Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
Common name
cochinilla blanca menor de los citricos (Spanish, Colombia), Lantana bug (English), Orthezia scale (English), jacaranda bug (English), greenhouse Orthezia (English), escama blanca del croto (Spanish, Spain), chinche harinosa del croto (Spanish, Spain), Lantana blight (English, East Africa), Gewaechshaus-Roehrenschildlaus (German, Germany), marsupial coccid (English, California), Croton bug (English, England and Wales), glasshouse Orthezia (English, England and Wales), Kew bug (English, England and Wales), Maui blight (English, Hawaii)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
The scale insect Orthezia insignis damages the host plant by feeding on its phloem and excreting nutrients which promote the growth of sooty mold. Biocontrol using the coccinellid predator Hyperaspis pantherina has proven to be successful in controlling the scale insect on Saint Helena (in the South Atlantic Ocean).
Uses
Orthezia insignis may have uses for biocontrol of the invasive shrub lantana (Broughton 2000).
Reproduction
Orthezia insignis is a mobile scale insect, which as an adult female has a large wax ovisac. The species is parthenogenetic. The eggs hatch inside the ovisac and the 1st instar nymphs then move out to feed (Fowler 2005).
Nutrition
Orthezia insignis is highly polyphagous (CBD 2001).
Pathway
Orthezia insignis has been accidentally introduced into many tropical countries on imported plants.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the EU-funded South Atlantic Invasive Species project, coordinated by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)

Review:

Publication date: 2009-04-28

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2019) Species profile: Orthezia insignis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1462 on 17-11-2019.

General Impacts
The scale insect Orthezia insignis damages the host plant by feeding on its phloem and excreting nutrients which promote the growth of sooty mold. It may threaten indigenous plants.
Management Info
Biological: Orthezia insignis has a history of successful biological control in Hawaii, and several African countries, through the introduction between 1908 and 1959 of the predatory South American coccinellid beetle, Hyperaspis pantherina (Fowler 2005). Successful biological control and protection of indigenous flora from the scale insect has also been achieved by H. pantherina on the island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean; the action was successful in saving a field population of an 'Endangered (ER)' endemic gumwood species (see Commidendrum robustum in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) from extinction (Fowler 2004; 2005).
For more information on the rearing and transport of H. pantherina for use in biocontrol of O. insignis please see: Fowler, S.V. 2005. The successful control of Orthezia insignis on St. Helena saved natural populations of endemic gumwood trees Commidendrum robustum.
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Orthezia insignis
NATIVE RANGE
Informations on Orthezia insignis has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Orthezia insignis in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The scale insect Orthezia insignis damages the host plant by feeding on its phloem and excreting nutrients which promote the growth of sooty mold. It may threaten indigenous plants.
Red List assessed species 1: EN = 1;
View more species View less species
Locations
BERMUDA
INDIA
SAINT HELENA
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[5] Parasitism
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Modification of successional patterns
[3] Environmental Species - Population
  • [3] Plant/animal health
[3] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to forestry
  • [2] Damage to ornamentals
Management information
Biological: Orthezia insignis has a history of successful biological control in Hawaii, and several African countries, through the introduction between 1908 and 1959 of the predatory South American coccinellid beetle, Hyperaspis pantherina (Fowler 2005). Successful biological control and protection of indigenous flora from the scale insect has also been achieved by H. pantherina on the island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean; the action was successful in saving a field population of an 'Endangered (ER)' endemic gumwood species (see Commidendrum robustum in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) from extinction (Fowler 2004; 2005).
For more information on the rearing and transport of H. pantherina for use in biocontrol of O. insignis please see: Fowler, S.V. 2005. The successful control of Orthezia insignis on St. Helena saved natural populations of endemic gumwood trees Commidendrum robustum.
Locations
MALAWI
SAINT HELENA
TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF
UGANDA
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Control
Bibliography
8 references found for Orthezia insignis

Managment information
Booth, R.G., Cross, A.E., Fowler, S.V. and Shaw, R.H. 1995. The biology and taxonomy of Hyperaspis pantherina (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and the classical biological control of its prey, Orthezia insignis (Homoptera: Ortheziidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 85:307-314.
Summary: Abstract: Between 1908 and 1959, the predatory coccinellid, Hyperaspis pantherina Fuersch, was released for the biological control of the ensign scale Orthezia insignis Browne in Hawaii, four African countries and Peru. Substantial control was reported after all the releases, although the outcome was disputed in Malawi. Other coccinellid species and predatory Diptera were released against Orthezia spp. in various programmes from 1952 to 1977. In most cases these agents failed to establish, and there were no reported effects on the target Orthezia spp. In 1993, H. pantherina was released in St Helena for the control of O. insignis on the endemic gumwood tree, Commidendrum robustum (Compositae). Preparatory investigations for this release revealed that the taxonomy and biology of this biocontrol agent were poorly known. Hyperaspis pantherina is redescribed and shown to be the correct name for the species previously known incorrectly as H. jocosa (Mulsant). Hyperaspis laeta Gorham and H. levrati (Mulsant) are transferred to the genus Cyra Mulsant (comb. n.). Hyperaspis metator (Casey) (stat. rev.) is resurrected from synonymy with H. levrati auctt. Studies of the life history revealed that H. pantherina normally lays its eggs directly onto the adult female O. insignis and that the first two instars of the larvae are frequently passed inside the ovisac of the female host, after which the host itself is often consumed. The information on the biology and taxonomy of H. pantherina, together with details of culturing methods, should facilitate the further use of this agent for the classical biological control of O. insignis, a pantropical pest.
Broughton, Sonya. 2000. Commentary: Review and Evaluation of Lantana Biocontrol Programs, Biological Control 17 (3): 272-286.
CABI Crop Protection Compendium. 2007. Orthezia insignis Browne
Summary: Available from: http://www.cabicompendium.org/NamesLists/CPC/Full/ORTHIN.htm [Accessed 10 February 2009]
Cairns-Wicks, R. 2003. Commidendrum robustum. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. . Downloaded on 06 November 2008
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/43984 [Accessed 10 February 2009]
Fowler, S.V. 2004. Biological control of an exotic scale, Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae), saves the endemic gumwood tree, Commidendrum robustum (Roxb.) DC. (Asteraceae) on the island of St. Helena, Biol. Control 29: 367-374.
General information
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2009. Online Database Orthezia insignis Browne, 1887
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=200703 [Accessed 10 February 2009]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Orthezia insignis
  • EICAT impact category for this assessment:
  • EICAT impact mechanism (or 2-3 mechanisms):
  • Justification:
  • EICAT Confidence rating:
  • Country/Countries with max impact:
  • Description of impacts:
  • Assessors:
  • Date: