings of the 1st Seminar on the Hibiscus Mealybug, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, Centeno (Trinidad and Tobago). Research Division.- Centeno (Trinidad and Tobago): MALMR, 1997. 1. Seminar on the Hibiscus Mealybug,1. Seminar on the Hibiscus Mealybug, Farmers Training Centre, Centeno (Trinidad and Tobago),12 Apr 1996
Moses T.K. Kairo, Gene V. Pollard, Dorothy D. Peterkin & Vyjayanthi F. Lopez, 2000. Biological control of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Caribbean. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 5: 241�254, 2000.
National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN), 2005. Standard Operating Procedure for Plant Diagnostic Laboratories. Pink Hibiscus Mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) DRAFT 1.1
Summary: Available from: http://www.sepdn.org/DesktopModules/ViewDocument.aspx?DocumentID=2330 [Accessed 19 April 2010]
Ram, P.,Cooper, B., Lopez, V.F., Morais, M., Peterkin, D., 1998. A perspective on the release of Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for the biological control of the Hibiscus or Pink Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources. Management Strategies for the Control of the Hibiscus Mealybug, Centeno (Trinidad and Tobago), 12 Apr 1998
Reddy, G. V. P.; Muniappan, R.; Cruz, Z. T.; Naz, F.; Bamba, J. P.; Tenorio, J., 2009. Present Status of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Mariana Islands and Its Control by Two Fortuitously Introduced Natural Enemies. Journal of Economic Entomology. 102(4). AUG 2009. 1431-1439.
Roltsch, William J.; Ertle, Lawrence R.; Meyerdirk, Dale E., 2007. No-choice host range tests for Allotropa sp near mecrida, a parasitoid of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae). Biocontrol Science & Technology. 17(9-10). 2007. 977-981.
Roltsch, William J.; Meyerdirk, Dale E.; Warkentin, Richard; Andress, Earl R.; Carrera, Karina., 2006. Classical biological control of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in southern California. Biological Control. 37(2). MAY 2006. 155-166.
Shen, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Huai-hai; Chang, Niann-Tai, 2007. Population fluctuation of the pink mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and the ants associated with it in Pingtung, Taiwan. Formosan Entomologist. 27(3). SEP 2007. 245-260.
Srinivas, T.; Prasad, K. Sathya; Shekhar, M. A.; Manjunath, D., 2007. Evaluation on neem based formulations vis-a-vis Dichlorvos against Maconellicoccus hirsutus. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. 27(1). APR 2007. 13-20.
Ujjan, Aziz Ahmed; Shahzad, Saleem, 2007. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum strains on pink hibiscus mealy bug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus) affecting cotton crop. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 39(3). JUN 2007. 967-973.
Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J. Christopher., 2007. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 100(2). APR 2007. 405-410.
Williams, D. J., 1996. A brief account of the hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a pest of agriculture and horticulture, with descriptions of two related species from southern Asia. Bulletin of Entomological Research (1996) 86, 617-628
Zettler, J.L., Follett, P.A., & Gill, R.F. (2002). Susceptibility of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) to methyl bromide. Journal of Economic Entomology, 95(6), 1169-1173.
General information
Bogr�n, Carlos E. and Scott Ludwig, 2007. Pink Hibiscus Mealybug A New Pest in Texas. AgriLife Extension Texas A & M System
Summary: Available from: http://repository.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/87496/pdf_2517.pdf?sequence=1 [Accessed 19 April 2010]
Chong, Juang-Horng; Roda, Amy L.; Mannion, Catharine M., 2008. Life history of the mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae), at constant temperatures. Environmental Entomology. 37(2). APR 2008. 323-332.
Matile-Ferrero, D., Etienne, J., 1996. Presence of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus in Saint-Martin (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae). Revue Fran�aise d Entomologie
McComie, Lilory D., 1996. Status of the Hibiscus (pink) mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) programme in Trinidad. CAGRIS/TT (Trinidad and Tobago)
Summary: Reports on a programme for the management of the Hibiscus mealybug ( HMB ) - Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) in Trinidad. This programme includes surveillance of the pest, control strategies, training and publicity. HMB was proclaimed a notifiable pest in October 1995. Plant quarantine regulations have been amended to prevent the spread of HMB to Tobago. In Trinidad, 174 plant species in 64 families have been affected by HMB. The early short-term containment strategy involved an insecticide spray, cut and burn protocol. This was replaced by a biological control programme using 3 natural enemies: the Asian parasitic wasp - Anagyrus kamali, the Australian ladybird beetle - Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, and the Indian ladybird beetle - Scymnus coccivora. The biological control programme has had good results and is on-going.
Available from: http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/insects/Maconellicoccus_hirsutus/DS_Maconellicoccus_hirsutus.pdf [Accessed 19 April 2010]
Michaud, J. P. and G. A. Evans, 2000. Current Status of Pink Hibiscus Mealybug in Puerto Rico including a Key to Parasitoid Species. The Florida Entomologist, Vol. 83, No. 1 (Mar., 2000), pp. 97-101
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 2010. Maconellicoccus hirsutus
Summary: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?id=177089 [Accessed 19 April 2010]
Ranjan, R. 2006. Economic impacts of the pink hibiscus mealybug in Florida and the United States. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 20, 353-362.
Rosas-Garcia, Ninfa M.; Martinez-Montoya, Humberto., 2009. Isolation of Microsatellites in a Mexican Population of Maconellicoccus hirsutus and Amplification in Populations from Different Geographical Origins. Southwestern Entomologist. 34(3). SEP 2009. 295-304.
Sagarra, L.A. and D.D. Peterkin, 1999. Invasion of the Carribean by the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green [Homoptera : Pseudococcidae]. Phytoprotection, vol. 80, n� 2, 1999, p. 103-113.
Vitullo, Justin; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J. Christopher., 2009. Expression of Feeding Symptoms from Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by Commercially Important Cultivars of Hibiscus. Florida Entomologist. 92(2). JUN 2009. 248-254.
Williams, D. J., 1986. The identity and distribution of the genus Maconellicoccus Ezzat (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research (1986), 76:351-357 Cambridge University Press
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Maconellicoccus hirsutus