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  • Healthy tree (left), diseased tree (right) (Photo: Rocky Mountain Region Archives, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org)
  • Fading crowns, numerous cones, and short stunted needles and twigs(Photo: USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org)
  • Damage (Photo: Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, , www.forestryimages.org)
  • Damage to young tree (Photo: John H. Ghent, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org)
  • Phytophthora cinnamomi dieback sign (Photo: Gnangarra, Wikimedia Commons)
  • Phytophthora cinnamomi asexual spore (Photo: Mary Ann Hansen, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org)
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Common name
wildflower dieback (English, Australia), Phytophthora Faeule der Scheinzypresse (German), seedling blight (English), phytophthora root rot (English), cinnamon fungus (English, Australia), phytophthora crown and root rot (English), jarrah dieback (English, Western Australia), green fruit rot (English), heart rot (English), stem canker (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora castaneae, Phytophthora citrophthora, Phytophthora colocasiae, Phytophthora drechsleri, Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora katsurae, Phytophthora manoana, Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora parasitica
Summary
The oomycete, Phytophthora cinnamomi, is a widespread soil-borne pathogen that infects woody plants causing root rot and cankering. It needs moist soil conditions and warm temperatures to thrive, and is particularly damaging to susceptible plants (e.g. drought stressed plants in the summer). P. cinnamomi poses a threat to forestry, ornamental and fruit industries, and infects over 900 woody perennial species. Diagnostic techniques are expensive and require expert identification. Prevention and chemical use are typically used to lessen the impact of P. cinnamomi.
Species Description
Phytophthora cinnamomi is a destructive and widespread soil-borne pathogen that infects woody plant hosts. P. cinnamomi spreads both by chlamydospores as well as water-propelled zoospores. The presence of the oomycete is only determinable by soil or root laboratory analysis, although its effects upon the vegetation it destroys are readily evident (Parks and Wildlife, 2004). Infection often results in the death of the plant, with earlier symptoms including wilting, yellowing and retention of dried foliage and darkening of young feeder roots and occasionally the larger roots. The plant is unable to adequately absorb enough water from the soil because its roots are damaged and consequently may die (Botanic Gardens Trust, UNDATED). P. cinnamomi causes water deficiency symptoms which can result in tree death, following a slow or abrupt decline. Primary symptoms caused by this pathogen in temperate oaks (Quercus rubra and Q. robur) include fine root lesions which may extend into larger roots, collar and trunks causing bleeding cankers, but no water deficiency has been described (Moreau & Moreau, 1952; Robin et al. 1992; Robin et al. 2001). Bergot et al. (2004) observe that, \"The initial lesions at root or collar level develop upwards in the trunk and the disease expression is typically a bleeding trunk canker, therefore named 'ink disease'. Since P. cinnamomi essentially develops in inner cortical tissues and not in the wood, oaks keep track of past infections in the form of necroses at the cambium level (scars)\".
Notes
Robin et al. (2001) state that, \"Waterlogging increased the severity of Phytophthora cinnamomi induced diseases in the field (Fagg et al. 1986). Under controlled experiments, when waterlogging was imposed at or after the time of inoculation, lengths of lesions caused by P. cinnamomi significantly increased (Davison & Tay, 1987). Moreover, waterlogging and associated hypoxia had a direct effect on P. cinnamomi by reducing mycelial growth and sporangium production (Davison & Tay, 1986). It is likely that in the field, the combination of heavy rainfalls leading to occasional waterlogging, and summer droughts, may act sequentially and predispose oaks to decline when infected by P. cinnamomi.\"

Bergot et al. (2004) states that, \"Disease development was shown to be strongly hampered by cold winters (Robin et al. 1992b; Marçais et al. 1996), in agreement with the known sensitivity of P. cinnamomi to frost (Benson, 1982). The hypothesis that lethal frost effects on the pathogen could be a major factor limiting disease range in oaks was put forward by Delatour (1986).\"

