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Common name
tombo-maga (English, Sierra Leone), kiradale (English, Ivory Coast), eyinata (English, Nigeria), nana (English, Sierra Leone), zikilli wissi (English), akesan (English, Nigeria), dwirantwi (English, Ghana), pilipili (English), klakuo (English), anansee mpaane (English, Ghana), sanyina (English, Sierra Leone), dzani pipi (English, Ghana), gyinantwi (English, Ghana), beggar's tick (English), kurofidie (English, Ghana), kete kete (English, Nigeria), cobbler's peg (English), fisi'uli (Tongan), kichoma nguo (Swahili), kichoma mguu (Swahili), Spanish needle (English), tabason (English, Ivory Coast), asta de cabra (Spanish), kandane (English, Sierra Leone), acetillo (Spanish), passoklo (English, Ivory Coast), amonoablanfè (English, Ivory Coast), kukwe kwo (English, Ivory Coast), Zweizhan (German), sornet (French), lebason (English, Ivory Coast), broom stick (English), hairy beggar ticks (English), piquants noirs (French), black fellows (English), black jack (English), devil's needles (English), pisau-pisau (English), herbe villebague (French), matua kamate (Fijian), broom stuff (English), batimadramadramatakaro (Fijian), herbe d'aiguille (French), mbatikalawau (Fijian), mbatimandramandra (Fijian), bident poilu (French), dada (English, Sierra Leone), carrapicho-deagulha (Portuguese), dadayem (Ibatan), nehe (Hawaiian), ki (Hawaiian), ki pipili (Hawaiian), sosolé (English, Ivory Coast), ki nehe (Hawaiian), alonga (English, Ivory Coast), sirvulaca (Spanish), arponcito (Spanish), aseduro (English, Ghana), kofetonga (Niuean), amor seco (Spanish), piripiri (Maori), ko-sendagusa (Japanese), niroa (Maori), kamik tuarongo (Maori), kofetoga (Niuean), tebasson (English, Ivory Coast), piripiri niroa (Maori), piripiri kerekere (Maori), sanyi (English, Sierra Leone), nidul-lif (English, Sierra Leone), masquia (Spanish), bidente pilosa (Spanish), agberi-oku (English, Sierra Leone), adzrskpi (English, Ivory Coast), nangua (English, Ivory Coast), cadillo (Spanish), cacha de cabra (Spanish), légué (English, Ivory Coast), zebeyuzébogue (English, Ivory Coast), hierba amarilla (Spanish), diandu (English, Ivory Coast), rosilla (Spanish), dinenkui (English, Ivory Coast), nanguadian (English, Ivory Coast), kokosa (English, Ivory Coast), mazote (Spanish), diaani (English, Ivory Coast), iuna (English, Ivory Coast), perca (Spanish), gonoretti (English, Ivory Coast), niani (English, Liberia), zagoi ini (English, Ivory Coast), tagiaani (English, Ivory Coast), manamendigo (English, Ivory Coast), abissawa (English, Ivory Coast), puriket (English), pega-prga (Spanish), nguad (English), papunga chipaca (Spanish), alongoï (English, Ivory Coast), anasipagné (English, Ivory Coast), bident hérissé (French), iréné (English, Ivory Coast), picão-preto (Portuguese), pétéoré (English, Ivory Coast), zagaï zagagbé (English, Ivory Coast), zegbei zegbagwè (English, Ivory Coast)
Synonym
Bidens leucantha , (L.) Willd.
Bidens leucantha , Willd. var. sundaica (Blume) Hassk.
Bidens sundaica , (Blume)
Coreopsis leucantha , L.
Bidens odorata
Similar species
Summary
Bidens pilosa is a cosmopolitan, annual herb which originates from tropical and Central America. Its hardiness, explosive reproductive potential, and ability to thrive in almost any environment have enabled it to establish throughout the world. Generally introduced unintentionally through agriculture or sometimes intentionally for ornamental purposes, B. pilosa is a major crop weed, threat to native fauna, and a physical nuisance.
Species Description
Bidens pilosa is an erect, annual herb which stands from 0.3-2 m high and bears opposite, pinnately compound, broadly ovate, (3-)5-9-lobed leaves 3-20 cm long and 2.5-12 cm wide. Leaf segments ovate to lanceolate lobed or bilobed at the base with margins crenate-serrate and apices acute. Stems are reddish tinged; 4-angled, simple, or branched. Heads solitary or in lax paniculate cymes at the ends of the main stem and lateral branches, usually radiate, 5 – 12 mm broad. Heads with 2 rows of involucral bracts, outer ones 7-10, spathulate, reflexed at anthesis, 3-4 mm long, inner ones ovate lanceolate; ray flowers absent or 4-8, sterile, corolla 7-15 mm long, white to yellow or pinkish, disk flowers with 3.5 – 5 mm long, yellow corolla. Achenes are black, 4-8 ribbed, linear, 6-16 mm long, with 2-3(-5) retrorsely barbed bristles of 2-4 mm long (Aluka, undated; PIER 2007).
Lifecycle Stages
Bidens pilosa grows quickly. Plants flower 4 months after germination and produce mature seeds 4 weeks after flowering. Plants typically bear 80 flower heads with seeds with potential production of 3000 plants in a generation and 4 generations per year (DPI, 2008; Mvere, 2004; PIER, 2007).
Uses
Bidens pilosa is used as a medicinal plant in areas of Africa, Asia, and tropical America. Its roots, leaves, and seeds are reported to have antibacterial, antidysenteric, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antimalarial, diuretic, heptoprotective, and hypotensive properties. In Africa, B. pilosa is used to treat headaches, ear infections, hangovers, diarrhoea, kidney problems, malaria, jaundice, dysentery, burns, arthritis, ulcers, and abdominal problems. It is also used as an anaesthetic, coagulant, and treatment to ease child birth. In sub-Saharan Africa, its fresh or dried shoots and young leaves are eaten as a leaf vegetable, especially in times of food scarcity. B. pilosa is also an ingredient of sauces eaten with many staple foods there (Mvere, 2004).
Habitat Description
Bidens pilosa is a hardy weed capable of invading a vast range of habitats ranging from moist soil, sand, limerock, or dry, infertile soil and low to high altitudes of up to 3,600 m. It thrives in disturbed areas, high sunlight, and moderately dry soils, but is known to invade grassland, heathland, forest clearings, wetlands, plantations, streamlines, roadsides, pasture, coastal areas, and agriculture areas. B. pilosa is capable of surviving severe droughts with a required annual rainfall range is 500-3500 mm. It is tolerant to a pH range of 4-9 and high salinities of up to 100 mM NaCl. It prefers temperatures above 15°C and below 45°C but is tolerant to frosts with roots capable of withstanding and regenerating after temperatures as low as -15°C. B. pilosa is not fire tolerant but is known to quickly invade burnt areas (PIER, 2007; Aluka, undated; DPI, 2008).
Reproduction
Sexual by self or cross-pollination. A single plant may produce 3,000-6,000 seeds per year which are spread by attaching to animals, birds, and people or dispersal by wind and water. Its full reproductive cycle may be completed in 57-70 days and be completed 5-6 times a years in some areas. Seeds are reported to have no dormancy, remain viable for 5-6 years, and a 74% germination rate in the field (PIER, 2007; Zungsontiporn, undated; DPI, 2008)
Pathway
Bidens pilosa has been introduced to many new locations by man for agricultural or ornamental purposes (Carlquist, 1966).

