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  • Siberian silk moth eggs (Photo: John H. Ghent, USDA Forest Service, United States., www.invasive.org)
  • Adult Siberian silk moth (Photo: Vladimir Petko, V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, Russian Federation, www.invasive.org)
  • Adult Siberian silk moth (Photo: Natalia Kirichenko, Russian Federation, www.invasive.org)
  • Siberian silk moth larva(e) (Photo: David R. Lance, USDA APHIS PPQ, United States, www.invasive.org)
  • Siberian silk moth larvae  (Photo: David R. Lance, USDA APHIS PPQ, United States, www.invasive.org)
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Common name
larch caterpillar (English, China), Siberian moth (English), Siberian coniferous silk moth (English), Siberian lasiocampid (English)
Synonym
Dendrolimus superans sibericus , (Tshetverikov)
Dendrolimus laricis , Tschetverikov
Similar species
Summary
The Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus is a severe pest in regions it inhabits due to its role as a defoliator of conifer trees stands. It is native to Russia and China but has spread outward to other parts of Asia and Europe. The damage the Siberian moth causes to its hosts in its native range results in cascading ecological, economic and social impacts. The risk of the pest being introduced to regions with host species, either by natural or human-related dispersal, is high. While it is likely that the pest may also pose serious risk to European Russia, eastern and central Europe and North America, data suggests that larvae can develop on most European conifers. The distribution of species to the west of the Ural Mountains is prevented by mild winters.
Species Description
Eggs: The eggs are about 2.2 mm in length and 1.9 mm wide giving them an oval shape. They are initially light-green turning creamy-white and finally become darken and spotted (Rozhkov, 1963).\r\n\r\n
Larvae: Larvae are approximately 55 to 70 mm in length, mostly black or dark brown with numerous spots and long hairs (Rozhkov, 1963). The rounded head is brown with a speckled pattern. The dorsum is usually light, silvery, with dark spots on each segment. There are tufts of blue hairs behind the first and second thoracic segments. The second and third segments are marked with blue-black stripes. The dorsal marking of each abdominal segment is hexagonal, and the ventral surface contains a series of fuscous spots (Rozhkov, 1963; EPPO, 2006).\r\n\r\n
Pupae: Pupae are dark brown, 30-36 mm long. The head, thorax, and wing sheaths mat and abdomen are shiny. Wing sheaths reach the fourth abdominal segment. Pupation occurs in cocoons spun with silk, needles and small branches. Cocoon is gray or brownish, 70 x 12 to 15 mm, compact, rough, with inclusion of hairs.\r\n\r\n
Adults: Adult moths are 30-40 mm in length with a wing span of 40-80 mm. Female moths are bigger than males. The adults are yellowish-brown or light gray to dark brown or almost black in color (Rozhkov, 1963). The front wings have two dark transverse bands and a white spot in the centre. The hind wings are the same base color as the forewings, though can be lighter or darker, with no any markings. \r\n\r\n

Please see PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) Species Content Page: Siberian silk moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Chetverikov (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) for high quality diagnostic and overview images

Notes
There has been some disagreement over the true identity of this species and its proper scientific name (EPPO, 2006). Most taxonomists have considered the Siberian taxon as a subspecies of the Japanese taxon D. superans and used the combination Dendrolimus superans sibiricus (Dubatolov & Zolotuhin 1992; Zolotuhin 1995; Chistyakov, 1999). However recent genetic analysis of Dendrolimus species allowed separation of D. sibiricus and D. superans into two different species (Mikkola & Stahls, 2008). Thus, only D. sibiricus is reported on in this profile.
Lifecycle Stages
Under natural conditions, the moth’s life cycle usually requires two to three years, with larvae having from five to seven instars (usually six) ( Boldaruev, 1969; Rozhkov, 1963 ). An 15:9 h L:D photoperiod generates diapause in this species (Geispitz, 1957 ) and diapausing larvae overwinter once or twice (Boldaruev, 1969; Rozhkov, 1963). In the pest’s range, most adults appear and lay eggs in the middle of June to the beginning of July. In the first year, larvae develop to the third or fourth instar before coiling up in the litter and overwintering. They emerge in early spring of the next year and feed extensively to complete their development in June (Rozhkov, 1963). However many larvae also enter into a ‘summer diapause’ (i.e. a period of slow development of the third- to fifth-instar larvae in the tree crowns) and overwinter in the forest floor in the fourth or fifth instar to complete their development in the third year (Baranchikov & Kirichenko, 2002). Such a complex life cycle requires 5 to 11 months of active larvae development.
Habitat Description
Dendrolimus sibiricus may be closely associated with biomes characterized as: boreal forests, temperate grasslands, temperate broadleaf and mixed forests and temperate coniferous forests (Davis, French & Venette, 2005). The pest attacks either stressed (i.e. drought) or healthy trees (Rozhkov, 1965; CFIA, 2006). Outbreaks have been reported in five-needle pine, fir, larch and spruce forests (Boldaruev, 1955; Rozkov, 1963; Baranchikov, Kondakov & Petrenko, 2001). However, occasional damage on two-needle pine stands that are typically avoided by moth cannot be ruled out (Epova, 1999).\r\n\r\n