Lifecycle Stages
The Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (2003) states that, \"When conditions are warm and moist the mycelial threads (or hyphae) that form the body of the oomycete in the soil or host-plant tissue vegetatively produce micrscopic spore sacks called sporangia and thick-walled chlamydospores. Mycelium of different mating types may grow together to produce thick walled sexual spores called oospores. Zoospores have flagellae, which allow them to swim very short distances (25-35mm) in standing water or in films of water in soil pores. They can also be carried along in moving water over large distances. Zoospores are short-lived and fragile, but are produced in large numbers and probably are the cause of most new infections. As they move through the soil zoospores are attracted to the tips of plant roots, where they lodge, encyst, and germinate to produce germ tubes which penetrate roots. Mycelium then grow within the roots of susceptible plants and may grow from plant to plant via root contact points. This root to root growth is the main cause of spread of a P. cinnamomi infestation upslope. Chlamydospores are much larger spores that are tough and long-lived (within dead plants and the soil). They are produced within plant roots in response to drying conditions, and are the resistant, 'resting' phase of the oomycete. They may be transported in root fragments or soil and then germinate to cause a new infection when they encounter warm, moist conditions. Germinated chlamydospores may produce sporangia, more chlamydospores, or mycelium which directly infect roots. After infection, the mycelium grows through the root tissue causing cell breakdown and 'rotting' of the tissue. The pathogen extends into the major roots of susceptible species and may girdle the base of the trunk. Plant death occurs because transport of water from the roots is prevented. Various environmental factors control the rate of growth of mycelium within the root. For instance, there is little growth when the water content of the plant tissue is below 80%. In very susceptible species, such as banksia, death may occur in weeks, while in moderately susceptible species such as jarrah the tree may not die till a year or more after infection. Moderately susceptible and resistant species have the ability to 'wall off' the infection to prevent further spread of the mycelium, with varying degrees of success.\"
Habitat Description
Phytophthora cinnamomi requires moist soil conditions and warm temperatures to be active, but damage caused by the disease most often occurs in summer when plants are drought stressed (Botanic Gardens Trust, Undated). Menge (1998) states that, \"Soil with poor drainage, high clay content, high water tables, hard pans, clay pans or where water pools after irrigation or rainfall, have historically been associated with sites where P. cinnamomi infection is severe.

A study (Moreira & Martins, 2005) undertaken during 1995-98, surveyed cork and holm oak stands in four different regions of Portugal (Trás-os-Montes, Alentejo, Ribatejo and Algarve) for the presence of P. cinnamomi. Tree decline severity, sudden death and site characteristics were assessed in varied conditions. Analysis of the survey results indicated: that 56% of surveyed flora were infected with the pathogen; the flora belonged mainly to the following families Ericaceae, Cistaceae and Leguminosae; recovery of the pathogen was more frequent in shallow soils; soils with low fertility and low mineral nutrient levels, particularly phosphorus, seemed to favour infection and sites facing south showed higher occurrence of P. cinnamomi, which was also more frequent in slopes and valleys than on hilltops.

Reproduction
Botanic Gardens Trust (Undated) states that, \"Small swimming zoospores are released which attach to and infect roots, normally behind the root tip. All spores and structures of P. cinnamomi are microscopic and cannot be seen with the naked eye. There is no way of visually telling if the pathogen is present in the soil. P. cinnamomi grows through the root destroying the tissue which is then unable to absorb water and nutrients. Further zoospores are produced in sporangia, particularly when the soil is moist and warm, and are released into the soil. Consequently zoospore numbers can build up quite rapidly. Zoospores move in water and may infect neighbouring plants especially those down slope from a site of infection. These spores are easily transported in storm water, drainage water, contaminated soil and on tools, footwear and vehicles. A further two spore types may be produced, a chlamydospore and an oospore, which are survival structures produced when conditions become unfavourable such as when a food source is exhausted or in periods of low temperature or drought. These spores are capable of surviving for extended periods of time, and when conditions become favourable they germinate and renew the life cycle. This allows P. cinnamomi to survive in dead plant tissue for a number of years.\"
Nutrition
The food source of Phytophthora cinnamomi is the root and basal stem tissue of living plants (Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, 2004).

Principal source: Menge, 1998. Strategies to control Phytophthora cinnamomi root rot of avocado.
Botanic Gardens Trust, UNDATED Phytophthora root rot - fact sheet

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Cécile Robin, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Bordaeux, France.

Publication date: 2007-09-01

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Phytophthora cinnamomi. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=143 on 27-08-2016.