Principal source: Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)., 2007. Bidens pilosa L., Asteraceae

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Johan van Valkenburg, Dutch Plant Protection Service.

Publication date: 2010-08-30

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Bidens pilosa. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1431 on 16-12-2017.

General Impacts
Bidens pilosa is a problematic species for many reasons throughout its range. A troublesome weed to at least 30 crops in over 40 countries, B. pilosa is known to significantly reduce crop yields. One study found that dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, harvests were reduced by 48% in Uganda and 18-48% in Peru due to impacts by B. pilosa. It forms dense stands that can out compete, out grow, and eliminate crop and native vegetation, specifically the lower vegetative strata, over large areas. B. pilosa prevents the regeneration of these plants as well, given its allelopathic properties. Leaf and root extracts are known to significantly suppress germination and seedling growth of many plants and are believed to remain active throughout decomposition. Furthermore, B. pilosa grows three times faster than similar plant species. All of these properties render it a quite formidable competitor.
Its thick stands impede access to roads, trails, and recreational areas, are a nuisance to travellers and tourists, and inflict damage to pavements and walls. Its burrs are a nuisance to people, as well as, sheep and other fleece producing livestock. The burrs are also a troublesome seed contaminant as they are difficult to separate. Bidens pilosa is also a host and vector to harmful parasites such as Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (Schlerotinia sclerotiorum) (DPI, 2008; Mvere, 2004).
Management Info
Physical: Bidens pilosa is susceptible to hand weeding. Germination may be prevented by mulches if they are thick enough (PIER, 2007).

