Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
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Common name
huahekili (English, Hawaii), Hawaiian beach cabbage (English), aupaka (English, Hawaii), naupaka kahakai (English, Hawaii), naupaka kai (English, Hawaii), naupaka kuahiwi (English, Hawaii), Hawaiian half-flower (English), Scaevola (English), Hawaiian seagrape (English), sea lettuce (English), beach naupaka (English), half-flower (English)
Synonym
Scaevola sericea , var. taccada (Gaertn.) Thieret & B. Lipscomb
Scaevola sericea , var. sericea Vahl
Scaevola taccada , var. bryanii St. John
Scaevola taccada , var. fauriei (Levl.) St. John
Scaevola taccada , var. sericea (Vahl) St. John
Scaevola taccada , (Gaertn.) Roxb.
Scaevola frutescens , Krause
Scaevola frutescens , var. sericea (Vahl) Merr., 1912
Scaevola lobelia , var. sericea (Vahl) Benth., 1852
Scaevola frutescens , (Mill.) Krause
Scaevola lobelia , L.
Scaevola koenigii , Vahl
Similar species
Scaevola plumieri
Summary
Beach naupaka (Scaevola sericea) is a dominant shrub species present in tropical and subtropical coastal environments, including sand dune, mangrove and seagrape habitats and ruderal land. Native to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, it has become an invasive coastal plant in sand dune ecosystems in the Cayman Islands and Florida, USA, where it forms dense monospecific mounds and out-competes and displaces native plants.
Species Description
Habit and leaves: Scaevola sericea is a dense, spreading shrub that forms rounded mounds from 1 to 3.5 meters (3 to 10 feet) tall. The multi-stemmed shrub produces medium green elliptic leaves which are alternate, waxy and fleshy or succulent, but not stiff or thick-skinned. They grow from 4 to 21 cm long and 1.8 to 9 cm wide and have a broader tip or apex than base. Often the edges of the leaves roll under (Lockhart Undated; Randall Marinelli & Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1996; University of Hawai'i 2001; Burke 2003;). Two varieties are cultivated: S. sericea var. sericea has silky plant hairs on the stem and leaves; S. sericea var. taccada has smooth leaves, lacking plant hairs (Randall Marinelli & Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1996; University of Hawai'i 2001; Lockhart Undated). Note that leaf morphology varies by locality (Stender & Stender Undated).

Flowers: The flowers are white or cream-colored and clustered. Flowers emerge in groups of three, with all flowers stalked. They are sometimes blushed with pink, purple or violet and have a pleasant fragrance. They have an irregular shape with five petals (about 2 cm long) - all on one side of the flower like a semi-circle making them appear to have been torn in half and resulting in the vernacular name \"half-flower\". The flowers grow in small clusters from between the leaves at the ends of the stems (Randall Marinelli & Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1996; University of Hawai'i 2001; Lockhart Undated).

Fruit: The round to elliptical drupes measure about 1 to 1.7 cm wide and are coloured white to yellowish-white. Fruits are fleshy berries containing beige corky ridged seeds. The inside of the fruit is corky and the fruits are buoyant (Randall Marinelli & Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1996; University of Hawai'i 2001; Lockhart Undated).

Look for first (Lockhart Undated):

  • Rounded shrub;
  • White \"half-flower\";
  • White clusters of fruit; and
  • Large, mostly erect leaves, with wavy margins and small indentations at the apex.

    For futher details and a picture guide please see: Lockhart Undated. Please note that the synonym S. taccada is used by Lockhart (Undated).

