Global invasive species database

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Common name
mustard tree (English), tree tabacco (English), tabaco negro (Spanish), wildetabak (Afrikaans), tabac canaque (French), wild tobacco (English), paka (Hawaiian), tabaco moruno (Spanish), gandul (Spanish), guang yan cao (Chinese), kidachi tabako (Japanese), tabaco moro (Spanish)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
Introduced in Hawaii, Ascension, Bermuda, Saint Helena and Canary islands Nicotiana glauca thrives in disturbed habitats as well as sandy beaches and coastal areas. It may pose a threat to pristine environments and native wildlife by altering habitats.
Species Description
Nicotiana glauca is a shrub of up to 5 m high with glaucous leaves and tubular yellow flowers (Steenkamp van Heerden & van Wyk 2002).

It is an evergreen perennial, glabrous soft--wooded shrub or small tree, up to 6 m tall,with stems that are laxly branched. The leaves are stalked, alternate, elliptical to lanceolate or oval, pointed, bluish or greyish-green. The\nflowers are greenish-yellow, 30 to 40 mm long, many are borne in a lax panicle. The corolla is tubular with a short-lobed limb. The fruit is an egg-shaped, two-valved capsule, 7 to 10 mm long and slightly longer than the persistent papery calyx. It produces a large quantity of tiny seeds, which can be dispersed by wind and water. All plant parts are extremely poisonous (Goodspeed 1954, Moore 1972, Blamey & Grey-Wilson 1998, in Bogdanovic et al. 2006).

Uses
The smoking of Nicotiana glauca has been reported and the plant has also been used medicinally and in ethnoveterinary medicine. Warmed leaves are applied to the head to relieve headache, on the throat to relieve pain and put in shoes for painful feet. It has been used as an insecticide, but its use has been discontinued due to\nthe development of more specific and less toxic insecticides (Steenkamp van Heerden & van Wyk 2002).
Habitat Description
Nicotiana glauca is distributed in warm temperate, arid and subtropical, dry and moist regions, beside roadsides and along riverbanks, up to altitudes of 3000 m (Goodspeed 1954, Cronk and Fuller 2001, in Bogdanovic et al. 2006). It is widespread throughout South Africa in places where the natural vegetation has been disturbed, such as roadsides and riverbanks (Steenkamp van Heerden & van Wyk 2002).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the EU-funded South Atlantic Invasive Species project, coordinated by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)

Review:

Publication date: 2010-08-16

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Nicotiana glauca. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1453 on 19-11-2018.

General Impacts
The Global Compendium of Weeds lists Nicotiana glauca as an agricultural weed, casual alien, cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden weed and noxious weed (GCW 2007). The species is reported as invasive in the western Mediterranean and, recently, in Croatia (Bogdanovic et al. 2006). ;According to Cronk and Fuller (2001) N. glauca belongs\nto the invasive category 3: invading seminatural or natural habitats which are of some conservation interest (in Bogdanovic et al. 2006).
On Ascension Island it may pose a threat to the previously pristine area of the Hummock Point nature reserve. As it establishes well in coastal areas it could affect nesting turtles (Varnham 2006). N. glauca is recorded as invasive in the Canary Islands (Spain) (Brandes & Fritzsch 2002).
Anabasine, the toxic alkaloid of N. glauca has been linked to human fatalities. In the cases documented it was found to be accidentally collected with traditional spinach (marog) (Steenkamp van Heerden & van Wyk 2002). Animal deaths, mainly of ostriches, have also been reported (Steenkamp van Heerden & van Wyk 2002).
Management Info
Physical: Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young plants.

Chemical: Cut large plants and treat the stumps with herbicide. In South Africa the plants are cut and stumps treated with 2,4,5-T (Cronk & Fuller 2001, in PIER 2007).

Biological: Successful control has been achieved where the plants were sprayed with herbicide and the exposed to the beetle Malabris aculeata (Cronk & Fuller 2001, in PIER 2007).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Nicotiana glauca
NATIVE RANGE
  • argentina
  • bolivia
  • brazil
  • chile
  • ecuador
  • paraguay
  • peru
  • uruguay
Informations on Nicotiana glauca has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Nicotiana glauca in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The Global Compendium of Weeds lists Nicotiana glauca as an agricultural weed, casual alien, cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden weed and noxious weed (GCW 2007). The species is reported as invasive in the western Mediterranean and, recently, in Croatia (Bogdanovic et al. 2006). ;According to Cronk and Fuller (2001) N. glauca belongs\nto the invasive category 3: invading seminatural or natural habitats which are of some conservation interest (in Bogdanovic et al. 2006).
On Ascension Island it may pose a threat to the previously pristine area of the Hummock Point nature reserve. As it establishes well in coastal areas it could affect nesting turtles (Varnham 2006). N. glauca is recorded as invasive in the Canary Islands (Spain) (Brandes & Fritzsch 2002).
Anabasine, the toxic alkaloid of N. glauca has been linked to human fatalities. In the cases documented it was found to be accidentally collected with traditional spinach (marog) (Steenkamp van Heerden & van Wyk 2002). Animal deaths, mainly of ostriches, have also been reported (Steenkamp van Heerden & van Wyk 2002).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
SAINT HELENA
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
Management information
Physical: Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young plants.

Chemical: Cut large plants and treat the stumps with herbicide. In South Africa the plants are cut and stumps treated with 2,4,5-T (Cronk & Fuller 2001, in PIER 2007).

Biological: Successful control has been achieved where the plants were sprayed with herbicide and the exposed to the beetle Malabris aculeata (Cronk & Fuller 2001, in PIER 2007).

Locations
Management Category
Unknown
Bibliography
15 references found for Nicotiana glauca

Managment information
Florentine S K and Westbrooke M E., 2005. Invasion of the noxious weed Nicotiana glauca R. Graham after an episodic flooding event in the arid zone of Australia. Journal of arid environments 60: 531-545
Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW). 2007. Nicotiana glauca (Solanaceae)
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/nicotiana_glauca/ [Accessed 14 August 2008]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Pickup, A.R. 1999. Ascension Island Mangement Plan. Published by The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy, Beds, UK.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Ashmole, Philip and Myrtle Ashmole. 2003. The invertebrates of Prosperous Bay Plain, St Helena September � December 2003. Commissioned by the St Helena Government and financed by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Bogdanovic, Sandro, Bozena Mitic, Mirko Ruscic, Katija Dolina. 2006. Nicotiana glauca Graham (Solanaceae), a new invasive plant in Croatia, Acta Bot. Croat. 65 (2): 203�209.
Brandes, Dietmar & Katrin Fritzsch. 2002. Alien plants of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands [Plantas extranjeras de Fuerteventura, Islas Canarias] - korrigierte Fassung vom 23.01.2002 -
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database. Nicotiana glauca Graham
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=30574 [Accessed 10 November 2008]
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). 2007. Nicotiana glauca R.C.Graham, Solanaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/nicotiana_glauca.htm [Accessed 10 December 2008]
Steenkamp P.A., van Heerden F.R., van Wyk B.E. 2002. Accidental fatal poisoning by Nicotiana glauca: identification of anabasine by high performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array/mass spectrometry, Forensic Science International 127 (3): pp. 208-217.
Contact
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