Global invasive species database

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Common name
Haushund (German), feral dog (English), domestic dog (English), kuri (Maori, New Zealand), guri (Maori), kurio (Tuamotuan), uli (Samoan), peto (Marquesan), pero (Maori)
Synonym
Canis dingo , Blumenbach, 1780
Canis familiaris , Linnaeus, 1758
Similar species
Summary
Canis lupus (the dog) is possibly the first animal to have been domesticated by humans. It has been selectively bred into a wide range of different forms. They are found throughout the world in many different habitats, both closely associated with humans and away from habitation. They are active hunters and have significant negative impacts on a wide range of native fauna.
Species Description
Domestic dogs are believed to have first diverged from wolves around 100,000 years ago. Around 15,000 years ago dogs started diverging into the multitude of different breeds known today. This divergence was possibly triggered by humans changing from a nomadic, hunting based-lifestyle to a more settled, agriculture-based way of life (Vilà et al. 1997). Domestic dogs have been selectively bred for various behaviours, sensory capabilities and physical attributes, including dogs bred for herding livestock (collies, shepherds, etc.), different kinds of hunting (pointers, hounds, etc.), catching rats (small terriers), guarding (mastiffs, chows), helping fishermen with nets (Newfoundlands, poodles), pulling loads (huskies, St. Bernards), guarding carriages and horsemen (Dalmatians), and as companion dogs. Domestic dogs are therefore extremely variable but the basic morphology is that of the grey wolf, the wild ancestor of all domestic dog breeds.
Notes
Dogs were possibly the first animal to be domesticated by humans around 15,000 years ago. There are estimated to be 400,000,000 dogs present in the world.
Dogs taken to the Pacific islands by the early Polynesians may have been about the size of a small collie, but shorter in the leg (Anderson 1990). They have long since been replaced by, or crossed with, various breeds from Europe.

Reviewed by Mech (1974, Mammalian Species, 37) Canis familiaris has page priority over Canis lupus in Linnaeus (1758), but both were published simultaneously, and C. lupus has been universally used for this species [excerpted from Mammal Species of the World, 3d Edition, p. 281] (ITIS, 2004).

Uses
Domesticated dogs have been bred to assist humans in a wide range of activites including farming, hunting and companionship.
Habitat Description
Dogs are usually closely associated with humans so can potentially be found in all habitats. Feral and ranging domestic dogs may be found far from human habitation.
Reproduction
Placental, sexual. 4-12 puppies per litter. Both males and females become sexually mature at around 6-12 months.
Nutrition
Mainly carnivorous but may eat plant material and invertebrates
Pathway

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-09-15

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Canis lupus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=146 on 27-07-2016.

General Impacts
In Israel, free-ranging feral dogs are a major threat to populations of endangered mountain gazelles (see Gazella gazella ssp. gazella in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Manor and Salz, 2004). Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) is thought to have caused several fatal epidemics within the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa. The source of the CDV was probably domestic dogs in the local villages surrounding the park. The canids affected included silver-backed jackals (Canis mmesomelas) and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) in 1978 and endangered African wild dogs (see Lycaon pictus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in 1991. The Serengeti lion population (see Panthera leo in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) which remained unaffected during these two epidemics was hit by an epidemic in early 1994, caused by a morbillivirus which is closely related to CDV. Later that year the epidemic had spread north to lions, hyenas, bat-eared foxes and leopards in the Maasi Mara National reserve. This epidemic claimed at least 30% of the lion population (estimated at 3000 in Serengeti at that time). It is suggested that the possible route of transmission from domestic dogs was the spotted hyena that range through human habitation and travel long distances within the park (Roelke-Parker et al. 1996).

Uncontrolled domestic dogs can be equally as damaging as truly feral animals. In New Zealand, during study of kiwi (see Apteryx australis; Apteryx haastii; Apteryx mantelli; and Apteryx owenii in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in a Northland forest, the loss of 13 out of 23 kiwi fitted with transmitters was found to be the result of predation by one German shepherd dog. It was estimated that this single dog alone had killed 500 out of 900 birds, although this estimate was considered to be possibly conservative (Taborsky 1988). Seabirds and mammals are included among the prey taken by feral dogs (e.g. Dickman, 1996, Stevenson and Woelher, 2007).

Management Info

The principal techniques to control wild dogs are exclusion fencing, shooting, trapping and poisoning. Poisoning using 1080 is the most cost-effective means of reducing populations of wild dogs over large areas of remote or inaccessible country. New techniques such as the use of livestock guarding dogs, poison ejecting devices and toxic collars have been suggested as alternatives to current methods.

