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  • Hypostomus/Pterygoplichthys (Photo: Jeffdelonge, www.commons.wikimedia.org)
  • Pterygoplichthys joselimaianus, also known as  Golden spot  Pleco (Photo: Gudsine, www.commons.wikimedia.org)
  • Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Photo: karelj, www.commons.wikimedia.org)
  • Suckermouth catfish (Photo: Jan Hoover, US Army Corps of Engineers, www.commons.wikimedia.org)
  • Sailfin pleco (Photo: Soulkeeper, www.commons.wikimedia.org)
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Common name
janitor fish (English), sailfin catfish (English), suckermouth armored catfish (English), radiated ptero (English), catfish (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
Pterygoplichthys spp. are popular aquarium catfish native to South America that have established in locations throughout the world as a result of aquarium trade and their release or escape. Invasive populations of Pterygoplichthys spp. have been reported from Mexico, Puerto Rico, India, the Philippines, Taiwan, Panamá, Trinidad, Guyana, Japan, Peru, Singapore, Sumatra, Malaysia, Java, Hawai'i, Florida, and Texas with impacts including competition and displacement of native fish, alteration food webs, increasing siltation and bank erosion, damage fishing equipment, and reduction of fishing yields.
Species Description
Pterygoplichthys spp. are medium to moderately large catfish generally measuring from 30-55 cm long but may exceed 70 cm (Nico et al, 2009b). They have a distinct dorsal sailfin with 9-14 rays, a ventral mouth modified into a sucking disk, and are covered in bony plates which comprise a body armor. Coloration varies among species but most have dark, vermiculated patterns (Nico & Martin, 2001).
Notes
This profile pertains to invasive species in the genus Pterygoplichthys. General impacts and distribution include annotations at both the generic and species level. Distribution information includes invasive members of the genus with species level data in the species location notes. Additional species level profiles have been created, please follow these links to view them Pterygoplichthys anisitsi; P. disjunctivus; P. pardalis; P. multiradiatus and Glyptoperichthys gibbiceps (=Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps).
Lifecycle Stages
Growth of Pterygoplichthys is rapid during the first two years of life, with total lengths of many sailfin catfishes exceeding 300 mm by age 2. Specimens in aquaria may live more than 10 years. The size range for most of the adult species in the Loricariid family is 30–50 cm, but individuals have been observed to reach 70 cm. Pterygoplicthys spp. start reproducing at approximately 25 cm (Mendoza et al, 2009).
Uses
Pterygoplichthys spp. are very popular aquarium fish commonly used to control algae in tanks and are sold throughout the world. Nearly all introductions are attributed to aquarium trade and aquarist release (Hossain et al, 2008).
Habitat Description
Pterygoplichthys spp. can be found in a wide variety of habitats, ranging from relatively cool, fast-flowing and oxygen-rich highland streams to slow-flowing, warm lowland rivers and stagnant pools poor in oxygen. They are tropical fish and populations are typically limited only by their lower lethal temperature which has been found to be about 8.8-11°C in some species (Gestring, 2006). They can thrive in a range of acidic to alkaline waters in a range of about (pH 5.5.0 to 8.0) (Mendoza et al., 2009). They are often found in soft waters, but can adapt very quickly to hard waters. Pterygoplichthys spp. are also highly tolerant to poor water quality and are commonly found in polluted waters (Chavez et al., 2006). They are known to use outflow from sewage treatment plants as thermal refugia and can readily adapt to changing water quality (Nico & Martin, 2001). Pterygoplichthys spp. may be found in from lowlands to elevations of up to 3,000 m (Wakida-Kusunki, 2007). Some species are salt tolerant (Mendoza et al., 2009).
Reproduction
Pterygoplichthys spp. reproduce sexually and have high fecundancy (Gibbs et al, 2008). Males construct horizontal burrows in banks that are about 120-150 cm long extend downward. The burrows are used as nesting tunnels and eggs are guarded by males until the free-swimming larvae leave. Females may lay between 500-3,000 eggs per female depending on size and species. Their reproductive season peaks in the summer and usually lasts several months but may be year-long in certain locations (Mendoza et al, 2009).
Nutrition
Pterygoplichthys spp. feed primarily on benthic algae and detritus (Ozedilek, 2007). They may also consume worms, insect larvae, fish eggs and other bottom-dwellers but the vast majority of its diet consists of detritus, algae, and various plant matter (Mendoza et al., 2009).
Pathway
Accidental release of Pterygoplichthys spp. has been documented, such as when typhoon Rosing struck the Philippines resulting in escape of the fish from commercial farms (Hubilla et al., 2007).Pterygoplichthys spp. are very common aquarium fish throughout the world. Nearly all of their introduced populations are believed to be the result of pet release or aquaculture escape (Page & Robins, 2006).While no substantial trade in catfish is thought to occur, the live food trade cannot be discounted completely as a potential mechanism for spread to new locations (Mendoza et al., 2009).