  • Notes
    There are two varieties of Scaevola sericea according to ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System): S. sericea var. sericea Vahl and S. sericea var. taccada (Gaertn.) Thieret & B. Lipscomb. Synonyms of S. sericea are: S. taccada var. bryanii St. John, S. taccada var. fauriei (Levl.) St. John and S. taccada var. sericea (Vahl) St. John. In this species profile the GISD has noted for clarity which references have used the synonym S. taccada instead of S. sericea.
    Part of the family Goodeniaceae, Scaevola is a genus of more than 130 tropical species, mostly centered in Australia and Polynesia, but with one widespread, pantropical, coastal species S. sericea (DaCosta-Cottam et al. 2009; Hammer 1998). Mountain naupaka or naupaka kuahiwi (Scaevola spp.) is indigenous to Hawai'i (Scott 1991) and, interestingly, nine out of ten Scaevola species occurring in Hawai'i are endemic to the Hawai'ian Islands (Offshore Islet Restoration Committee Undated). Many legends have been told to explain the formation of the naupaka's unique half flowers. In one version a woman tears the flower in half after a quarrel with her lover. The Gods, angered, turn all naupaka flowers into half flowers and the two lovers remained separated while the man is destined to search in vain for another whole flower (Hammer 1998).
    Lifecycle Stages
    Plants can produce fruits within their first or second year (Lockhart Undated) and produce flowers and fruits year-round (but mostly from late spring to early fall in Florida, USA) (FLEPPC 2009). Fruits float in sea water and the viability of mature seeds is not substantially affected by exposure to sea water for long periods of time; seeds treated with saline solutions germinate rapidly after exposure to fresh water (Lesko & Walker 1996, in Goldstein et al. 1996). One study showed that the seeds germinated best after 250 days in salt water (Bornhorst 1996, in University of Hawai'i 2001). S. sericea grows easily from cuttings or seed (University of Hawai'i 2001).
    Uses
    Naupaka is used in landscaping and erosion control (USDA-ARS Undated b). For example S. sericea has been used for that purpose on reclaimed Temaiku milkfish ponds on Tarawa, Kiribati.
    Scaevola spp. are used in traditional Polynesian craft, for example, to construct reef-fishing nets (Aalbersberg Nunn & Ravuvu 1993)
    S. sericea has a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine and extracts have shown selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in vitro (Locher et al. 1995).
    Habitat Description
    Beach naupaka is present in coastal habitats and environments including the following natural habitats: sand dune, marine/estuarine, xeric hammock, tidal marsh, saline shores, seagrape, maritime forest, mangrove, coastal strand, coastal berm, coastal rock barrens and coastal uplands (SE-EPPC Undated; Nelson 1996, in FLEPPC 2009). Single specimens have also been reported from pine flatwoods and prairies (SE-EPPC Undated). It is also present in regularly disturbed and developed land, ruderal land, roadsides and dump sites (SE-EPPC Undated). Beach naupaka spreads along wrack lines of the coast, canal banks, mangroves and inland shorelines (Lockhart Undated).
    S. sericea is reportedly sensitive to frost (Lockhart Undated), fire and heavy shade (Smith and Tunison 1992, Herbst and Wagner 1992, in FLEPPC 2009). However, beach naupaka is well suited and adapted to live in salt-sprayed coastal environments. Plants from coastal strands are often subject to heavy loads of salt spray and shifting sandy substrate with low water-holding capacity and variable salinity. Coastal substrate salinity may range from 0.1% to 3% (Barbour et al. 1985, in Goldstein et al. 1996). In a study by Goldstein and colleagues (1996) it was found that S. sericea was strongly affected by substrate salinity but only weakly affected by salt spray. Parameters measured were new stem and leaf biomass, leaf sap osmolarity and photosynthetic rates. The authors believe that these physiological responses may partially explain the wide geographical distribution of S. sericea in coastal habitats throughout the tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Oceans.
    Pathway
    Invasive flora in the Caymans establishes mainly as a result of land clearance in association with development, and also through landscaping with exotics species, particularly Scaevola sericea (DaCosta-Cottam et al. 2009). It was introduced as a salt-tolerant ornamental on many West Indian islands (Proctor 2009, in DaCosta-Cottam et al. 2009).Principally through the nursery trade, beach naupaka has become pantropical in distribution, readily spreading from landscape plants into coastal habitats outside its historic natural range (Hammer 1998). For example, it is a common nursery landscape species in Florida (Wirth Davis & Wilson 2004).

