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Common name
fausse camomille (French, New Caledonia), whitetop weed (English), congress grass (English), Santa Maria feverfew (English), Karottenkraut (German), ragweed parthenium (English), parthenium weed (English)
Synonym
Parthenium lobatum , Buckl.
Similar species
Summary
Parthenium hysterophorus is an annual herb that aggressively colonises disturbed sites. Native to Mexico, Central and South America, Parthenium hysterophorus was accidentally introduced into several countries including Australia, India, Taiwan and Ethiopia. In some areas it has become an extremely serious agricultural and rangeland weed. Parthenium hysterophorus is also known to be allergenic to some people and consumption by livestock can taint meat.
Species Description
An erect ephemeral herb known for its vigorous growth. It is light green with branching stems, finely lobed leaves and grows up to 1.5 metres, occasionally reaching 2m in deep rich soils. Young plants form a basal rosette of strongly dissected leaves that are up to 30cm in length. Once stem elongation is initiated, smaller leaves are produced and the plant becomes much-branched in its extremities.
Lifecycle Stages
Germination temperatures for Parthenium occur across the 8 to 30° C range with the optimum germination temperature being 22 to 25° C. Persistence tests demonstrated that more than 70% of parthenium seeds buried at 5cm below the soil surface survived for at least 2 years whereas surface-lying seeds survived for no longer than 6 months. Parthenium weed seeds were found to be very persistent in the soil and there was relatively little change in their abundance over an 18 month period. The germination rate of parthenium weed seeds was also significantly faster than that of all other species present (Sheldon Navie, 2003).
Reproduction
Sexual reproduction.
Highly prolific. An average plant can produce 15,000 seeds and large plants are known to produce 100,000 seeds.
Pathway
Thought to have been introduced into Ethiopia and India with contaminated cereal grainThought to have been introduced into Australia in contaminated pasture seed from the USA.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Dr. Rachael MacFadyen, Queensland Department of Natural \ Resources, Australia. William Overholt, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Parthenium hysterophorus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=153 on 25-08-2016.

General Impacts
Infestations of parthenium weed can degrade natural ecosystems. The plant can produce serious allergenic reactions in humans. Parthenium aggressively colonises disturbed sites and has major impacts on pasture and cropping industries, spreading to and impacting on new\r\nareas.
Outcompetes native species, in part due to allelopathy.
Management Info
Control of parthenium weed can be managed using a combination of methods depending on the site, including biological control agents, pasture management, cultivation and chemicals.

\r\nPreventative measures: Emphasis must be laid on establishing detection/monitoring procedures and stopping the spread of parthenium weed via vehicles and as a contaminant. A Risk assessment of Parthenium hysterophorus for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score of 18 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be a pest (Pacific).

The Parthenium weed management book provides information on management and control aspects including spread minimization, pasture management, herbicide use, biological control and health aspects. It also describes the parthenium weed and provides basic information about its ecology and biology, reproduction and spread, current distribution, and potential threat. The Weed Control Methods Handbook provides you with detailed information about the tools and techniques available for controlling invasive plants, or weeds, in natural areas. This Handbook is divided into eight chapters, covering a range of different control methods: manual, mechanical, promoting competition from native plants, grazing, biocontrol, herbicides, prescribed fire, solarization, flooding, and other, more novel, techniques. Each control method has advantages and disadvantages in terms of its effects against the target weed(s), impacts to untargeted plants and animals, risks to human health and safety, and costs.

Biological: Biological control using insects and fungi is being pursued in Australia and in India.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Parthenium hysterophorus
NATIVE RANGE
  • australia
  • central america
  • guadeloupe
  • martinique
  • mexico
  • netherlands antilles
  • saint barthelemy
  • south america
Informations on Parthenium hysterophorus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Parthenium hysterophorus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Infestations of parthenium weed can degrade natural ecosystems. The plant can produce serious allergenic reactions in humans. Parthenium aggressively colonises disturbed sites and has major impacts on pasture and cropping industries, spreading to and impacting on new\r\nareas.
Outcompetes native species, in part due to allelopathy.
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
AUSTRALIA
INDIA
Mechanism
[2] Poisoning/Toxicity
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
[3] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Reduce/damage livestock and products
  • [2] Human health
Management information
Control of parthenium weed can be managed using a combination of methods depending on the site, including biological control agents, pasture management, cultivation and chemicals.