Principal source: Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montréal (Québec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
FishBase, 2010. Pterygoplichthys.
Hossain, M. Y.; M. M. Rahman; Z. F. Ahmed; J. Ohtomi; A. B. M. S. Islam, 2008. First record of the South American sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus in Bangladesh. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 24(6). DEC 2008. 718-720.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dr. Roberto Mendoza, Universidad Aut�noma de Nuevo Le�n (UANL).

Publication date: 2010-06-23

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Pterygoplichthys spp.. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1561 on 21-09-2017.

General Impacts
Potential effects of Pterygoplichthys spp. include alteration of bank structure and erosion, disruption of aquatic food chains, competition with native species, mortality of endangered shore birds, changes in aquatic plant communities, and damage to fishing gear and industry. \r\n

Environmental impacts of Pterygoplichthys spp. are not fully understood, but in locations where they are introduced and abundant, their feeding behaviours and burrowing activities can cause considerable disturbance. Their burrows have been reported as contributing to siltation problems and bank erosion and instability (Hoover et al., 2004; Nico et al, 2009b). Pterygoplichthys spp. forage along the bottoms of streams and lakes, occasionally burying their heads in the substrate and lashing their tails. These behaviours can uproot or shear aquatic plants and reduce the abundance of beds of submersed aquatic vegetation, creating floating mats that shade the benthos from sunlight. By grazing on benthic algae and detritus, they may alter or reduce food availability and the physical cover available for aquatic insects eaten by other native and non-native fishes where they are introduced (Mendoza et al, 2009; Hossain et al, 2008). Pterygoplichthys spp. may also compete with native fish. They are believed to displace several species of minnow in Texas including the Federally threatened and 'Vulnerable (VU)' Devils River minnow (see Dionda diaboli ) (Cohen, 2008; Mendoza et al, 2009). Pterygoplichthys spp. have also been found to ingest eggs of Etheostoma fonticola, also listed as vulnerable (Cook-Hildreth, 2009).\r\n

Pterygoplichthys spp. are thought to create large, novel nutrient sinks in invaded streams of southern Mexico. They sequester the majority of nitrogen and phosphorus of systems in their body armor. These impacts on nutrient systems may also exacerbate the nutrient limitation of primary productivity in invaded streams (Capps et al, 2009).

Thousands of nesting tunnels excavated by P. multiradiatus have contributed to siltation problems in Hawai'i. Because of their abundance in Hawai'i, P. multiradiatus may compete with native stream species for food and space (Nico, 2006). The burrowing behaviour and overpopulation of P. multiradiatus may also displace native fish in Puerto Rico where they have been reported as detrimental to reservoir fishes (Bunkley-Williams et al, 1994). In Lake Okeechobee, Florida P. multiradiatus feeds and burrows at the bottom and destroys submerged vegetation, essentially displacing native fishes that would otherwise use the aquatic vegetation for spawning and refuge and interfering with their reproduction (Mendoza et al, 2009). P. multiradiatus is known to cause economic losses to fisherman by damaging equipment such as cast and gill nets in India and displacing native fish (Krishnakumar et al, 2009).
P. multiradiatus and P. pardalis damage fishing gear and gill nets in various locations of Mexico (Wakida-Kusunoki et al, 2007).

P. disjunctivus and P. pardalis are reportedly destroying cages and nets and causing a decline in native, more desirable fish in Laguna de Bay, Philippines (Chavez et al, 2006). P. disjunctivus attaches to the skin of the 'Endangered (EN)' native Florida manatee (see Trichechus manatus ssp. latirostris ) and feeds on their epibiota. In some instances dozens of P. disjunctivus and manatees appeared agitated. This interaction may be detrimental to manatee but remains unclear (Nico et al, 2009a).