Outbreaks vary in size and extent depending on factors including population density, dispersal behaviour, forest type, and host availability (Boldaruev, 1955; Rozkov, 1963; Davis, French & Venette, 2005). In Siberia maximum mortality of forests caused by outbreaks is observed at elevations of approximately 200 meters and minimum mortality at about 300 meters. This may reflect preferable altitudes of Siberian moth outbreak. The insect inhabits latitudes higher than the historical northern limit of severe outbreaks, but the potential for catastrophic outbreaks is limited by cold climate conditions (Kharuk, Ranson & Fedotova, 2007).

Reproduction
Females oviposit an average of 150-400 eggs and a maximum of 800 eggs (Rozhkov, 1963; EPPO, 2006; CFIA, 2006). Eggs are laid soon after mating singly or in clusters on needles or thin twigs, mainly in the lower part of the crowns. During outbreaks eggs are laid throughout the tree and also on bushes, grass, logs and rocks (Rozhkov, 1963; CFIA, 2006). The incubation of eggs takes 9 to 22 days (Rozhkov, 1963; Davis, French & Venette, 2005).
Nutrition
Dendrolimus sibiricus exclusively damages conifers from Pinaceae family (Boldaruev, 1969; Rozkov, 1963; Kirichenko & Baranchikov, 2007). The conifers from other families: Taxaceae and Cupressaceae are inedible for the larvae (Kirichenko et al., 2008). Host plant suitability for the larvae is genus-specific and does not depend much on the host species which the pest develops on in natural range (Kirichenko & Baranchikov, 2007, 2008). \r\n\r\n

The suitability of host plant genera decreases in order: Larix, Abies, five-needle Pinus spp., Picea to two-needle Pinus spp. (Kirichenko & Baranchikov, 2007). Larvae typically feed on foliage in the crown of trees. First instar larvae damage the edges of needles while older larvae consume entire needles (Baranchikov, 1987) and may also eat the basis of buds, young cones and also bark of the first year shoots.\r\nIn regard to the European conifers, Larix deciduas, and to North American conifers, Abies grandis, Pinus strobes and Pseudotsuga menziesii, are the most suitable host plants for the insect, resulting in the highest larval survival and growth rates (Kirichenko et al., 2008; Kirichenko, Baranchikov & Vidal, 2009). Douglas fir P. menziesii is an entirely new host for the pest as genus Pseudotsuga does not exist in the natural range of the moth (Kirichenko et al, 2008). The larvae are also able to damage conifers from genera Cedrus and Tsuga, which do not occur in the pest’s range (Kirichenko et al., 2008).

Pathway
All stages of the life cycle of Dendrolimus sibiricus can be transported on plants moving in trade, particularly plants for planting and cut branches (EPPO, 2006).

Principal source:

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dr. Yuri Baranchikov and Dr. Natalia Kirichenko, Department of Forest Zoology, VN Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Publication date: 2010-03-27

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Dendrolimus sibiricus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1428 on 21-09-2017.

General Impacts
The potential impact by Dendrolimus sibiricus within an infested area is high, including direct damage to coniferous plantations and forests resulting in wood losses, environmental damage to natural forests resulting in their death over large areas and social damage to people living in damaged areas (Furiaev, 1966; Baranchikov, Kondakov & Petrenko, 2001; Orlinskii, 2001). Outbreaks of the pest incite a disruption of the continuum of forest succession by causing significant mortality in the overstory and understory conifers causing the abortion of the future seed crop (Buck, 2008).Within its natural range, the moth has caused serious damage to thousands of hectares of forests (Baranchikov & Kondakov, 1997). During the last outbreak alone, in 1999–2002 in the Republic of Yakutia (Russia), more than 8 million hectares of larch stands were damaged (Vinokurov & Isaev, 2002). Weakened and stressed trees are attacked by secondary pests, which ultimately results in forest death and subsequent predisposition to fires (Furiaev, 1966; Isaev, Rozhkov & Kiselev, 1988).
Management Info
Preventative Measures: To prevent introduction of Dendrolimus sibiricus by international movement of commodities; plants for planting and cut branches of host plants from the infested areas should be free from soil according to OEPP/EPPO. In addition, such commodities could originate in a pest-free area, be produced in protected houses, or fumigated, or imported during winter. Wood should be debarked or heat-treated, or originate in a pest-free area, or be imported during winter, and isolated bark should be treated to destroy contaminating insects (EPPO, 2006). \r\n

Chemical: Adult males can be captured using pheromone traps containing specific pheromones (Klun et al., 2000; EPPO, 2006). \r\n