The Australian Bureau of Rural Sciences (BRS) in cooperation with the Vertebrate Pests Committee of the Standing Committee on Agriculture and Resource Management (SCARM) has published guidelines for managing the impacts\r\nof dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and other wild dogs (C.l. familiaris) as part of the Managing Vertebrate Pests series. Please follow this link to view and download Fleming, P., Corbett, L., Harden, R. and Thomson, P. (2001) Managing the Impacts of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Canis lupus
Informations on Canis lupus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Canis lupus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
In Israel, free-ranging feral dogs are a major threat to populations of endangered mountain gazelles (see Gazella gazella ssp. gazella in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Manor and Salz, 2004). Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) is thought to have caused several fatal epidemics within the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa. The source of the CDV was probably domestic dogs in the local villages surrounding the park. The canids affected included silver-backed jackals (Canis mmesomelas) and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) in 1978 and endangered African wild dogs (see Lycaon pictus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in 1991. The Serengeti lion population (see Panthera leo in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) which remained unaffected during these two epidemics was hit by an epidemic in early 1994, caused by a morbillivirus which is closely related to CDV. Later that year the epidemic had spread north to lions, hyenas, bat-eared foxes and leopards in the Maasi Mara National reserve. This epidemic claimed at least 30% of the lion population (estimated at 3000 in Serengeti at that time). It is suggested that the possible route of transmission from domestic dogs was the spotted hyena that range through human habitation and travel long distances within the park (Roelke-Parker et al. 1996).

Uncontrolled domestic dogs can be equally as damaging as truly feral animals. In New Zealand, during study of kiwi (see Apteryx australis; Apteryx haastii; Apteryx mantelli; and Apteryx owenii in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in a Northland forest, the loss of 13 out of 23 kiwi fitted with transmitters was found to be the result of predation by one German shepherd dog. It was estimated that this single dog alone had killed 500 out of 900 birds, although this estimate was considered to be possibly conservative (Taborsky 1988). Seabirds and mammals are included among the prey taken by feral dogs (e.g. Dickman, 1996, Stevenson and Woelher, 2007).

Red List assessed species 191: EX = 8; CR = 28; EN = 52; VU = 53; NT = 31; DD = 4; LC = 15;
View more species View less species
Locations
ANGUILLA
AUSTRALIA
CAYMAN ISLANDS
ECUADOR
FRENCH GUIANA
GERMANY
MADAGASCAR
NEW CALEDONIA
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
SAINT HELENA
TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS
UNITED STATES
VIRGIN ISLANDS, BRITISH
Mechanism
[1] Competition
[18] Predation
[1] Hybridisation
[1] Disease transmission
Outcomes
[16] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [16] Reduction in native biodiversity
[3] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Population size decline
  • [1] Alteration of genetic resources
  • [1] Plant/animal health
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Reduce/damage livestock and products
  • [1] Human health
Management information

The principal techniques to control wild dogs are exclusion fencing, shooting, trapping and poisoning. Poisoning using 1080 is the most cost-effective means of reducing populations of wild dogs over large areas of remote or inaccessible country. New techniques such as the use of livestock guarding dogs, poison ejecting devices and toxic collars have been suggested as alternatives to current methods.

The Australian Bureau of Rural Sciences (BRS) in cooperation with the Vertebrate Pests Committee of the Standing Committee on Agriculture and Resource Management (SCARM) has published guidelines for managing the impacts\r\nof dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) and other wild dogs (C.l. familiaris) as part of the Managing Vertebrate Pests series. Please follow this link to view and download Fleming, P., Corbett, L., Harden, R. and Thomson, P. (2001) Managing the Impacts of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.

Locations
Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
Control
Unknown
Monitoring
Bibliography
38 references found for Canis lupus