Management Info
Preventative measures: Efforts to prevent the establishment of Pterygoplichthys spp. are recommended in potential habitats. Educating the public, especially aquarists, to avoid releasing their unwanted fishes into open waters may reduce their introductions (Mendoza et al, 2009).

Physical: It may be possible to reduce abundance in some locations, but based on the Hillsborough River studies, eradication is not feasible. Environmental management would only be useful in highly modified habitats located in urban areas. It is doubtful that it is possible to control populations over large areas. Shoreline hardening/barriers are effective, but expensive. A larger, commercial fish market for Pterygoplicthys coupled with intense egg collection could reduce their abundance. Some researchers recommend visiting nesting colonies during the breeding season and capturing and removing adults and any eggs and young. This method may be mostly effective in areas where breeding habitats are limited (Medoza et al, 2009).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Pterygoplichthys spp.
NATIVE RANGE
  • bolivia
  • brazil
Informations on Pterygoplichthys spp. has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Pterygoplichthys spp. in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Potential effects of Pterygoplichthys spp. include alteration of bank structure and erosion, disruption of aquatic food chains, competition with native species, mortality of endangered shore birds, changes in aquatic plant communities, and damage to fishing gear and industry. \r\n

Environmental impacts of Pterygoplichthys spp. are not fully understood, but in locations where they are introduced and abundant, their feeding behaviours and burrowing activities can cause considerable disturbance. Their burrows have been reported as contributing to siltation problems and bank erosion and instability (Hoover et al., 2004; Nico et al, 2009b). Pterygoplichthys spp. forage along the bottoms of streams and lakes, occasionally burying their heads in the substrate and lashing their tails. These behaviours can uproot or shear aquatic plants and reduce the abundance of beds of submersed aquatic vegetation, creating floating mats that shade the benthos from sunlight. By grazing on benthic algae and detritus, they may alter or reduce food availability and the physical cover available for aquatic insects eaten by other native and non-native fishes where they are introduced (Mendoza et al, 2009; Hossain et al, 2008). Pterygoplichthys spp. may also compete with native fish. They are believed to displace several species of minnow in Texas including the Federally threatened and 'Vulnerable (VU)' Devils River minnow (see Dionda diaboli ) (Cohen, 2008; Mendoza et al, 2009). Pterygoplichthys spp. have also been found to ingest eggs of Etheostoma fonticola, also listed as vulnerable (Cook-Hildreth, 2009).\r\n

Pterygoplichthys spp. are thought to create large, novel nutrient sinks in invaded streams of southern Mexico. They sequester the majority of nitrogen and phosphorus of systems in their body armor. These impacts on nutrient systems may also exacerbate the nutrient limitation of primary productivity in invaded streams (Capps et al, 2009).

Thousands of nesting tunnels excavated by P. multiradiatus have contributed to siltation problems in Hawai'i. Because of their abundance in Hawai'i, P. multiradiatus may compete with native stream species for food and space (Nico, 2006). The burrowing behaviour and overpopulation of P. multiradiatus may also displace native fish in Puerto Rico where they have been reported as detrimental to reservoir fishes (Bunkley-Williams et al, 1994). In Lake Okeechobee, Florida P. multiradiatus feeds and burrows at the bottom and destroys submerged vegetation, essentially displacing native fishes that would otherwise use the aquatic vegetation for spawning and refuge and interfering with their reproduction (Mendoza et al, 2009). P. multiradiatus is known to cause economic losses to fisherman by damaging equipment such as cast and gill nets in India and displacing native fish (Krishnakumar et al, 2009).
P. multiradiatus and P. pardalis damage fishing gear and gill nets in various locations of Mexico (Wakida-Kusunoki et al, 2007).

P. disjunctivus and P. pardalis are reportedly destroying cages and nets and causing a decline in native, more desirable fish in Laguna de Bay, Philippines (Chavez et al, 2006). P. disjunctivus attaches to the skin of the 'Endangered (EN)' native Florida manatee (see Trichechus manatus ssp. latirostris ) and feeds on their epibiota. In some instances dozens of P. disjunctivus and manatees appeared agitated. This interaction may be detrimental to manatee but remains unclear (Nico et al, 2009a).

