Global invasive species database

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Common name
Bermuda juniper (English), red cedar (English), Southern red cedar (English), Bermuda cedar (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
The 'Critically Endangered ('CR') Bermuda juniper (see Juniperus bermudiana in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) is proving to be a \"severe threat species\" on Ascension Island where vulnerable and near threatened endemic plant species are potentially affected by this species.
Species Description
Juniperus bermudiana is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree with small scale-like leaves. Trunk straight, with many branches in compact cone-shaped crown to 12 m high. Bark brown, furrowed into scaly ridges and peeling. Inner bark with dead brown outer layer, whitish, fibrous, resinous. Twigs four-angled, stout, more than 1.5 mm wide. Leaves paired, scalelike, overlapping in four rows against twig, blunt-pointed, 1.5 mm or more in length, with groove along back, gray green. Leaves on young plants in groups of 3, awl-shaped, to 13 mm long, those on older twigs in groups of 2, 3- angled, pointed, to 5 mm long. Trees male and female, the male (pollen-bearing) cones cylindrical, about 5 mm long. Female (seed-bearing) cones berrylike, rounded or slightly two-lobed, about 6 mm long, whitish blue, composed of few united scales, maturing in 1 year. Seeds 2– 3, egg-shaped, pointed, shiny brown, grooved. Sapwood is yellowish white, and the heartwood reddish brown (University of Hawaii at Manoa 2003).
Notes
The 'Critically Endangered ('CR') Bermuda juniper (see Juniperus bermudiana in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) was formerly abundant in its native Bermuda but is now rare due to disease and felling.
Uses
Juniperus bermudiana produces wood of a fine-textured, aromatic, low density and durable quality. The wood is used in furniture, cabinetmaking and shipbuilding. In Hawaii, Bermuda juniper is grown as an ornamental and in hedges (University of Hawaii at Manoa 2003).
Habitat Description
Juniperus bermudiana is a subtropical species (University of Hawaii at Manoa 2003).
Pathway

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the EU-funded South Atlantic Invasive Species project, coordinated by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)

Review:

Publication date: 2010-08-16

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2021) Species profile: Juniperus bermudiana. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1463 on 28-09-2021.

General Impacts
The 15 non-pine conifers (out of 507 species) known to be invasive (seven in the Pinaceae; six in Cupressaceae, one in Araucariaceae, one in Podocarpaceae) are: Abies grandis, Abies procera, Araucaria araucana, Cryptomeria japonica, Juniperus bermudiana, J. communis, J. virginiana, Larix decidua, L. kaempferi (L. leptolepis), Picea sitchensis, Podocarpus falcatus, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tetraclinis articulate, Thuja plicata and Tsuga heterophylla (Richardson & Rejmanek 2004).

Introduced plant species that are capable of displacing an endemic plant by dominating a particular site and altering ecological conditions, such as light, nutrients and moisture availability, have been described as \"severe threat species\" by Gray Pelembe & Stroud (2005). J. bermudiana falls into this category on Ascension; it is present in locations where the 'Vulnerable (VU)' endemic (see Sporobolus caespitosus in (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and the 'Near Threatened (NT)' fern (see Asplenium ascensionis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Juniperus bermudiana
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • bermuda
Informations on Juniperus bermudiana has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Juniperus bermudiana in information
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Invasiveness
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Impact information
The 15 non-pine conifers (out of 507 species) known to be invasive (seven in the Pinaceae; six in Cupressaceae, one in Araucariaceae, one in Podocarpaceae) are: Abies grandis, Abies procera, Araucaria araucana, Cryptomeria japonica, Juniperus bermudiana, J. communis, J. virginiana, Larix decidua, L. kaempferi (L. leptolepis), Picea sitchensis, Podocarpus falcatus, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tetraclinis articulate, Thuja plicata and Tsuga heterophylla (Richardson & Rejmanek 2004).

Introduced plant species that are capable of displacing an endemic plant by dominating a particular site and altering ecological conditions, such as light, nutrients and moisture availability, have been described as \"severe threat species\" by Gray Pelembe & Stroud (2005). J. bermudiana falls into this category on Ascension; it is present in locations where the 'Vulnerable (VU)' endemic (see Sporobolus caespitosus in (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and the 'Near Threatened (NT)' fern (see Asplenium ascensionis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species).

Red List assessed species 3: CR = 1; VU = 1; NT = 1;
Locations
SAINT HELENA
Mechanism
[1] Parasitism
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Plant/animal health
Management information
Bibliography
9 references found for Juniperus bermudiana

Management information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Pickup, A.R. 1999 Ascension Island Mangement Plan Published by The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy, Beds, UK.
Richardson, David M. and Marcel Rejmanek. 2004. Conifers as invasive aliens: a global survey and predictive framework, Diversity and Distributions 10: 321�331.
General information
Ashmole, P. & Ashmole, M., 2000. St Helena and Ascension Island: a natural history. Published by Anthony Nelson, Oswestry, Shropshire, UK.
Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native and Introduced). Undated. Bermuda juniper Juniperus bermudiana L.
Summary: Available from: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/forestry/Data/CommonTreesHI/CFT_Juniperus_bermudiana.pdf [Accessed 24 November 2009]
University of Hawaii at Manoa. 2003. Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native and Introduced). College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii: Manoa.
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Juniperus bermudiana
Juniperus bermudiana
Bermuda juniper, red cedar, Southern red cedar, Bermuda cedar
Date assessed
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Reviewers
Recommended citation
(2021). Juniperus bermudiana. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).