    Principal source:

    Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

    Review: Under expert review

    Publication date: 2010-02-15

    Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Scaevola sericea. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1532 on 10-12-2016.

    General Impacts
    According to the Global Compendium of Weeds beach naupaka is an agricultural and environmental weed. The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council lists beach naupaka as a Category I species, defined as a plant that is invading and disrupting native plant communities; it has been included in a survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawai'i (GCW 2007b).
    Competition: Beach naupaka colonises sand dunes and competes with native coastal vegetation. It can quickly form extensive colonies, providing a seed source for more rapid dispersal to other shorelines. In southern Florida it competes directly with the related native inkberry (Scaevola plumieri), a state threatened species, which has stiff, dark green glossy leaves and black fruit (Randall Marinelli & Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1996).
    Threat to endangered species: In the Caymans beach naupaka is chronically invasive and appears capable of out-competing most flora naturally associated with sandy beach and cobble habitat (DaCosta-Cottam et al. 2009) including lavender, pop-nut, broadleaf and almond trees (Blumenthal 2004). Beach naupaka (S. sericea) negatively impacts various critically endangered and vulnerable species, including cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco), bay balsam (S. plumieri), tea banker or mint (subspecies: Pectis caymanensis var. robusta and P. caymanensis var. caymanensis) and broadleaf (Cordia sebestena var. caymanensis).
    Physical Disturbance: The shallow root systems of S. sericea, combined with its ability to out-compete native species, encourages dune de-stabilisation (Hammerton 2001, Sealey et al. 2004, Nero & Sealey 2006); however, in some parts of the Pacific the species is used for erosion control.
    Modification of Nutrient Regime: S. sericea can reportedly result in an increased delivery of sediments and nutrients to the marine environment due to dune destabilisation (Nero & Sealey 2006).
    Other: Sea turtles may be prevented from accessing their nesting sites in the Caymans, however, no data has been collected to confirm this (Blumenthal 2004).
    Management Info
    Manual: Beach naupaka is difficult to control. The fleshy branches are easy to hand-pull, but the broken underground stems readily re-sprout if not completely removed (Lockhart Undated). Young specimens may be hand-pulled and should be removed from the site because the plant roots easily from cuttings. Older plants may be mechanically removed by digging or hand-pulling and taken away (along with the seeds) from the site (Randall Marinelli & Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1996).
    Chemical: Herbicides have been effective in dry dune habitat, but removal and treatment of beach naupaka in tidal mangrove areas requires more careful treatment. Monitoring and re-treatment are necessary for at least two to three years after removal, to weed out new seedlings and stem sprouts (Lockhart Undated). If mechanical removal is not possible, the plants should be cut down to the ground and treated with 50% triclopyr herbicide (amine formula) and 50% water (Randall Marinelli & Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1996). Eradication recommendation in Florida, USA, is basal application with 10% Garlon 4 or stump application with 50% Garlon 3A.
    Integrated Pest Management: The Darwin Initiative project, 'An Assessment of the Coastal Biodiversity of Anegada' is monitoring the spread of S. sericea on Anegada and asking the local community to help by reporting new localities of the plant to the National Parks Trust. To assist in field identification, they have produced a poster and a monitoring form to help distinguish the native species of Scaevola from the exotic (Kew Gardens Undated a).
    In the wake of Hurricane Ivan, a collaborative three year Darwin project was funded to produce a Biodiversity Action Plan for the Cayman Islands. Integral to this aim were: biodiversity mapping, research into key endemic taxa and invasive species, institutional capacity building and environmental awareness activities for the general public and key stakeholders. Major botanical outputs included invasive plant species collection, including that of S. sericea, identification, mapping and Biodiversity Action Plan recommendations to mitigate the impact of invasive species (Kew Gardens Undated b). To view coastal biodiversity maps for all islands please see: Darwin Initiative. Undated a. Habitat maps: Coastal
    In Florida alternative species to invasive species are recommended for landscaping and gardening, for example, the native inkberry (Scaevola plumieri). This species is native to Florida, Louisiana, Texas and Puerto Rico and is appropriate for dune and beach plantings, erosion control, as a foundation shrub and for screening (Burrell et al. 2006). According to one author “Inkberry responds well to pruning and can form many interesting shapes as a single shrub or continuous ground cover…The dense clusters formed by this plant make excellent cover for many birds and small animals.” (from Seashore Plants of South Florida and the Caribbean by David W. Nellis).
    Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Scaevola sericea
    Informations on Scaevola sericea has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
    Lorem Ipsum
    Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
    Details of Scaevola sericea in information
    Status
    Invasiveness
    Arrival date
    Occurrence
    Source
    Introduction
    Species notes for this location
