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Common name
bentevi (Portuguese), bentevi (German), tyran sulfureux (French), tyran quiquivi (French), bem-te-vi (Portuguese), tyran quesquildit (French), tyran kiskidi (French), bentewi wielki (Polish), pitango solforato (Italian), kibaraootairanchou (Japanese), storkiskadi (Norwegian), grote kiskadie (Dutch), naamioväijy (Finnish), moucherolle masqué (French), bem-te-vi-de-coroa (Portuguese), bem-te-viu (Portuguese), bem-te-vi-verdadeiro (Portuguese), bem-te-vi-carrapateiro (Portuguese), bentevi-de-coroa (Portuguese), triste-vida (Portuguese), siririca (Portuguese), bentevi-verdadeiro (Portuguese), bem-te-vi-de-cabeça-rajada (Portuguese), pitanguá (Portuguese), pitauã (Portuguese), pituã (Portuguese), större kiskadi (Swedish), tyran bentevi (Slovak), luis grande (Spanish, Mexico), pitogue (English), kiskadee flycatcher (English), Lord Derby's flycatcher (English), derby flycatcher (English), greater kiskaee (English), luis bienteveo (Spanish, Mexico), great kiskadee (English), bienteveo grande (Spanish, Costa Rica), cristofué (Spanish, Honduras), pitogüé (Spanish, Paraguay), postriežkár bentevi (Slovak), benteveo (Spanish, Argentinia, Bolivia, Chile), tyran bentevi (Czech), schwefelmaskentyrann (German), kiskadie (Danish), pitangua (English), güis común (Spanish, Nicuragua), benteveo común (Spanish, Argentinia, Uruguay), benteví (Portuguese), bichofué (Spanish, Columbia), kiskadì maggiore (Italian)
Synonym
Lanius sulphuratus
Similar species
Summary
Notes
While the genus Pitangus is monotypic, there are a number of described P. sulphuratus subspecies: P. sulphuratus argentinus (Todd, 1952), P. sulphuratus bolivianus (Lafresnaye, 1852), P. sulphuratus caucensis (Chapman, 1914), P. sulphuratus derbianus (Kaup, 1852), P. sulphuratus guatimalensis (Lafresnaye, 1852), P. sulphuratus maximiliani (Cabanis & Heine, 1859), P. sulphuratus rufipennis (Lafresnaye, 1851), P. sulphuratus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766), P. sulphuratus texanus (Van Rossem, 1940),P. sulphuratus trinitatis (Hellmayr, 1906) (ITIS, 2010).
Uses
200 individuals of Pitangus sulphuratus were intentionally introduced to Bermuda from Trinidad in 1957 as biological control agents for the introduced anole lizards ( particularly the Jamaican anole (Norops grahami) (Cheesman & Clubbe, 2007; Davenport et al., 2008) and insect pests (Griffith et al., unpublished data). However, this biocontrol attempt was a failure, with P. sulphuratus preferring to feed on various species of native fauna instead.
Habitat Description
Preferred habitats of Pitangus sulphuratus include around rivers, streams, and lakes bordered with dense vegetation as well as open country and parks (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2007). P. sulphuratus has also been observed in arable land, pastureland, heavily degraded forest, moist lowland and montane forests, moist shrubland, dry grassland, mangrove habitats (Birdlife International, 2009); and beaches (Latino & Beltzer, 1999).
Reproduction
Pitangus sulphuratus forms monogamous relationships. It breeds in open woodland with some tall trees, including cultivated areas and around human habitation. Two to five creamy white eggs spotted with brown and lavender are laid in a bulky, domed nest with a side entrance made of grass, weeds, bark strips, moss, and other plant fibers, and built in trees, bush and telephone poles 6 to 50 feet above the ground. Incubation ranges from 13 to 15 days and is carried out by the female. (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2007).
Nutrition
Pitangus sulphuratus is a generalist feeder, with a stomach content analysis on 83 P. Sulphuratus stomachs revealing that insects had the highest relative importance index score of 5304, followed by seed and fruit (4606), crustaceans (170) and fishes (154) (Latino & Beltzer, 1999). Feeding activity was the highest between 11 am and 4 pm (Latino & Beltzer, 1999). Although they are physically unable to probe in the dirt for insect larvae and other invertebrates such as earthworms and snails, kleptoparasitic behaviour has been observed, with instances of P. sulphuratus stealing these food items from other birds being recorded (Llambıas et al., 2001). P. sulphuratus is also known to feed on frogs, small lizards, baby birds, mice (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2007), and bats (Fischer et al., 2010). In urban envronments, the ability that P. sulphuratus has for identifying food items absent from more natural habitats (such as human food scraps and animal food pellets) and for exploiting resources of unpredictable spatial and temporal distributions confers the species a dietary flexibility that probably contributes to its efficiency in colonizing urban habitats (Argel-De-Oliveira et al., 1998).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Under expert review