\r\nPreventative measures: Emphasis must be laid on establishing detection/monitoring procedures and stopping the spread of parthenium weed via vehicles and as a contaminant. A Risk assessment of Parthenium hysterophorus for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score of 18 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be a pest (Pacific).

The Parthenium weed management book provides information on management and control aspects including spread minimization, pasture management, herbicide use, biological control and health aspects. It also describes the parthenium weed and provides basic information about its ecology and biology, reproduction and spread, current distribution, and potential threat. The Weed Control Methods Handbook provides you with detailed information about the tools and techniques available for controlling invasive plants, or weeds, in natural areas. This Handbook is divided into eight chapters, covering a range of different control methods: manual, mechanical, promoting competition from native plants, grazing, biocontrol, herbicides, prescribed fire, solarization, flooding, and other, more novel, techniques. Each control method has advantages and disadvantages in terms of its effects against the target weed(s), impacts to untargeted plants and animals, risks to human health and safety, and costs.

Biological: Biological control using insects and fungi is being pursued in Australia and in India.

Locations
AUSTRALIA
Management Category
Control
Bibliography
16 references found for Parthenium hysterophorus

Managment information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Navie, Sheldon, n.d. Biology of the Weed Parthenium hysterophorous L. Australian Biotypes. Tropical & Subtropical Weeds Research Unit, University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 4072, AUSTRALIA
Summary: Information on parthenium infestation in Queensland.
Available from: http://www.iprng.org/IPRNG-parthenium_a&w14.htm [ Accessed: 8 March, 2004].
O Donnell, C and Adkins, S. W. Management of parthenium weed through competitive displacement with beneficial plants. Weed Biology and Management Vol. 5 Issue 2 Page 77 June 2005
Swaziland s Alien Plants Database., Undated. Parthenium hysterophorus
Summary: A database of Swaziland s alien plant species.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Centre des ressources biologiques. Plantes tropicales. INRA-CIRAD. 2007.
Summary: Available from: http://collections.antilles.inra.fr/ [Accessed 31 March 2008]
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Parthenium hysterophorus Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de la R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=c831e9b5f6c9bab6b23c26c2dab2a29c [Accessed 9 April 2008]
Fournet, J. 2002. Flore illustr�e des phan�rogames de guadeloupe et de Martinique. CIRAD-Gondwana editions.
Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW)., 2007. Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae)
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/parthenium_hysterophorus/ [Accessed 24 September 2004]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Parthenium hysterophorus
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Parthenium+hysterophorus&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
MacKee, H.S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultiv�es en Nouvelle-Cal�donie, 2nd edn. MNHN, Paris.
Summary: Cet ouvrage liste 1412 taxons (esp�ces, sous esp�ces et vari�t�s) introduits en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. L auteur pr�cise dans la majorit� des cas si l esp�ce est cultiv�e ou naturalis�e.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Contact
The following 3 contacts offer information an advice on Parthenium hysterophorus
Barthelat,
Fabien
Organization:
Assistant Technique Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature Initiative Cara�bes
Address:
C/O Parc National de Guadeloupe Habitation Beausoleil, Mont�ran 97120 Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe
Phone:
(+590) (0)590 80 86 00
Fax:
(+590) (0)590 80 05 46
McFadyen,
Rachel
Expert on Parthenium hysterophorous
Organization:
Chief Executive Officer CRC for Australian Weed Management
Address:
Block B, 80 Meiers Road Indooroopilly Qld 4068
Phone:
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax: