Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
Common name
 
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
The alien component of springtail fauna varies considerably between islands in the sub-Antarctic. On Heard Island there are none, increasing in numbers on South Georgia, Macquarie, Kerguelen, Crozet and Marion. Several of these species are widespread invasives, especially those in the genus Hypogastura. H. purpurescens is described as \"highly invasive\" and is thought to have displaced resident species from some habitats on the island of South Georgia.
Species Description
Hypogastura purpurescens has a purplish-grey body, three clavate tenent hairs on each leg, only two positioned in apical whorl, third tenent hair in anteapical whorl of setae (Convey et al. 1999).
Habitat Description
Habitat for Hypogastura purpurescens relate to adequate and appropriate food sources and include areas with decaying plant matter (such as marine littoral zones), areas with fungal fruiting bodies and sometimes carrion (Greenslade 2002). The species in found in tussock grass areas on South Georgia (Convey et al. 1999).
Nutrition
Collembola species are detrivores and feed of decaying plant matter, fungal fruiting bodies and sometimes carrion (Greenslade 2002).
Pathway
Hypogastrura spp. could be carried to Heard Island in fresh vegetables, in particular on unwashed potatoes or mushrooms (especially fresh wild collected species). They may be present in soil on equipment, vehicles or clothing (particularly boots) or from under containers and pallets (Greenslade 2002).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the EU-funded South Atlantic Invasive Species project, coordinated by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)

Review:

Publication date: 2009-04-27

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2021) Species profile: Hypogastura purpurescens. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1456 on 28-09-2021.

General Impacts
Hypogastura viatica, a related species, has already been introduced to the Antarctic Peninsula and to a number of other sub-Antarctic Islands where it often dominates upper marine littoral habitats. It is likely H. purpurescens will have a similar affect on native ecosystems and food-webs. As detrivores, Collembola (commonly known as springtails) may have a significant impact on decomposition processes (Greenslade 2002).

According to a Collembola species pest risk assessment for Heard Island (Greenslade 2002) the highest ranked pest species include members of the family Hypogastruridae, which are already recorded from South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula. Appropriate management strategies are proposed to reduce the risk of the high priority species being introduced to Heard Island.\n
Current records indicate that about twenty Collembola species have been already introduced to other subantarctic islands. Criteria in the pest assessment were partially selected from those currently used for pest risk and weed assessment in import risk analyses (Pheloung 2001, in Greenslade 2002). The five scored criteria were:ndistribution; life history; habitat; ecosystem synchrony; and dispersal ability. They relate respectively to: proximity potential; population potential; establishment potential; persistence potential; and spread. Scores given for H. purpurescens were 4, 3, 3, 1, 3, respectively with a total score of 14 and ranked third highest out of 20 candidate taxa scored. H. purpurescens is not currently present on Heard Island and strict quarantine principles are thought to be necessary to be adhered to in order to keep the species, and related species, off the island.

Management Info
Chown and colleagues (1998, in Greenslade 2002) recommend that human activities on large islands should be regulated more tightly because these authors found a strong relationship between both area and exotic plant species and area and human occupancy. Considering both the rate of recent introductions and the relationship between introductions and human impacts, it is apparent that current quarantine measures are not sufficiently focused to reduce the risk of introducing exotic invertebrates to these islands to negligible levels.
Quarantine controls such as various types of inspection, washing procedures, sampling and extraction procedures, fumigation and exclusion can be used to manage and reduce to negligible levels the risks of new incursions. As a result of the risk assessment carried out for exotic Collembola becoming established on Heard Island here, the highest risk is from species in the family Hypogastruridae. They are most likely to be transported on materials collected for marine littoral research and on scientific equipment used in marine and coastal environments.

Fumigation with steam and vaporised formalin are used in the mushroom industry to control pest species including Collembola but these methods are not practical on Heard Island.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Hypogastura purpurescens
Informations on Hypogastura purpurescens has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Hypogastura purpurescens in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Hypogastura viatica, a related species, has already been introduced to the Antarctic Peninsula and to a number of other sub-Antarctic Islands where it often dominates upper marine littoral habitats. It is likely H. purpurescens will have a similar affect on native ecosystems and food-webs. As detrivores, Collembola (commonly known as springtails) may have a significant impact on decomposition processes (Greenslade 2002).