Publication date: 2010-06-02

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Pitangus sulphuratus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1578 on 15-12-2018.

General Impacts
In its introduced range, in Bermuda, Pitangus sulphuratus predates on and competes with various native species, playing a significant role in the population declines of insect, bird and reptile species (Cheesman & Clubbe, 2007; Davenport et al., 2008; Forbes, 2010).

P. sulphuratus disperses seeds of invasive species through native forest, contributing to the spread of invasive species and the decline of native plant species (The Encyclopedia of Earth, 2006). As a generalist feeder, it is reported as an agricultural pest in its native range (Rodriguez et al., 2004).

Management Info
Physical control: Pitangus sulphuratus populations on Nonsuch Island , Bermuda are controlled by shooting (Varnham, 2006), however the effectiveness of this is uncertain with Griffith et al. (unpublished data) stating that reforestation has allowed P. Sulphuratus to persist on the island in spite of control efforts. Physical control methods for P. sulphuratus and other bird pests on vineyards in Uruguay include use of firearms, visual repellants (flags and scarecrows), and acoustic repellents (fireworks, propane cannons and distress calls) (Rodriguez et al., 2004).

Chemical control: Chemical control methods for P. sulphuratus and other bird pests on vineyards in Uruguay include use of toxic baits (Carbofuran) and repellents (methiocarb) (Rodriguez et al., 2004).

Other: Pitangus sulphuratus has a natural aversion to patterns resembling those of coral snake species (Micrurus spp. and Micruroides spp.) (Brodie III & Janzen, 1995).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Pitangus sulphuratus
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • argentina
  • belize
  • bolivia
  • brazil
  • chile
  • colombia
  • costa rica
  • ecuador
  • el salvador
  • falkland islands (malvinas)
  • french guiana
  • guatemala
  • guyana
  • honduras
  • mexico
  • nicaragua
  • panama
  • paraguay
  • peru
  • south georgia and the south sandwich islands
  • suriname
  • trinidad and tobago
  • united states
  • uruguay
  • venezuela
Informations on Pitangus sulphuratus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Pitangus sulphuratus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
In its introduced range, in Bermuda, Pitangus sulphuratus predates on and competes with various native species, playing a significant role in the population declines of insect, bird and reptile species (Cheesman & Clubbe, 2007; Davenport et al., 2008; Forbes, 2010).

P. sulphuratus disperses seeds of invasive species through native forest, contributing to the spread of invasive species and the decline of native plant species (The Encyclopedia of Earth, 2006). As a generalist feeder, it is reported as an agricultural pest in its native range (Rodriguez et al., 2004).

Red List assessed species 6: CR = 1; LC = 5;
Locations
BERMUDA
BRAZIL
URUGUAY
Mechanism
[1] Competition
[3] Predation
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[4] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [3] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
Management information
Physical control: Pitangus sulphuratus populations on Nonsuch Island , Bermuda are controlled by shooting (Varnham, 2006), however the effectiveness of this is uncertain with Griffith et al. (unpublished data) stating that reforestation has allowed P. Sulphuratus to persist on the island in spite of control efforts. Physical control methods for P. sulphuratus and other bird pests on vineyards in Uruguay include use of firearms, visual repellants (flags and scarecrows), and acoustic repellents (fireworks, propane cannons and distress calls) (Rodriguez et al., 2004).

Chemical control: Chemical control methods for P. sulphuratus and other bird pests on vineyards in Uruguay include use of toxic baits (Carbofuran) and repellents (methiocarb) (Rodriguez et al., 2004).

Other: Pitangus sulphuratus has a natural aversion to patterns resembling those of coral snake species (Micrurus spp. and Micruroides spp.) (Brodie III & Janzen, 1995).
Locations
Management Category
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
49 references found for Pitangus sulphuratus

Managment information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Rodriguez, E.N., Tiscornia, G., & Tobin, M.E. 2004. Bird depredations in Uruguyan vineyards. Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications. University of Nebraska: Lincoln.
General information
Argel-De-Oliveira, Maria Martha; Curi, Nancy A.; Passerini, Tatiana, 1998. Feeding of a fledgling great Kiskadee, Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus) (Passeriformes, Tyrannidae) in urban environment. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 15(4). Dec., 1998. 1103-1109.
AviBase, 2010. Pitangus sulphuratus.
Summary: Available from: http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/species.jsp?lang=EN&avibaseid=9C883C7BCFAEB70D [Accessed 20 April 2010]
Avila, Robson W., 2005. Scinax nasicus (Lesser Snouted treefrog). Predation. Herpetological Review. 36(3). SEP 2005. 308.
Bacon, Jamie P.; Gray, Jennifer A.; Kitson, Lisa, 2006. Status and conservation of the reptiles and amphibians of the Bermuda islands. Applied Herpetology, Volume 3, Number 4, 2006 , pp. 323-344(22)
Bennett, Fred D. and I. W. Hughes, 1959. Biological Control of Insect Pests in Bermuda. Bulletin of Entomological Research (1959), 50:423-436 Cambridge University Press
BirdLife International 2009. Pitangus sulphuratus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/145369/0/full [Accessed 18 April 2010]
BirdLife International, 2009. Species factsheet: Pitangus sulphuratus.
Summary: Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=4438&m=0 [Accessed 18 April 2010]
Birkenholz, Dale E. and Ted T. Allen, 1962. Possible Change in Status of Brewer s Blackbird in Florida. The Auk, Vol. 79, No. 1 (Jan., 1962), pp. 111-112
Brodie III, E.D., & Janzen, F.J. 1995. Experimental studies of Coral Snake mimicry: generalized avoidance of ringed snake patterns by free-ranging avian predators. Functional Ecology, 9 (2), 186-190.
Castanho, Luciano Mendes, 2001. Phyllomedusa distincta (leaf frog) Herpetological Review. 32(2). June, 2001. 103.
Crowell, Kenneth L., 1962. Reduced Interspecific Competition among the Birds of Bermuda. Ecology, Vol. 43, No. 1 (Jan., 1962), pp. 75-88
Crowell, K.L. and Crowell, M.R. 1976. Bermuda s abundant, beleagured birds. Nat. History 85, 48-56.
Crump Martha L. and Marcos Vaira, 1991. Vulnerability of Pleurodema borelli Tadpoles to an Avian Predator: Effect of Body Size and Density. Herpetologica, Vol. 47, No. 3 (Sep., 1991), pp. 316-321
Davenport, John; Jeremy Hills; Anne Glasspool & Jack Ward, 2008. Threats to the Critically Endangered endemic Bermudian skink Eumeces longirostris. Oryx Volume 35 Issue 4, Pages 332 - 339
Dobson, Andrew, 1999. Conservation Measures for the Eastern Bluebird in Bermuda. Bermuda Audubon Society - Bird Conservation
Summary: Available from: http://www.audubon.bm/Bird%20Conservation.htm [Accessed 18 April 2010]
Dobson, Andrew & Wardle, Carolyn, 2005. Invasive Species Working Group. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol 18, Pages 107-108
Summary: Available from: http://www.bu.edu/scscb/working_groups/resources/invasives-report-jco18-2005.pdf [Accessed 18 April 2010]
Ellison, Joanna C., 1996. Pollen Evidence of Late Holocene Mangrove Development in Bermuda. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, Vol. 5, No. 6 (Nov., 1996), pp. 315-326
Felipe Toledo, Luis; Woehl, Germano Jr; Woehl, Elza Nishimura; Prado, Cynthia P. A., 2005. Scinax nasicus, Hyla albomarginata, Hyla bischoffi and Phyllomedusa distincta (Tree frogs): Avian predation. Herpetological Bulletin.(92). SUM 2005. 31-32.
Field Guide to Birds of North America. 2007. Great Kiskadee.
Summary: Available from http://identify.whatbird.com/obj/852/identification/Great_Kiskadee.aspx [Accessed 20 April 2010]