Chemical: B. pilosa is susceptable to several types of herbicides. Residual herbicides: diuron, bromacil, atrazine, simazine, ropazine, hexazinone, oryzalin, and ametryn; translocated herbicides: 2,4-D, glyphosate, amitrole, metribuzin, and dicamba; and contact herbicides bentazone, diquat, and paraquat have all been evaluated as effective means of controlling B. pilosa when applied at standard rates. B. pilosa is thought susceptible to the majority of broad-leafed plant herbicides (PIER, 2007).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Bidens pilosa
NATIVE RANGE
  • antigua and barbuda
  • argentina
  • barbados
  • belize
  • bolivia
  • brazil
  • chile
  • colombia
  • costa rica
  • cuba
  • dominica
  • dominican republic
  • ecuador
  • el salvador
  • french guiana
  • guadeloupe
  • guatemala
  • guyana
  • haiti
  • honduras
  • jamaica
  • martinique
  • mexico
  • montserrat
  • nicaragua
  • panama
  • peru
  • puerto rico
  • saint kitts and nevis
  • saint lucia
  • saint vincent and the grenadines
  • solomon islands
  • suriname
  • uruguay
  • venezuela
Informations on Bidens pilosa has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Bidens pilosa in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
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Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Bidens pilosa is a problematic species for many reasons throughout its range. A troublesome weed to at least 30 crops in over 40 countries, B. pilosa is known to significantly reduce crop yields. One study found that dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, harvests were reduced by 48% in Uganda and 18-48% in Peru due to impacts by B. pilosa. It forms dense stands that can out compete, out grow, and eliminate crop and native vegetation, specifically the lower vegetative strata, over large areas. B. pilosa prevents the regeneration of these plants as well, given its allelopathic properties. Leaf and root extracts are known to significantly suppress germination and seedling growth of many plants and are believed to remain active throughout decomposition. Furthermore, B. pilosa grows three times faster than similar plant species. All of these properties render it a quite formidable competitor.
Its thick stands impede access to roads, trails, and recreational areas, are a nuisance to travellers and tourists, and inflict damage to pavements and walls. Its burrs are a nuisance to people, as well as, sheep and other fleece producing livestock. The burrs are also a troublesome seed contaminant as they are difficult to separate. Bidens pilosa is also a host and vector to harmful parasites such as Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (Schlerotinia sclerotiorum) (DPI, 2008; Mvere, 2004).
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Physical: Bidens pilosa is susceptible to hand weeding. Germination may be prevented by mulches if they are thick enough (PIER, 2007).

Chemical: B. pilosa is susceptable to several types of herbicides. Residual herbicides: diuron, bromacil, atrazine, simazine, ropazine, hexazinone, oryzalin, and ametryn; translocated herbicides: 2,4-D, glyphosate, amitrole, metribuzin, and dicamba; and contact herbicides bentazone, diquat, and paraquat have all been evaluated as effective means of controlling B. pilosa when applied at standard rates. B. pilosa is thought susceptible to the majority of broad-leafed plant herbicides (PIER, 2007).

Locations
Management Category
Control
None
Unknown
Bibliography
40 references found for Bidens pilosa