General Impacts
Phytophthora cinnamomi is one among the most destructive species of Phytophthora associated to the decline of forestry, ornamental and fruit species, as well as of some 900 other woody perennial plant species (Ferraris et al. 2004). Commercial enterprises such as agricultural projects and related plant industries are negatively impacted by the impact of the P. cinnamomi infection. In Italy P. cinnamomi infections are being reported with increasing frequency: first on chestnut coppices and Rhododendron spp. in plant nurseries and more recently on chestnuts (causing ink disease) and Chamaecyparis in nurseries and on avocado, oak, walnut and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) in nurseries and the field. The ability of P. cinnamomi to infect oaks has led to speculation that P. cinnamomi is involved in the severe decline of oaks in the general Mediterranean region (Robin et al. 2001). The pathogen also causes significant damage on the African continent and is highlighted as the most damaging disease in South African avocado orchards, where is causes root rot and heavily reduces crop yields (Bezuidenhout et al. 1987). \r\n

Just as concerning is the impact that P. cinnamomi may have on native species. According to Rudman (Undated) 181 plant species have so far been recorded as hosts for P. cinnamomi in Tasmania, Australia. At least 39 of Tasmania's threatened plant species are susceptible to P. cinnamomi and it is possible that native species may be rapidly killed and unable to regenerate in infected areas. As is the case in other areas there is considerable variation in response to infection by P. cinnamomi amongst host species, some showing resistance and some extreme susceptibility.

P. cinnamomi is causing and has the potential to cause significant ecological damage in native North American biomes from California to the Appalachian mountains, impacting on ecosystems as diverse at the Sierra Nevada desert and the Appalachian forests. A scientific study of the recent mortality of Ione manzanita- a rare, endemic, evergreen shrub restricted to Ione formation soils in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California, (Arctostaphylos myrtifolia) found that the cause of mortality was due to the P. cinnamomi pathogen. The pathogen which causes wilting, foliage desiccation and root necrosis in native plants is believed to have a significant impact on the conservation of the already threatened A. myrtifolia (Swiecki and Bernhardt 2003). P. cinnamomi is also impacting native Californian species in the woodlands around Lake Hodges, where 27% of coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), show disease symptoms and are suspected to be infected with the pathogen (Garbelotto, Hüberli and Shaw 2006). All natural oak woodlands in the western United States are potentially at risk of ecological damage from the pathogen and studies such as the one by Garbelotto, Hüberli and Shaw (2006) may contribute to an understanding disease factors (susceptibility, present of other pests) and may ultimately help to minimise the spread of the disease. In eastern North America, in the Appalachian forests, chestnut forests are struggling to regenerate, a situation partly attributable to the impact of P. cinnamomi. While chestnut blight disease has historically been linked to chestnut mortality, among the chief obstacles facing chestnut restoration are the oomycete pathogens of the genus Phytophthora. Recent plantings of chestnut seedlings in Appalachian forests have experienced high mortality attributable through standard diagnostic practices to Phytophthora, principally P. cinnamomi (Rhoades et al. 2003).

Management Info
Drenth et al. 2006 describe the development and \r\nvalidation of a DNA-based diagnostic assay that can detect and identify 27 different Phytophthora species.
For details on preventative measures, chemical, physical, biological control options, please see management information.
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Phytophthora cinnamomi
NATIVE RANGE
Informations on Phytophthora cinnamomi has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Phytophthora cinnamomi in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Phytophthora cinnamomi is one among the most destructive species of Phytophthora associated to the decline of forestry, ornamental and fruit species, as well as of some 900 other woody perennial plant species (Ferraris et al. 2004). Commercial enterprises such as agricultural projects and related plant industries are negatively impacted by the impact of the P. cinnamomi infection. In Italy P. cinnamomi infections are being reported with increasing frequency: first on chestnut coppices and Rhododendron spp. in plant nurseries and more recently on chestnuts (causing ink disease) and Chamaecyparis in nurseries and on avocado, oak, walnut and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) in nurseries and the field. The ability of P. cinnamomi to infect oaks has led to speculation that P. cinnamomi is involved in the severe decline of oaks in the general Mediterranean region (Robin et al. 2001). The pathogen also causes significant damage on the African continent and is highlighted as the most damaging disease in South African avocado orchards, where is causes root rot and heavily reduces crop yields (Bezuidenhout et al. 1987). \r\n

Just as concerning is the impact that P. cinnamomi may have on native species. According to Rudman (Undated) 181 plant species have so far been recorded as hosts for P. cinnamomi in Tasmania, Australia. At least 39 of Tasmania's threatened plant species are susceptible to P. cinnamomi and it is possible that native species may be rapidly killed and unable to regenerate in infected areas. As is the case in other areas there is considerable variation in response to infection by P. cinnamomi amongst host species, some showing resistance and some extreme susceptibility.