Fischer, Erich; Munin, Roberto L.; Longo, Jose M.; Fischer, Wagner; de Souza, Paulo R., 2010. Predation on bats by Great Kiskadees. Journal of Field Ornithology. 81(1). MAR 2010. 17-20
Fonaroff, L. Shcuyler, 1974. Urbanization, birds and ecological change in northwestern Trinidad. Biological Conservation, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 258-262
Forbes, K.A. (2010). Bermuda s Fauna. Bermuda Online
Summary: Available from http://www.bermuda-online.org/fauna.htm [Accessed 20 April 2010].
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), 2010. Subspecies: Pitangus sulphuratus cancensis
Summary: Available from: http://data.gbif.org/species/22179292/ [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Griffith, H., Wingate, D.B., & Robinson, D.L. (unpublished data).
Summary: Available from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/31994359/Introduced-Birds-as-Probable-Agents-of-Population-Changes-in-the [Accessed 20 April 2010]
Howarth, G. Francis, 1991. Environmental Impacts of Classical Biological Control. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 1991. 36:485-509
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2009. Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=178301 [Accessed 20 April 2010]
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Phyllomedusa distinca
Summary: Available from http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/55849/0 [Accessed 23 April 2010]
Llambias, Paulo E. and Valentina Ferretti, 2003. Parental Care in the Great Kiskadee. The Wilson Bulletin, Vol. 115, No. 2 (Jun., 2003), pp. 214-216
Llambias, Paulo E.; Ferretti, Valentina; Rodriguez, Pablo S., 2001. Kleptoparasitism in the Great Kiskadee. Wilson Bulletin. 113(1). March, 2001. 116-117.
Lockwood, Julie L. and Michael P. Moulton, 1994. Ecomorphological pattern in Bermuda birds: the influence of competition and implications for nature preserves. Evolutionary Ecology, 1994, 8, 53-60
Mathys, Blake A.; Lockwood, Julie L., 2009. Rapid evolution of great kiskadees on Bermuda: an assessment of the ability of the island rule to predict the direction of contemporary evolution in exotic vertebrates. Journal of Biogeography. 36(12). DEC 2009. 2204-2211
Moralez-Silva, Emmanuel; Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio L. A., 2008. Kleptoparasitism by Great Kiskadee on Little Blue Heron. Waterbirds. 31(4). DEC 2008. 666-667.
Moulton, Michael P. and James G. Sanderson, 1997. Predicting the Fates of Passeriform Introductions on Oceanic Islands. Conservation Biology, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Apr., 1997), pp. 552-558
Rodrigues, Domingos J.; Arruda, Rafael, 2006. Scinax fuscovarius (snouted treefrog), Scinax cf. ruber, and Physalaemus albonotatus (Menwig frog). Predation. Herpetological Review. 37(2). JUN 2006. 212.
Simberloff, Daniel; Don C. Schmitz; Tom C. B. 1997. Strangers in paradise: impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida
Summary: In Bermuda, nest boxes for eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) are used as perches by the non-indigenous great Kiskadee, which prevents bluebirds from nesting. (Samuel 1975 in
Smith, M. Susan, 1978. Predatory behaviour of young great kiskadees (Pitangus sulphuratus). Animal Behaviour Volume 26, Part 4, November 1978, Pages 988-995
Smith, Paul 2006. Interspecific Aggression in Nesting Great Kiskadees (Pitangus sulphuratus) in Paraguay. Bolet�n SAO Vol. XVI (No. 01) - Jul. 2006
Summary: Available from: http://www.sao.org.co/publicaciones/boletinsao/09SmithPitangus.pdf [Accessed 18 April 2010]
Stevenson, Henry M., 1972. The Recent History of Bachman s Warbler. The Wilson Bulletin, Vol. 84, No. 3 (Sep., 1972), pp. 344-347
The Birds of North America, undated. Distribution of the Great Kiskadee in North and Middle America.
Summary: Available from: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/622/galleries/figures/figure-1/image_popup_view [Accessed 18 April 2010]
Wingate, David B., 1965. Terrestrial Herpetofauna of Bermuda. Herpetologica, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Sep. 24, 1965), pp. 202-218
Contact
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