Global invasive species database

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Common name
Daño Foliar del Pino (DFP) (Spanish, Chile)
Synonym
Phytophthora , sp. AAD-2008
Similar species
Phytophthora megasperma, Phytophthora gonapodyides, Phytophthora inundata, Phytophthora humicola
Summary
Phytophthora pinifolia is an oomycete or water mould that has been identified as the likely causal agent of a relatively new disease of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) found in plantations in Chile. It was first observed in 2003 and is locally referred to as \"Daño Foliar del Pino\" (DFP). Characterized by a relatively rapid death of needles and subsequent defoliation of trees, infections typically appear in the late autumn, coinciding with the onset of rain. While some diseased trees can recover the following growing season, others may suffer reduced growth rate and be more susceptible to attack by other pathogens. If trees are infected in their first year of growth the disease may cause death. P. pinifolia is currently the most important problem affecting P. radiata populations in Chile and seriously threatens the local forestry industry.
Species Description
This new species is characterized by unbranched sporangiophores, and non-papillate, sub-globose to ovoid sporangia that are occasionally free from the sporangiophore with medium length pedicels. Despite using a number of oospore inducing techniques, oogonia/antheridia [sexual structures] were not observed in isolates of P. pinifolia (Duran et al. 2008).
Habitat Description
Aerial parts of Pinus radiata including needles, needle bases and stems of young trees. The habitat of Phytophthora pinifolia is unusual in that it is the only species of this genus known to infect green shoots and needles of a Pinus sp. (Duran et al. 2008). Trees of all ages are susceptible to disease, from seedlings to mature trees.
Reproduction
There are many questions regarding the biology of the pathogen that remain to be answered. While it is assumed that the sporangia are the infective propagules, this has yet to be shown experimentally. These structures were not abundant in culture and more natural conditions under which to produce them will need to be developed. Likewise, infection studies with zoospores and the infection biology and life cycle of the pathogen remain to be understood (Duran et al. 2008).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF)- Biosecurity New Zealand

Review:

Publication date: 2009-11-26

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Phytophthora pinifolia. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1504 on 30-04-2017.

General Impacts
Phytophthora pinifolia causes devastating needle blight disease on Monterey pine (Pinus radiata). According to Wingfield (2007) “The disease, locally referred to as Daño Foliar del Pino (DFP), is typified by the relatively rapid death of needles and subsequent defoliation of trees. Infections usually begin to appear in late autumn and co-incident with the onset of rain. Infected needles typically display distinct resinous bands on their laminas. Where infections reach the needle bases, copious amounts of resin exude from the points of attachment with the stems and dead needles fall from the trees. New needle growth in the following season is typically not affected and trees appear to recover unless a new season of infection occurs the following year. Newly planted seedlings and naturally regenerated plants die in the first year of growth.” After a number of years of successive infection mature trees may die, probably caused by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infection by fungi such as Diplodia pinea. In Chile P. pinifolia is the most important problem affecting P. radiata plantations, and poses a serious threat to the local forestry industry (EPPO 2009).
Management Info
Preventative: It seems that only Pinus radiata is affected by Phytophthora pinifolia. Thus other Pinus species may be chosen for plantation development. There is also evidence that different genotypes of P. radiata differ in susceptibility, meaning that less susceptible varieties could be chosen for plantation (Duran et al. 2008).

Chemical: There are possibilities for use of fungicides to control the disease (Duran et al. 2008).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Phytophthora pinifolia
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
Informations on Phytophthora pinifolia has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Phytophthora pinifolia in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Phytophthora pinifolia causes devastating needle blight disease on Monterey pine (Pinus radiata). According to Wingfield (2007) “The disease, locally referred to as Daño Foliar del Pino (DFP), is typified by the relatively rapid death of needles and subsequent defoliation of trees. Infections usually begin to appear in late autumn and co-incident with the onset of rain. Infected needles typically display distinct resinous bands on their laminas. Where infections reach the needle bases, copious amounts of resin exude from the points of attachment with the stems and dead needles fall from the trees. New needle growth in the following season is typically not affected and trees appear to recover unless a new season of infection occurs the following year. Newly planted seedlings and naturally regenerated plants die in the first year of growth.” After a number of years of successive infection mature trees may die, probably caused by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infection by fungi such as Diplodia pinea. In Chile P. pinifolia is the most important problem affecting P. radiata plantations, and poses a serious threat to the local forestry industry (EPPO 2009).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
Mechanism
[2] Parasitism
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Species - Population
  • [2] Plant/animal health
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [2] Damage to forestry
Management information
Preventative: It seems that only Pinus radiata is affected by Phytophthora pinifolia. Thus other Pinus species may be chosen for plantation development. There is also evidence that different genotypes of P. radiata differ in susceptibility, meaning that less susceptible varieties could be chosen for plantation (Duran et al. 2008).

Chemical: There are possibilities for use of fungicides to control the disease (Duran et al. 2008).

Bibliography
5 references found for Phytophthora pinifolia

Managment information
General information
Dur�n, A., Gryzenhout, M., Slippers, B., Ahumada, R., Rotella, A., Flores, F., Wingfield, B.D., & Wingfield, M.J. 2008. Phytophthora pinifolia sp. nov. associated with a serious needle disease of Pinus radiata in Chile. Plant Pathology 57: 715-727.
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), 2009. Phytophthora pinifolia is a new pathogen of Pinus radiata in Chile: addition to the EPPO Alert List. EPPO Reporting Service � Pests & Diseases
North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO), 2007. Phytophthora pinifolia nom. prov. NSF Center for Integrated Pest Management
Summary: Available from: http://www.pestalert.org/viewNewsAlert.cfm?naid=49 [Accessed 25 August 2009]
UniProt Taxonomy, 2009. Species Phytophthora pinifolia
Summary: Available from: http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/538568 [Accessed 25 August 2009]
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Phytophthora pinifolia
Dur�,
Alvaro
Organization:
Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria
Address:
University of Pretoria, PRETORIA 0002, South Africa
Phone:
Fax:
Wingfield,
Michael J.
Organization:
Mondi Professor of Forest Protection; Director, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI); Tree Protection Co-operative Programme (TPCP) & DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Tree Health Biotechnology (CTHB)
Address:
University of Pretoria, PRETORIA 0002, South Africa
Phone:
+27 12 420 3938
Fax:
+27 12 420 3960