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
INDIA
MEXICO
PHILIPPINES
PUERTO RICO
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[5] Competition
[1] Predation
[1] Rooting/Digging
Outcomes
[10] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
  • [1] Modification of natural benthic communities
  • [5] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Soil or sediment modification: modification of structure
  • [1] Other
[3] Socio-Economic
  • [2] Damage on aquaculture/mariculture/fishery
  • [1] Human nuisance 
Management information
Preventative measures: Efforts to prevent the establishment of Pterygoplichthys spp. are recommended in potential habitats. Educating the public, especially aquarists, to avoid releasing their unwanted fishes into open waters may reduce their introductions (Mendoza et al, 2009).

Physical: It may be possible to reduce abundance in some locations, but based on the Hillsborough River studies, eradication is not feasible. Environmental management would only be useful in highly modified habitats located in urban areas. It is doubtful that it is possible to control populations over large areas. Shoreline hardening/barriers are effective, but expensive. A larger, commercial fish market for Pterygoplicthys coupled with intense egg collection could reduce their abundance. Some researchers recommend visiting nesting colonies during the breeding season and capturing and removing adults and any eggs and young. This method may be mostly effective in areas where breeding habitats are limited (Medoza et al, 2009).

Locations
MEXICO
PHILIPPINES
Management Category
Control
Bibliography
64 references found for Pterygoplichthys spp.