P. cinnamomi is causing and has the potential to cause significant ecological damage in native North American biomes from California to the Appalachian mountains, impacting on ecosystems as diverse at the Sierra Nevada desert and the Appalachian forests. A scientific study of the recent mortality of Ione manzanita- a rare, endemic, evergreen shrub restricted to Ione formation soils in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California, (Arctostaphylos myrtifolia) found that the cause of mortality was due to the P. cinnamomi pathogen. The pathogen which causes wilting, foliage desiccation and root necrosis in native plants is believed to have a significant impact on the conservation of the already threatened A. myrtifolia (Swiecki and Bernhardt 2003). P. cinnamomi is also impacting native Californian species in the woodlands around Lake Hodges, where 27% of coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), show disease symptoms and are suspected to be infected with the pathogen (Garbelotto, Hüberli and Shaw 2006). All natural oak woodlands in the western United States are potentially at risk of ecological damage from the pathogen and studies such as the one by Garbelotto, Hüberli and Shaw (2006) may contribute to an understanding disease factors (susceptibility, present of other pests) and may ultimately help to minimise the spread of the disease. In eastern North America, in the Appalachian forests, chestnut forests are struggling to regenerate, a situation partly attributable to the impact of P. cinnamomi. While chestnut blight disease has historically been linked to chestnut mortality, among the chief obstacles facing chestnut restoration are the oomycete pathogens of the genus Phytophthora. Recent plantings of chestnut seedlings in Appalachian forests have experienced high mortality attributable through standard diagnostic practices to Phytophthora, principally P. cinnamomi (Rhoades et al. 2003).

Red List assessed species 4: CR = 2; EN = 1; NT = 1;
Locations
AUSTRALIA
SOUTH AFRICA
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[5] Disease transmission
Outcomes
[4] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [4] Reduction in native biodiversity
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [2] Damage to agriculture
Management information
Drenth et al. 2006 describe the development and \r\nvalidation of a DNA-based diagnostic assay that can detect and identify 27 different Phytophthora species.
For details on preventative measures, chemical, physical, biological control options, please see management information.
Management Category
Eradication
Control
None
Unknown
Bibliography
41 references found for Phytophthora cinnamomi