    Location note
    Management notes for this location
    Impact
    Mechanism:
    Outcome:
    Ecosystem services:
    Impact information
    According to the Global Compendium of Weeds beach naupaka is an agricultural and environmental weed. The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council lists beach naupaka as a Category I species, defined as a plant that is invading and disrupting native plant communities; it has been included in a survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawai'i (GCW 2007b).
    Competition: Beach naupaka colonises sand dunes and competes with native coastal vegetation. It can quickly form extensive colonies, providing a seed source for more rapid dispersal to other shorelines. In southern Florida it competes directly with the related native inkberry (Scaevola plumieri), a state threatened species, which has stiff, dark green glossy leaves and black fruit (Randall Marinelli & Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1996).
    Threat to endangered species: In the Caymans beach naupaka is chronically invasive and appears capable of out-competing most flora naturally associated with sandy beach and cobble habitat (DaCosta-Cottam et al. 2009) including lavender, pop-nut, broadleaf and almond trees (Blumenthal 2004). Beach naupaka (S. sericea) negatively impacts various critically endangered and vulnerable species, including cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco), bay balsam (S. plumieri), tea banker or mint (subspecies: Pectis caymanensis var. robusta and P. caymanensis var. caymanensis) and broadleaf (Cordia sebestena var. caymanensis).
    Physical Disturbance: The shallow root systems of S. sericea, combined with its ability to out-compete native species, encourages dune de-stabilisation (Hammerton 2001, Sealey et al. 2004, Nero & Sealey 2006); however, in some parts of the Pacific the species is used for erosion control.
    Modification of Nutrient Regime: S. sericea can reportedly result in an increased delivery of sediments and nutrients to the marine environment due to dune destabilisation (Nero & Sealey 2006).
    Other: Sea turtles may be prevented from accessing their nesting sites in the Caymans, however, no data has been collected to confirm this (Blumenthal 2004).
    Red List assessed species 0:
    Mechanism
    [8] Competition
    [1] Hybridisation
    Outcomes
    [13] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
    • [1] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
    • [1] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
    • [8] Reduction in native biodiversity
    • [2] Habitat degradation
    • [1] Modification of successional patterns
    [1] Environmental Species - Population
    • [1] Alteration of genetic resources
    Management information
    Manual: Beach naupaka is difficult to control. The fleshy branches are easy to hand-pull, but the broken underground stems readily re-sprout if not completely removed (Lockhart Undated). Young specimens may be hand-pulled and should be removed from the site because the plant roots easily from cuttings. Older plants may be mechanically removed by digging or hand-pulling and taken away (along with the seeds) from the site (Randall Marinelli & Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1996).
    Chemical: Herbicides have been effective in dry dune habitat, but removal and treatment of beach naupaka in tidal mangrove areas requires more careful treatment. Monitoring and re-treatment are necessary for at least two to three years after removal, to weed out new seedlings and stem sprouts (Lockhart Undated). If mechanical removal is not possible, the plants should be cut down to the ground and treated with 50% triclopyr herbicide (amine formula) and 50% water (Randall Marinelli & Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1996). Eradication recommendation in Florida, USA, is basal application with 10% Garlon 4 or stump application with 50% Garlon 3A.
    Integrated Pest Management: The Darwin Initiative project, 'An Assessment of the Coastal Biodiversity of Anegada' is monitoring the spread of S. sericea on Anegada and asking the local community to help by reporting new localities of the plant to the National Parks Trust. To assist in field identification, they have produced a poster and a monitoring form to help distinguish the native species of Scaevola from the exotic (Kew Gardens Undated a).
    In the wake of Hurricane Ivan, a collaborative three year Darwin project was funded to produce a Biodiversity Action Plan for the Cayman Islands. Integral to this aim were: biodiversity mapping, research into key endemic taxa and invasive species, institutional capacity building and environmental awareness activities for the general public and key stakeholders. Major botanical outputs included invasive plant species collection, including that of S. sericea, identification, mapping and Biodiversity Action Plan recommendations to mitigate the impact of invasive species (Kew Gardens Undated b). To view coastal biodiversity maps for all islands please see: Darwin Initiative. Undated a. Habitat maps: Coastal
    In Florida alternative species to invasive species are recommended for landscaping and gardening, for example, the native inkberry (Scaevola plumieri). This species is native to Florida, Louisiana, Texas and Puerto Rico and is appropriate for dune and beach plantings, erosion control, as a foundation shrub and for screening (Burrell et al. 2006). According to one author “Inkberry responds well to pruning and can form many interesting shapes as a single shrub or continuous ground cover…The dense clusters formed by this plant make excellent cover for many birds and small animals.” (from Seashore Plants of South Florida and the Caribbean by David W. Nellis).
    Bibliography
    55 references found for Scaevola sericea