Managment information
Brandes, Dietmar., 2001. Bidens pilosa L. und ihre Einb�rgerungschancen in den L�ndern der Europ�ischen Union
Summary: Available from: http://bib1lp1.rz.tu-bs.de/docportal/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/DocPortal_derivate_00001309/Document.pdf;jsessionid=0000w-cmI6ZCGCrzBvSIDeLgEY6?hosts=local [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
Carlquist, Sherwin ., 1966. The Biota of Long-Distance Dispersal. II. Loss of Dispersibility in Pacific Compositae. Evolution, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Mar., 1966), pp. 30-48
Department Of Primary Industries (DPI)., 2008. Victorian Resources Online Statewide. Cobblers Pegs (Bidens pilosa L.): Impact Assessment - Cobblers Pegs (Bidens pilosa L.) in Victoria
Summary: Available from: http://hear.org/starr/publications/2006_lanai_islets_botanical_survey.pdf [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
Department Of Primary Industries (DPI)., 2008. Victorian Resources Online Statewide. Cobblers Pegs (Bidens pilosa L.): Present distribution- Potential distribution
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/DPI/Vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/weeds_herbs_annual_cobblers_pegs [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
Mvere, B., 2004. Bidens pilosa L. In: Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (Editors). PROTA 2: Vegetables/Legumes. [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Summary: Available from: http://database.prota.org/PROTAhtml/Bidens%20pilosa_En.htm [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
General information
Aluka, undated. Bidens pilosa L. [family Compositae]
Summary: Available from: http://www.aluka.org/action/showCompilationPage?doi=10.5555/AL.AP.COMPILATION.PLANT-NAME-SPECIES.BIDENS.PILOSA&cookieSet=1 [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
Auld, Bruce., Hirohiko Morita, Tomoko Nishida, Misako Ito and Peter Michael., 2003. Shared exotica: Plant invasions of Japan and south eastern Australia. Cunninghamia (2003) 8(1): 147�152
Corlett, Richard T., 1988. The Naturalized Flora of Singapore Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 15, No. 4, Festschrift in Honour of Professor Donald Walker, (Jul., 1988), pp. 657-663
Corlett, Richard T., 1992. The Naturalized Flora of Hong Kong: A Comparison with Singapore. Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Jul., 1992), pp. 421-430
Dafni, Amots and David Heller., 1982. Adventive flora of Israel � Phytogeographical, ecological and agricultural aspects. Plant Systematics and Evolution. Volume 140, Number 1 / April, 1982
DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe) 2008. Bidens pilosa L.
Summary: Available from: http://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesId=122433 [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe) 2008. Bidens pilosa L. Distribution Map
Summary: Available from: http://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesId=122433# [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
Della, Athena & G. Iatrou., 1995. New Plant Records from Cyprus. Kew Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 2 (1995), pp. 387-396
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), 2008. Species: Bidens pilosa L. Kofe Tonga
Summary: Available from: http://data.gbif.org/species/13746874 [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Groves, R.H. (Convenor), Hosking, J.R., Batianoff, G.N., Cooke, D.A., Cowie, I.D., Johnson, R.W., Keighery, G.J., Lepschi, B.J., Mitchell, A.A., Moerkerk, M., Randall, R.P., Rozefelds, A.C., Walsh N.G., and Waterhouse, B.M. 2003. Weed categories for natural and agricultural ecosystem management. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: This document gives the status of all weed species found in Australia.
Hadac, Emil 2and Vera Hadacov�., 1969. Notes on the ecology and distribution of Bidens pilosa L. in Cuba. Folia Geobotanica Volume 4, Number 2 / June, 1969
Hyde, M.A. & Wursten, B. 2008. Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Bidens pilosa L.
Summary: Available from: http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=160650 [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database. Bidens pilosa L.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=35731 [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
Mattiske Consulting Pty Ltd., 2005. Flora and Vegetation on the Cloud Break and White Knight Leases. Prepared for: Fortescue Metals Group Limited (FMG0501/29/05)
Summary: Available from: http://www.epa.wa.gov.au/docs/cloudbreak/PER_CloudBreak_AppD.pdf [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
McMullen, Conley K., 1987. Breeding Systems of Selected Gal�pagos Islands Angiosperms. American Journal of Botany, Vol. 74, No. 11, (Nov., 1987), pp. 1694-1705
Muller, Norbert and Shigetoshi 0kuda., 1998. Invasion of Alien Plants in Floodplains-A comparision of Europe and Japan., Plant Invasions: Ecological Mechanisms and Human Responses, pp. 32 1-332 edited by U. Starfinger, K. Edwards, I. Kowarik and M. Williainson
Summary: Available from: http://hear.org/starr/publications/2006_lanai_islets_botanical_survey.pdf [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
New Zealand Plant Conservation Network., 2005. Bidens pilosa L. Weed Status
Summary: Available from: http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/exotic_plant_life_and_weeds/detail.asp?WeedID=1129 [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)., 2007. Bidens pilosa L., Asteraceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/bidens_pilosa.htm [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
Pattison, R.R; G. Goldstein & A. Ares., 1998. Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthesis of invasive and native Hawaiian rainforest species
Plants of Hawaii, 2008. Images by Forest & Kim Starr Bidens pilosa Spanish needle, ki, ki nehe, ki pipili, nehe (Asteraceae)
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/images/thumbnails/html/bidens_pilosa.htm [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
Sherff, Earl E., 1916. Studies in the Genus Bidens. III. Botanical Gazette, Vol. 61, No. 6 (Jun., 1916), pp. 495-506
University of Hawaii Botany Department, 1998. Hawaiian Alien Plant Studies Bidens pilosa L. beggar s tick, Spanish needle Asteraceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/cw_smith/bid_pil.htm [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
USDA, NRCS, 2008. PLANTS Database, Plants Profile for Bidens pilosa L. hairy beggarticks
Summary: Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=BIPI [Accessed on 7 July 2008]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Bidens pilosa