Managment information
Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management. 2003. Lifecycle of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/projects/dieback_lifecycle.html [Accessed 01 September 2004]
Barker, P.C.J., Wardlaw, T.J., and Brown, M.J. 1996. Selection and design of Phytophthora management areas for the conservation of threatened flora in Tasmania. Biological Conservation. 76 (2): 187-193.
Summary: Provides management and observation data based on Tasmania s treatment program of their Phytophthora cinnammomi infestation.
Bergot, M., E. Cloppet, V. Perarnaud, M. Deque, B. Marcais, and M.L Desprez-Loustau. 2004. Simulation of potential range expansion of oak disease caused by Phytophthora cinnammomi under climate change. Global Change Biology 10: 1-14
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Bezuidenhout, J. J., J. M. Darvas, and J. C. Toerien. 1987. Chemical control of Phytophthora cinnammomi. South African Avocado Growers Association Yearbook 10: 106-108, Proceedings of the First World Avocado Congress.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.avocadosource.com/wac1/wac1_p106.htm [Accessed 01 September 2004]
Botanic Gardens Trust. UNDATED. Phytophthora root rot - fact sheet.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/information_about_plants/pests_diseases/fact_sheets/phytophthora_root_rot [Accessed 01 September 2005]
Department of Environment & Conservation. 2004. Infection of native plants by Phytophthora cinnammomi - key threatening process declaration. NSW Department of Environment & Conservation.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/npws.nsf/Content/Infection+of+native+plants+by+Phytophthora+cinnamomi+-+key+threatening+process+declaration [Accessed 01 September 2004]
Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment. 2004. Quarantine, Pests and Diseases.
Summary: This website gives information about the biology, impacts and management of Phytophthora cinnammomi in Tasmania.
Available from: http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/EGIL-53Y7MW?open [Accessed 19 November 2004]
Environment Australia. 2001. Threat abatement plan for dieback caused by the root-rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi.
Summary: Provides an example of management and damage assessment plans in Austraila.
Available from: http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora/pubs/phytophthora.pdf [Accessed 19 November 2004]
Fairbanks, M.M., Hardy, G.E., and McComb, J.A.. 2001. The effect of phosphite on the sexual reproduction of some annual species of the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of southwest Western Australia. Sexual Plant Reproduction. 13: 315-321.
Summary: This document details a sufficient and cost-effective control for cinnamomi.
Ferraris, L., F. Cardinale, D. Valentino, P. Roggero, and G. Tamietti. 2004. Immunological Discrimination of Phytophthora cinnammomi from other Phytophthorae Pathogenic on Chestnut. Journal of Phytophathology 152: 193-199.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Garbelotto, M., H�berli, D. and Shaw, D. 2006. First Report on an Infestation of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Natural Oak Woodlands of California and its Differential Impact on Two Native Oak Species, in Plant Disease 90(5): 685.
Summary: A study looking at the effect of P. cinnamom on native oak stands and the varying susceptibilty of different oak species to the pathogen.l
Glevan Dieback Consultancy Services. Undated.
Summary: This service was established in 1994 in Western Australia, and provides advice about the management of P. cinnamomi.
Available from: http://www.glevan.com.au/page3.html [Accessed 19 November 2004]
Hansen, E. 2003. Phytophthora in North American forests. Oregon State University: Sudden Oak Death Online Symposium.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.apsnet.org/online/sod/Papers/Hansen/default.htm [Accessed 01 September 2004]
Jackson, T.J., Burgess, T., Colquhoun, I., and Hardy, G.E. StJ. 2000. Action of the fungicide phosphite on Eucalyptus marginata inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi. Plant Pathology. 49: 147�154.
Summary: This article gives information about the use of phosphite in controlling P. cinnamomi on Eucalyptus marginata.
Kliejunas, J. 2000. Sudden Oak Death: Phytophthora sp. Pest Risk Assessment. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Protection.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://camfer.cnr.berkeley.edu/oaks/SODPRA.html [Accessed 01 September 2004]
Lloyd, S. Aliens-L. 5 April 2004.
Summary: Available from: http://indaba.iucn.org/archives/aliens-l/2004-04/00005635.htm [Accessed 19 November 2004]
Menge, J. A.. 1998. Strategies to control Phytophthora cinnammomi root rot of avacado. Dr. Gary Bender, Farm Advisor (Avacados specialist).
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://commserv.ucdavis.edu/CESanDiego/bender/p%20cinnamomi%20root%20rot.htm [Accessed 01 September 2004]
Moreira, A. C. & J. M. S. Martins., 2005. Influence of site factors on the impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi in cork oak stands in Portugal Forest Pathology Volume 35 Issue 3 Page 145
Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania. 2004. Plants of Tasmania: Phytophthora Root Rot.
Summary: Australia s Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife information guide on local flora and fauna.
Available from: http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/veg/phytop/ [Accessed 19 November 2004]
Pryce, J., W. Edwards, and P. A. Gadek. 2002. Distribution of Phytophthora cinnammomi at different spatial scales: When can a negative result be considered positively?. Austral Ecology 27: 459-462