    Managment information
    Blumenthal, Lois. 2004. Alien Invasive Threatens Native Beach Plants. Caymanian Compass.
    Summary: Available from: http://www.caymanwildlife.org/prs-invasiveThreat.html [Accessed 24 October 2009]
    Burke, K.C. 2003. Plant Identification Tips, Upland and Wetland Invasive Exotics. Bureau of Invasive Plant Management Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
    Summary: Available from: http://www.floridainvasives.org/toolbox/IDtipsUpland03.pdf [Accessed 21 October 2009]
    Burrell, C. Colston, Janet Marinelli, Bonnie Harper-Lore & Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 2006. Native alternatives to invasive plants Issue 185 of Brooklyn Botanic Garden all-region guides. Brooklyn Botanic Garden: Brooklyn.
    DaCosta-Cottam, M., Olynik, J., Blumenthal, J., Godbeer, K.D., Gibb, J., Bothwell, J., Burton, F.J., Bradley, P.E., Band, A., Austin, T., Bush, P., Johnson, B.J., Hurlston, L., Bishop, L., McCoy, C., Parsons, G., Kirkconnell, J., Halford, S. and Ebanks-Petrie, G. 2009. Cayman Islands National Biodiversity Action Plan 2009. Cayman Islands Government. Department of Environment.
    Darwin Initiative. Undated a. In Ivan�s Wake: Darwin Initiative Biodiversity Action Plan for the Cayman Islands (October 2005 - October 2008) > Project Outputs > Habitat Mapping: > Coastal
    Summary: Available from: http://www.seaturtle.org/mtrg/projects/cayman/COASTAL%20HABITATS%20MAPS.pdf [Accessed 23 October 2009]
    Darwin Initiative. Undated b. In Ivan�s Wake: Darwin Initiative Biodiversity Action Plan for the Cayman Islands (October 2005 - October 2008) > Project Outputs
    Summary: Available from: http://www.seaturtle.org/mtrg/projects/cayman/outputs.shtml [Accessed 23 October 2009]
    EDDMapS (Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System)., 2009. Beach naupaka Scaevola sericea Vahl
    Summary: Available from: http://www.eddmaps.org/florida/distribution/viewmap.cfm?sub=6390 [Accessed 21 October 2009]
    FKIETF (Florida Keys Invasives Exotic Task Force). 2005. List Of Invasive Plants of the Florida Keys
    Summary: Available from: http://www.keysgreenthumb.net/exotics_list.pdf [Accessed 21 October 2009]
    Hunsberger, Adrian G. B. Undated. Invasive and Banned Plants of Miami-Dade County. University of Florida Extension - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
    Summary: Available from: http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/old/programs/urbanhort/publications/PDF/Miami-Dade-County-Invasive-Plants.pdf [Accessed 21 October 2009]
    IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
    Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    Lockhart, Chris. Undated. Weed alert: Beach Naupaka (Scaevola taccada). Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.
    Summary: Available from: http://myfwc.com/docs/WildlifeHabitats/InvasivePlants_Scaevola.pdf [Accessed 21 October 2009]
    McCormick, Cheryl M. 2007. Colubrina Asiatica (Lather Leaf) Management Plan. Colubrina Task Force. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council.
    Summary: Available from: http://www.fleppc.org/Manage_Plans/CA%20Mngt%20Plan.pdf [Accessed 24 October 2009]
    SE-EPPC South East Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2009. Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System.
    Summary: Available from: http://www.eddmaps.org/southeast/distribution/secounty.cfm?sub=6390 [Accessed 24 October 2009]
    General information