Managment information
Aquatic Nuisance Species Information System (ANSIS), 2007. Species Profiles
Aquatic Nuisance Species Information System (ANSIS), 2007. Species Profiles. Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus - butterfly pleco
Aquatic Nuisance Species Information System (ANSIS), 2007. Species Profiles. Pterygoplicththys anisitsi- snow pleco.
Summary: Available from: http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/ansrp/ANSIS/ansishelp.htm#html/pterygoplichthys_disjunctivus_vermiculated_sailfin_catfish.htm [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Aquatic Nuisance Species Information System (ANSIS), 2007. Species Profiles. Pterygoplicththys disjunctivus- vermiculated sailfin catfish.
Gertzen, Erin; Oriana Familiar, and Brian Leung, 2008. Quantifying invasion pathways: fish introductions from the aquarium trade
Summary: Available from: http://biology.mcgill.ca/faculty/leung/articles/Gertzen_et_al_CJFAS08.pdf [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Joshi, Ravindra C., undated. Invasive alien species (IAS): Concerns and status in the Philippines. Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) Maligaya
Krishnakumar, K.; Rajeev Raghavan; G. Prasad; A. Bijukumar; Mini Sekharan; Benno Pereira and Anvar Ali, 2009. When pets become pests � exotic aquarium fishes and biological invasions in Kerala, India. Commentary Current Science, VOL. 97, NO. 4, 25 AUGUST 2009
Liang, Shih-Hisung; Ling-Chuan Chuang and Ming-Hsiung Chang, 2006. The Pet Trade as a Source of Invasive Fish in Taiwan Taiwania, 51(2): 93-98, 2006
Summary: Available from: http://www.press.ntu.edu.tw/ejournal/files/taiwan%5C200606%5C4.pdf [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montr�al (Qu�bec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
Summary: In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001, the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG), a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced the �Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity.� This strategy identified responding to threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.
Available from: English version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5516_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
French version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5517_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Spanish version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5518_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].
Page, Lawrence M. and Robert H. Robins, 2006. Identification of sailfin catfishes (Teleostei: Loricariidae) in Southeastern Asia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54 (2), pp. 455-457.
Shafland, L. Paul, 1986. A Review of Florida s Efforts to Regulate Assess and Manage Exotic Fish. Fisheries, Vol 11 No 2
Summary: Available from: http://www.fwc.state.fl.us/docs/WildlifeHabitats/Nonnative_FW_ExoticRegAssMgt1996Fisheries.pdf [Accessed 23 November 2009]
General information
Agusan Marsh FOCAS. 2008. Janitor Fish for Sustainable Agriculture.
Summary: Available from: http://www.agusanmarshfocas.org/?p=579 [Accessed 22 June, 2010]
Armbruster, Jonathan W. and Lawrence M. Page2006. Redescription of Pterygoplichthys punctatus and description of a new species of Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 4(4):401-409, 2006.
Blake, R. W.; P. Y. L. Kwok and K. H. S. Chan, 2007. The energetics of rheotactic behaviour in Pterygoplichthys spp. (Teleostei : Loricariidae). Journal of Fish Biology. 71(2). AUG 2007. 623-627.
Champeau, R. Thomas; Philip W. Stevens and David A. Blewett, 2009. Comparision of Fish Community Metrics to Assess Long-Term Changes and Hurricane Impacts at Peace River Florida. Florida Scientist. Vol 72 No 4 2009.
Summary: Available from: http://www.chnep.org/info/FloridaScientist_Autumn2009/6Champeau_Compar_Fish_Metrics_FS_72-4-289.pdf [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Chavez, J.M.; Reynaldo M. De La Paz; Surya Krishna Manohar; Roberto C. Pagulayan; Jose R. Carandang VI, 2006. New Philippine record of South American sailfin catfishes (Pisces: Loricariidae). Zootaxa (1109), pp. 57-68.
Summary:
Cohen, K. 2008. Gut content and stable isotope analysis of exotic suckermouth catfishes in the San Marcos River, TX: A concern for sping endemics?. Masters Thesis, Texas State University� San Marcos.
Cook-Hildreth, S.L. 2009. Exotic Armored Catfishes in Texas: Reproductive Biology, and Effects of Foraging on Egg Survival of Native Fishes (Etheostoma fonticola, Endangered and Dionda diabolic, Threatened). Master in Science Dissertation. Texas State University� San Marcos. 63 pp.
Edwards, Robert J. 2001. New additions and persistence of the introduced fishes of the upper San Antonio River, Bexar County, Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 53(1). February, 2001. 3-12.
Summary: The fish fauna of the upper San Antonio River, Bexar County, Texas, includes ten introduced species (Astyanax mexicanus, Hypostomus sp., Poecilia reticulata, P. latipinna, Xiphophorus helleri, Belonesox belizanus, Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum, Oreochromis mossambicus, O. aurea and Tilapia zilli). A recent sample from this environment contained nine of the ten known introduced species, as well as two additional species (the vermiculated highfin catfish, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, and the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa), that were, heretofore, not found from this location. The only fish known to have been introduced but not taken in this collection, was Belonesox belizanus, a species introduced in the early 1960s and not captured or observed for more than 30 years and believed to be extirpated. The introduced fishes appear to be having a substantial impact upon the native fishes of this river. Introduced species made up 61% of the species, 17% of the individuals, and 62% of the biomass of the sample. It further appears that urban influences have had a major impact upon the conditions leading to the present fish assemblage.
FishBase, 2010b. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991). www.fishbase.org.
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=51938 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
FishBase, 2010. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903. www.fishbase.org
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=12218 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
FishBase, 2010. Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854). www.fishbase.org
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=12219 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
FishBase, 2010. Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828). www.fishbase.org
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=4793 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
FishBase, 2010. Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau, 1855). www.fishbase.org
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=25741 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Gestring, K.B., Shafland, P.L. & Stanford, M.S. 2006. The status of Loricariid catfishes in Florida with emphasis on Orinoco Sailfin (Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus). Abstracts for the 26th Annual Meeting of the Florida Chapter American Fisheries Society.
Gibbs, M. A.; J. H.Shields; D. W. Lock; K. M. Talmadge; T. M. Farrell, 2008. Reproduction in an invasive exotic catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus in Volusia Blue Spring, Florida, U.S.A. Journal of Fish Biology. 73(7). NOV 2008. 1562-1572.