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Rhoades, C. C., S. L. Brosi, A. J. Dattilo, and P. Vincelli. 2003. Effect of soil compaction and moisture on incidence of phytophthora root rot on American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 184: 47-54
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Robin, C., G. Capron, and M. L. Desprez-Loustau. 2001. Root infection by Phytophthora cinnammomi in seedlings of three oak species. Plant Pathology 50: 708-716
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Rudman, T. UNDATED. Information & Advice - Phytophthora Root Rot. Tasmania Outdoors.com Pty Ltd.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.tasmaniaoutdoors.com/advice/advicedetail.php?AdviceID=00003 [Accessed 01 September 2004]
Shearer, B. L., Fairman, R. G. & Grant, M. J. 2006. Effective concentration of phosphite in controlling Phytophthora cinnamomi following stem injection of Banksia species and Eucalyptus marginata. Forest Pathology 36 (2), 119-135.
Swiecki, T.J., Bernhardt, E.A. and Garbelotto, M. 2005. Distribution of Phytophthora cinnamomi within the range of Ione manzanita (Arctostaphylos myrtifolia). Prepared for California Department of Fish and Game. Vacaville CA: Phytosphere Research and University of California, Berkeley.
Summary: A distributional study investigating the range of Phytophthora cinnamomi in native plant (Ione manzanita) mortality centres in Sierra Nevada.
Available from: http://phytosphere.com/publications/Pcinn_Amyrt_2005.htm [Accessed 20 September 2007]
Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service. 2004. What is Phytophthora cinnamomi ? Plants of Tasmania.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/veg/phytop/whatis.html [Accessed 19 November 2004]
Vannini A. and Vettraino A.M. 2001. Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut. For Snow lands. Res. 76(3), 345-350.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, history, and impacts and management of ink disease of chestnut
Vettraino A.M., Morel O., Perlerou C., Robin C., Diamandis S., Vannini A. 2005. Occurrence and distribution of Phytophthora species in European chestnut stands, and their association with Ink disease and crown decline. EJPP 111, 169-180.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, history, and impacts and management of ink disease of chestnut
General information
Ann, P.J., and Ko, W.H. 1985. Variants of Phytophthora cinnammomi extended the known limits of the species. Mycologia. 77: 946-950.
Summary: Information about Phytophthora cinnammomi
Barnard, E.L. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Forestry Images website.
Summary: The forestry images website provides some pictures of vegetation destroyed by Phytophthora cinnamomi.
Available from: http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=4823085 [Accessed 19 November 2004]
Daniel, R., J. Taylor and D. Guest., 2006. Distribution and occurrence of Phytophthora cinnamomi at Middle Head and North Head, Sydney Harbour Australasian Plant Pathology, 2006, 35, 569�571
Gonsalves, A.K. and Ferreira, S.A., 1994. Phytophthora Primer: General Information Summary .
Summary: This overview is a very helpful list of references of similar Phytophthora species and their effects on vegetation.
Available from: http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/Type/phyt_prim.htm [Accessed 19 November 2004]
Hansen , E.M. 2001. Phytophthora diseases in woody plants. From the First International Symposium of SFB 607 Mechanisms of Growth, Competition and Stress Defence in Plants , February 13 - 14, 2001.
Summary: Hansen is an expert on Phytophthora and details the life cycle and spread of Phytophthora cinnamomi.
Available at: http://www.sfb607.de/english/science/symposium/symposium_2001/phytophthora.html [Accessed 19 November 2004]
Ho, H.H. 2002. Phytophthora cinnamomi var. robiniae var. nova on black locust in Jiangsu Province of China. Mycotaxon. 82:.391-396.
Summary: Details of the variant of P. cinnamomi causing damage to black locust populations in China.
Johnston, P.R., Horner, I.J., and Beever, R.E. 2004. Phytophthora cinnamomi in New Zealand�s indigenous forests. Landcare Research.
Summary: This article gives details on the distribution and impacts of P. cinnamomi in New Zealand.
Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biodiversity/fungiprog/Phytophthora_cinnamomi.pdf [Accessed 23 November 2004]
Landcare Research. 2004. Phytophthora cinnamomi.
Summary: This website gives taxonomic information and distribution records from New Zealand.
Available from: http://nzfungi.landcareresearch.co.nz/html/data.asp?TID=&ID=81-XJD-43&NAMEPKey=8129 [Accessed 19 November 2004]
MAF (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry)/Biosecurity New Zealand, 2004. Biosecurity Organisms Register for Imported Commodities.
Summary: This website gives details about plant diseases found in New Zealand.
Available from: http://www.maf.govt.nz/biosecurity/pests-diseases/registers-lists/boric/?page=1&scientific=phytophthora [Accessed 19 November 2004]
New South Wales (NSW) National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2004. Infection of native plants by Phytophthora cinnamomi - key threatening process declaration.
Summary: This article gives details about the distribution and possible impacts of P. cinnamomi on native flora and fauna.
Sanchez, M.E., Caetano, P., Ferraz, J., and Trapero, A. 2002. Phytophthora disease of Quercus ilex in south-western Spain. Forest Pathology. 32 (1): 5.
Summary: This study details the invasive effects of Phytophthora in Spain, its infected area, manageability, and provides discussion of its infected hosts.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Phytophthora cinnamomi
Robin,
C�cile
Organization:
Charg�e de Recherche UMR Biodiversit� G�nes et Ecosyst�mes
Address:
Equipe de Pathologie foresti�re INRA 71 Av. Edouard Bourleaux 33883 Villenave d�Ornon Cedex � France
Phone:
05 57 12 26 13
Fax:
05 57 12 26 