    Aalbersberg, William, Patrick D. Nunn & Asesela Ravuvu. 1993. Climate and agriculture in the Pacific Islands: future perspectives. editorips@usp.ac.fj
    Alpha, C.G., D.R. Drake & G. Goldstein. 1996. Morphological and Physiological Responses of Scaevola sericea (Goodeniaceae) Seedlings to Salt Spray and Substrate Salinity, American Journal of Botany 83(1): 86-92.
    Brunt, M. A. 1994. The Cayman Islands: natural history and biogeography. Springer.
    Coile, Nancy C. & Mark A. Garland. 2003. Notes on Florida�s Endangered and Threatened Plants (4th Edition). Virtual Herbarium.
    Summary: Available from: http://www.virtualherbarium.org/EPAC/endangered.html [Accessed 25 June 2009]
    Flora of Pakistan online database. Undated. Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb.
    Summary: Available from: http://www.efloras.org [Accessed 23 October 2009]
    Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council (FLEPPC) 2009. Scaevola sericea Vahl. Beach naupaka
    Summary: Available from: http://www.fleppc.org/ID_book/scaevola%20sericea.pdf [Accessed June 25 2009]
    Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council (FLEPPC). 2009. Scaevola sericea Vahl. Beach naupaka
    Summary: Available from: http://www.fleppc.org/ID_book/scaevola%20sericea.pdf [Accessed June 25 2009]
    Freid, Ethan & Michael Vincent. 2007. Additions to the Flora of Mayaguana, Bahamas Naturalist & Journal of Science 2(1).
    Summary: Available from: http://www.bahamasmedia.com/resources/Download/BNJOS_vol2.pdf [Accessed 24 October 2009]
    Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW) 2007a. Scaevola sericea (Goodeniaceae)
    Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/scaevola_sericea/ [Accessed 21 October 2009]
    Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW) 2007b. Scaevola taccada (Goodeniaceae)
    Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/scaevola_taccada/ [Accessed 21 October 2009]
    Gordon, Doria R. 1998. Effects of Invasive, Non-Indigenous Plant Species on Ecosystem Processes: Lessons from Florida, Ecological Applications 8(4): pp. 975-989.
    Summary: Available from: http://www.fairchildgarden.org/uploads/docs/Center_for_Tropical_Plant_Conservation/Conservation_Planning/CAP%20Tephrosiavcurtissii%202004.doc [Accessed 21 October 2009]
    Hammer, Roger. 1998. Postcards from Paradise: Separated Lovers and the Beach Naupaka.
    Summary: Available from: http://www.se-eppc.org/wildlandweeds/pdf/SP98-Hammer-p_7-8.pdf [Accessed 24 October 2009]
    ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2009a. Online Database Scaevola sericea Vahl.
    Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
    Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=505045 [Accessed June 25 2009]
    ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System). 2009b. Online Database Scaevola sericea var. sericea Vahl
    Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
    Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=530255 [Accessed June 25 2009]
    ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System). 2009c. Online Database Scaevola sericea var. taccada (Gaertn.) Thieret & B. Lipscomb
    Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
    Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=530256 [Accessed June 25 2009]
    Locher, C. P., M. T. Burch, H. F. Mower, J. Berestecky, H. Davis, B. Van Poel, A. Lasure, D. A. Vanden Berghe and A. J. Vlietinck. 1995. Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 49(1): pp. 23-32.
    Madagascar Catalogue online database. Undated. Scaevola sericea Vahl