Hoover, J.J., Killgore, K.J. & Cofrancesco, A.F. 2004. Suckermouth catfishes: Threats to aquatic ecosystems of the United States? Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program Bulletin, 4 (1).
Hossain, M. Y.; M. M. Rahman; Z. F. Ahmed; J. Ohtomi; A. B. M. S. Islam, 2008. First record of the South American sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus in Bangladesh. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 24(6). DEC 2008. 718-720.
Hubbs, C., R. J. Edwards and G. P. Garrett. 2008. An annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Texas, with keys to identification of species. Texas Academy of Science.
Summary: Available from: https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/6290/Hubbs_et_al_2008_checklist.pdf?sequence=2 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Hubilla, M., Kis, F. & Primavera, J. 2007. Janitor Fish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus in the Agusan Marsh: a Threat to Freshwater Biodiversity. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 10(1): 10-23.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010a. Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828)
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=164375 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010b. Pterygoplichthys Gill, 1858
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=164372 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010c. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann and Kennedy, 1903
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=680350 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010d. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991)
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=680351 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010e. Pterygoplichthys etentaculatus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829)
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=680352 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010f. Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau, 1855)
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=680353 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010g. Pterygoplichthys undecimalis (Steindachner, 1878)
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=680354 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010h. Pterygoplichthys zuliaensis Weber, 1991
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=680355 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010i. Glyptoperichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854)
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=639370 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
J�lio Junior, Hor�cio Ferreira; Claudenice Dei T�s; �ngelo Antonio Agostinho and Carla Simone Pavanelli, 2009. A massive invasion of fish species after eliminating a natural barrier in the upper rio Paran� basin. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7(4):709-718, 2009
Joshi, R.C. 2006. Invasive alien species (IAS): Concerns and status in the Philippines. International Workshop on the Development of Database (APASD) for Biological Invasion. Taichung, Taiwan ROC, September 18-22, 2006.
Keszka, Slawomir; Remigiusz Panicz; Adam Tanski, 2008. First Record of the Leopard Pleco, Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Actinopterygii, Loricariidae) in the Brda River in the Centre of Bydgoszcz (Northern Poland). Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria. 38(2). 2008. 135-138.
Levin B. A.; P. H. Phuong; D. S. Pavlov, 2008. Discovery of the Amazon sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau, 1855) (Teleostei: Loricariidae) in Vietnam. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 24(6). DEC 2008. 715-717.
L�pez-Fern�ndez, Hern�n and Kirk O. Winemiller, 2005. Status of Dionda diaboli and Report of Established Populations of Exotic Fish Species in Lower San Felipe Creek, Val Verde County, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist, Vol. 50, No. 2 (Jun., 2005), pp. 246-251
Ludlow, M. E & Walsh S. J., 1991. Occurrence of the South American Armoured Catfish in the Hillsborough River Florida USA. Florida Scientist. 54(1). 1991. 48-50.
Summary: This note reports the presence of a South American catfish in the Hillsborough River, Hillsborough County, Florida. Although loricariid catfishes have been reported from the Tampa Bay area for several decades, until recently they had not been documented from the Hillsborough River drainage. The construction of a new canal system may have allowed ingress of Pterygoplichthys cf. multiradiatus into the Hillsborough River proper. A brief morphological description of three specimens is presented. Future research into the biological and ecological impacts of this algae-feeding armored catfish is strongly recommended
Nico, Leo 2003. Pterygoplichthys pardalis . USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=769 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Nico, Leo 2006. Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus . USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=768 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Nico, Leo and Pam Fuller. 2006. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi . USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=766 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Nico, Leo and Pam Fuller. 2008. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus . USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=767 [Accessed 23 November 2009]
Nico, Leo G.; R. Trent Martin, 2001. The South American suckermouth armored catfish, Pterygoplichthys anisitsi (Pisces: Loricariidae), in Texas, with comments on foreign fish introductions in the American Southwest. Southwestern Naturalist. 46(1). March, 2001. 98-104.
Nico, Leo G.; William F. Loftus; James P. Reid, 2009. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs. Aquatic Invasions (2009) Volume 4, Issue 3: 511-519.
Ozdilek, Sukran Yalcin. 2007. Possible Threat for Middle East Inland Water: an Exotic and Invasive Species, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991) in Asi River, Turkey (Pisces: Loricariidae). Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 2007. Cilt/Volume 24, Sayi/Issue (3-4): 303�306.
Stevens, W. Philip; David A. Blewett and Patrick Casey, 2006. Short-term Effects of a Low Dissolved Oxygen Event on Estuarine Fish Assemblages Following the Passage of Hurricane Charley. Estuaries and Coasts Vol. 29, No. 6A, p. 997�1003 December 2006
Trujillo-Jim�nez, Patricia; Eugenia L�pez-L�pez; Edmundo D�az-Pardo and Julio A. Camargo, 2009. Patterns in the distribution of fish assemblages in R�o Amacuzac, Mexico: influence of abiotic factors and biotic factors. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. Research Paper. Sunday, December 13, 2009
Wakida-Kusunoki, Armando T.; Ramon Ruiz-Carus; Enrique Amador-del-Angel, 2007. Amazon sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau, 1855) (Loricariidae), another exotic species established in southeastern Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist. 52(1). MAR 2007. 141-144.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Pterygoplichthys spp.
Eduardo Mendoza Alfaro,
Dr. Roberto
Organization:
Universidad Aut�noma de Nuevo Le�
Address:
Facultad de Ciencias Biol�gicas, Apartado Postal F-96, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicol�s de los Garza, Nuevo Le�n, C.P. 66450, M�xico
Phone:
(81) 83-52-97-72
Fax:
(81) 83-52-97-72