Managment information
Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.
Summary: This report reviews available information on the adverse effects of 14 alien vertebrates considered to be �significant invasive species on islands of the South Pacific and Hawaii, supplementing the authors� experience with that of other workers.
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Fleming, P., Corbett, L., Harden, R. and Thomson, P. 2001. Managing the Impacts of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0013/1504111/dingoes-and-dogs.pdf [Accessed 26 June 2010]
Gerber, G. 1997. Nesting Behavior of the Little Cayman rock iguana, Cyclura nubila caymanensis. Joint Annual Meeting, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists/Herpetologists League/Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. University of Washington, Seattle, U.S.A.
Gerber, G.P. 2000. Conservation of the Anegada Rock Iguana: Field Research Report. Unpublished Report to the British Virgin Islands National Parks Trust, Fauna & Flora
Glen, A.S., Gentle, M.N. and Dickman, C.R. 2007. Non-target impacts of poison baiting for predator control in Australia. Mammal Review Volume 37 Issue 3 Page 191-205, July 2007
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
K�rtner, G. 2007. 1080 aerial baiting for the control of wild dogs and its impacts on spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus). Wildlife Research 34: 48-53
Summary: Spotted quolls were radio-trtacked to assess the effect an aerial poison operation to control wild dogs may have on quoll survival. The result suggested most quolls are able to survive baiting campaigns
Lapidge, Bourne, Braysher, and Sarre., 2004- present feral.org.au [Online]. Web-based (http://www.feral.org.au)
Summary: The Bureau of Rural Sciences National Feral Animal Control Program under the Natural Heritage Trust has supported the Pest Animal Control CRC in cooperation with the University of Canberra to develop a comprehensive, interactive and freely available website, Feral.org.au on pest animals. The site aims to make information on past and current research readily accessible and to interpret and pull together relevant data to assist end-users in making management decisions.
The website is available from http://www.feral.org.au/content/general/about.cfm
This page is available from: http://www.feral.org.au/content/species/dog.cfm
Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006a. Viwa Island Restoration Project
Summary: Available from: http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/demo/viwa.html [Accessed 12 March 2010]
Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII), 2006. Mont Pani� Mammal Control �Proof-of-Concept� Project
Summary: Available from: http://www.issg.org/cii/PII/demo/mtPanie.html [Accessed 12 March 2010]
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Anderson, A. J. 1990. Kuri. In King, C. M. (ed.) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. Oxford University Press, Auckland: 281�287.
Barnett, B. D. 1982. Feral dogs of southern Isabela. Noticias Galapagos 35: 15�16.
Bauer, H. & Nowell, K. 2004. Panthera leo. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/15951/all [Accessed 7 February 2008]
BirdLife International 2004. Apteryx australis. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
BirdLife International 2004. Apteryx haastii. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/141094/0 [Accessed 12 March 2010]
BirdLife International 2004. Apteryx mantelli. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/150471/0 [Accessed 12 March 2010]
BirdLife International 2004. Apteryx owenii. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/141093/0 [Accessed 12 March 2010]
Blank, D.A. 2003. Gazella gazella ssp. gazella. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/8970/0 [Accessed 12 March 2010]
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Mam�feros. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - mammals is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Mam%C3%ADferos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Mam�feros is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Mam%C3%ADferos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
De Thoisy, pers. comm., 2007
Summary: Personal communication with Benoit de Thoisy from the association Kwata , an expert of the vertebrate fauna of french Guiana.
Dickman, C.R. 1996. Impact of exotic generalist predators on the native fauna of Australia..Wildlife Biology 2: 185-195
Summary: Abstract only online,
Hawkins, A.F.A. 2008a. Fossa fossana. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2.
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/8668/0 [Accessed 1 February 2012]
Hawkins, A.F.A. 2008c. Galidictis fasciata. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2.
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/8833/0 [Accessed 1 February 2012]
Hunt, G.R., Hay R., Veltman, C. 1996. Multiple kagu Rhynochetos jubatus deaths caused by dogs attacks at a high altitude site on Pic Ningua, New Caledonia. International Bird Conservation, 6 : 295-306.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Canis lupus
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=180596 [Accessed 14 January 2008]
Macdonald, D. W. and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2004. Biology and conservation of wild canids. Oxford University Press, UK.
Manor, M. and Saltz, D. 2004. The impact of free-roaming dogs on gazelle kid/female ratio in a fragmented area. Biologocal Conservation 119:231-236.
Summary: Dogs were found to impact endengered gazelle populations
Meyer, J.-Y. pers. comm., 2007
Summary: Personal communication with Jean Yves Meyer, from the D�l�gation � la Recherche of French Polynesia
Mus�um national d Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2003-2006 . Canis familiaris. Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel, site Web : http://inpn.mnhn.fr. Document t�l�charg� le 28 mars 2008 .
Summary:
Available from: http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=162663 [Accessed March 2008]
Pascal, M., Barr�, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Fr�tey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements n�o-cal�doniens de vert�b�br�s : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom
Summary: Synth�se des introductions d esp�ces de vert�br�s en Nouvelle-Cal�donie et �valuation de leurs impacts.
Roelke-Parker, M.E.; Munson, L.; Packer, C.; Kock, R.; Cleaveland, S.; Carpenter, M.; O Brien, S.J.; Pospischil, A.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Lutz, H.; Mwamengele, G.L.M.; Mgasa, M.N.; Machange, G.A.; Summers, B.; Appel, M.J.G., 1996. A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo). Nature [0028-0836]:1996 vol:379 iss:6564 pg:441
Taborsky, M. 1988. Kiwis and dog predation: observations in Waitangi State Forest. Notornis 35: 197�202.
Vila, C., Savolainen, P., Maldonado, J.E., Amorim, I.R., Rice, J.E., Honeycutt, R.L., Crandall, K.A., Lundeberg, J. and Wayne, R.K. 1997. Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science 276: 1687-1689
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Canis lupus