    Summary: Available from: http://www.efloras.org [Accessed 23 October 2009]
    Nero, Vanessa L. & Kathleen Sullivan Sealey. 2006. Fish�environment associations in the coastal waters of Andros Island, The Bahamas, Environmental Biology of Fishes 75: pp. 223�236.
    Offshore Islet Restoration Committee. Undated. Species - Plants > Selected Plants Found on Hawaii s Offshore Islets.
    Summary: Available from: http://www.hawaiioirc.org/OIRC-SPECIES-PLANTS.htm [Accessed 24 October 2009]
    Possley, Jennifer, Meghan Fellows & Samuel J. Wright, 2004. Conservation Action Plan Okenia hypogaea
    Summary: Available from: http://www.fairchildgarden.org/uploads/docs/Center_for_Tropical_Plant_Conservation/Conservation_Planning/CAP%20Okenia%202004.doc [Accessed 21 October 2009]
    Scott, Susan. 1991. Plants and Animals of Hawaii. Bess Press.
    Summary: Available from: http://books.google.co.nz/books?id=6MvFZ1P71GQC&dq=scaevola+sericea+hawaii&source=gbs_navlinks_s [Accessed 24 October 2009]
    Slusher, Jonathan & R. Laurence Davis. 2007. Distribution of the Brazilian Pepper Tree on San Salvador, Bahamas Naturalist & Journal of Science 2(1).
    Summary: Available from: http://www.bahamasmedia.com/resources/Download/BNJOS_vol2.pdf [Accessed 24 October 2009]
    Stender, Keoki & Yuko Stender. Plants > Beach/Coastal > Coastal Plants of Hawaii 2
    Summary: Available from: http://www.marinelifephotography.com/default.htm [Accessed 24 October 2009]
    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Undated. Vascular Plant Image Library.
    Summary: Available from: http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/imaxxgod.htm [Accessed 24 October 2009]
    University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2001. Scaevola sericea Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.
    Summary: Available from: http://www2.hawaii.edu/~eherring/hawnprop/sca-seri.htm [Accessed June 25 2009]
    University of Oxford. Undated. Cayman Islands. Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford. Brahms & Brahms 1985 � 2009.
    Summary: Available from: http://dps.plants.ox.ac.uk/bol/Cayman [Accessed 23 October 2009]
    USDA-ARS. 2009b. Taxon: Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb. GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) online database.
    Summary: Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?70617 [Accessed June 25 2009]
    USDA, NRCS. 2009. Scaevola sericea Vahl. The PLANTS Database
    Summary: Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SCSE6 [Accessed June 25 2009]
    Virginia Museum of Natural History (VMNH), 2005. More Bryozoan Information. VMNH Virginia, USA.
    Summary: An overview of the biology and problems caused by bryozoans.
    Virtual Herbarium, 2003. Notes on Florida�s Endangered and Threatened Plants 4th Edition, August 2003. Nancy C. Coile updated by Mark A. Garland
    Summary: Available from: http://www.virtualherbarium.org/EPAC/endangered.html [Accessed 25 June 2009]
    Wirth, Ferdinand F., Davis, Kathy J. & Wilson, Sandra B. 2004. Florida nursery sales and economic impacts of 14 potentially invasive landscape plant species, Journal of Environmental Horticulture 22(1): pp. 12-16.
    Wright, Samuel J. 2004. Conservation Action Plan Tephrosia angustissima var. curtissii
    Summary: Available from: http://www.fairchildgarden.org/centerfortropicalplantconservation/speciesandhabitatconservation/speciesweworkwith/ [Accessed 23 October 2009]
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