According to a Collembola species pest risk assessment for Heard Island (Greenslade 2002) the highest ranked pest species include members of the family Hypogastruridae, which are already recorded from South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula. Appropriate management strategies are proposed to reduce the risk of the high priority species being introduced to Heard Island.\n
Current records indicate that about twenty Collembola species have been already introduced to other subantarctic islands. Criteria in the pest assessment were partially selected from those currently used for pest risk and weed assessment in import risk analyses (Pheloung 2001, in Greenslade 2002). The five scored criteria were:ndistribution; life history; habitat; ecosystem synchrony; and dispersal ability. They relate respectively to: proximity potential; population potential; establishment potential; persistence potential; and spread. Scores given for H. purpurescens were 4, 3, 3, 1, 3, respectively with a total score of 14 and ranked third highest out of 20 candidate taxa scored. H. purpurescens is not currently present on Heard Island and strict quarantine principles are thought to be necessary to be adhered to in order to keep the species, and related species, off the island.

Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Chown and colleagues (1998, in Greenslade 2002) recommend that human activities on large islands should be regulated more tightly because these authors found a strong relationship between both area and exotic plant species and area and human occupancy. Considering both the rate of recent introductions and the relationship between introductions and human impacts, it is apparent that current quarantine measures are not sufficiently focused to reduce the risk of introducing exotic invertebrates to these islands to negligible levels.
Quarantine controls such as various types of inspection, washing procedures, sampling and extraction procedures, fumigation and exclusion can be used to manage and reduce to negligible levels the risks of new incursions. As a result of the risk assessment carried out for exotic Collembola becoming established on Heard Island here, the highest risk is from species in the family Hypogastruridae. They are most likely to be transported on materials collected for marine littoral research and on scientific equipment used in marine and coastal environments.

Fumigation with steam and vaporised formalin are used in the mushroom industry to control pest species including Collembola but these methods are not practical on Heard Island.

Bibliography
9 references found for Hypogastura purpurescens

Management information
Downie, R. 2002. An Overview of the Flora and Fauna of Deception Island In: Valencia & Downie. Workshop on a Management Plan for Deception Island. Instituto Ant�rtico Chileno.
Greenslade, Penelope. 2002. Assessing the risk of exotic Collembola invading subantarctic islands: prioritising quarantine management. Pedobiologia 46, 338�344 (2002)
José Valencia and Roderick Downie (Editors). 2002. Workshop on a Management Plan for Deception Island. Instituto Antàrtico Chileno.
General information
Australian Antarctic Data Centre., 2004. Hypogastura purpurescens
Summary: Available from: http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/biodiversity/taxon_profile.cfm?taxon_id=110463 [Accessed 25 October 2009]
Convey, P., Greenslade, P., Arnold, R.J., Block, W. Collembola of sub-Antarctic South Georgia.. Polar Biol (1999) 22: 1�6
Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M., & Bergstrom, D. 2005. Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications. Bio. Rev, 80, 45-72.
Summary: Article de synth�se sur les invasions biologiques (plantes, invert�br�s et vert�br�s) en antarctique.
Available from: http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/resources/non-native%20species%20in%20the%20antarctic/Talk%202%20Frenot.pdf [Accessed 4 April 2008]
Gressitt, J. L. and N. A. Weber., 1959. Bibliographic Introduction to Antarctic/sub-Antarctic Entymology. Pacific Insects 1 (4): 441^180 December 25, 1959
Summary: Available from: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/fiji/pdf/gressitt-weber1959.pdf [Accessed 25 October 2009]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2009. Online Database Hypogastura purpurescens (Lubbock, 1867)
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=99986 [Accessed 25 October 2009]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Hypogastura purpurescens
Hypogastura purpurescens
Date assessed
Year published
Eicat category
Justification for EICAT assessment
Confidence rating
Mechanism(s) of maximum impact
Countries of most severe impact
Description of impacts
Assessor
Contributors
Reviewers
Recommended citation
(2021). Hypogastura purpurescens. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).