Biological: Under non-outbreak conditions, natural enemies of this species (the egg parasitoids Telenomus tetratomus, Ooencyrtus pinicola and Trichogramma dendrolimi, the larval and pupal parasitoids Masicera sphingivora, Blepharipa schineri and Rhogas dendrolimi, the microorganisms Bacillus dendrolimus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria vassiana, polyhedrosis viruses and some other viruses) play an important role in the regulation of its population density (Kolomietz, 1962; Boldaruev, 1969; EPPO, 2006).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Dendrolimus sibiricus
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
  • russian federation
Informations on Dendrolimus sibiricus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Dendrolimus sibiricus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The potential impact by Dendrolimus sibiricus within an infested area is high, including direct damage to coniferous plantations and forests resulting in wood losses, environmental damage to natural forests resulting in their death over large areas and social damage to people living in damaged areas (Furiaev, 1966; Baranchikov, Kondakov & Petrenko, 2001; Orlinskii, 2001). Outbreaks of the pest incite a disruption of the continuum of forest succession by causing significant mortality in the overstory and understory conifers causing the abortion of the future seed crop (Buck, 2008).Within its natural range, the moth has caused serious damage to thousands of hectares of forests (Baranchikov & Kondakov, 1997). During the last outbreak alone, in 1999–2002 in the Republic of Yakutia (Russia), more than 8 million hectares of larch stands were damaged (Vinokurov & Isaev, 2002). Weakened and stressed trees are attacked by secondary pests, which ultimately results in forest death and subsequent predisposition to fires (Furiaev, 1966; Isaev, Rozhkov & Kiselev, 1988).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
MONGOLIA
RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Mechanism
[3] Parasitism
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
[3] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to forestry
  • [1] Human health
  • [1] Human nuisance 
Management information
Preventative Measures: To prevent introduction of Dendrolimus sibiricus by international movement of commodities; plants for planting and cut branches of host plants from the infested areas should be free from soil according to OEPP/EPPO. In addition, such commodities could originate in a pest-free area, be produced in protected houses, or fumigated, or imported during winter. Wood should be debarked or heat-treated, or originate in a pest-free area, or be imported during winter, and isolated bark should be treated to destroy contaminating insects (EPPO, 2006). \r\n

Chemical: Adult males can be captured using pheromone traps containing specific pheromones (Klun et al., 2000; EPPO, 2006). \r\n

Biological: Under non-outbreak conditions, natural enemies of this species (the egg parasitoids Telenomus tetratomus, Ooencyrtus pinicola and Trichogramma dendrolimi, the larval and pupal parasitoids Masicera sphingivora, Blepharipa schineri and Rhogas dendrolimi, the microorganisms Bacillus dendrolimus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria vassiana, polyhedrosis viruses and some other viruses) play an important role in the regulation of its population density (Kolomietz, 1962; Boldaruev, 1969; EPPO, 2006).

Locations
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF
MONGOLIA
RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Management Category
Control
Monitoring
Bibliography
68 references found for Dendrolimus sibiricus

Managment information
Allard, G. B; S. Fortuna, Lee Su See, J. Novotny, A. Baldini and T. Courtinho., 2003. Global information on outbreaks and impact of major forest insect pests and diseases. Paper presented at the XII World Forestry Congress, 2003. Quebec City Canada
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), 2006. Dendrolimus sibiricus (Tschetverikov) - Siberian coniferous silk moth
Summary: Available from: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pestrava/densib/tech/densibe.shtml [Accessed 10 February 2009]
Davis, Erica E., French, Sarah & Venette, Robert C. 2005. Mini Risk Assessment Siberian Silk Moth, Dendrolimus superans Butler [Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae]. September 29, 2005.
Summary: Available from: https://vsps.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/pest_detection/downloads/pra/dsuperanspra.pdf [Accessed 10 February 2009]
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), 2005. Dendrolimus sibiricus and Dendrolimus superans. Bulletin OEPP. 35(3). DEC 2005. 390-395.
Ghent, John H. & Amy L. Onken, 2003. United States Department of Agriculture. Forest ServiceTRIP REPORT for TCP/MON/ 2902 Emergency Measures for Control of Siberian Caterpillar and Other Major Forest Pests Mongolia 2003
Summary: Available from: http://www.fs.fed.us/outernet/r6/nr/fid/iat/reports/asia-south-pacific/2003-ghent-mongolia-defol.pdf [Accessed 10 February 2009]
Gninenko, Yu. I.; Orlinskii, A. D., 2002. Dendrolimus sibiricus in the coniferous forests of European Russia at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Bulletin OEPP. 32(3). Decembre 2002. 481-483.
Summary: Abstract: The Siberian conifer pest Dendrolimus sibiricus is slowly spreading westwards. It crossed the Urals at the beginning of the twentieth century and reached the Republic of Udmurtiya by the 1950s. Pheromones developed to support control of the pest in Siberia have been used to monitor for its presence in Russia. Results obtained in 2001 show that the pest is now widespread in the Republic of Mari El (500 km east of Moscow), while isolated individuals have been trapped in the Moscow region. No D. sibiricus were trapped in Tver Region (between Moscow and Sankt-Peterburg).
Gninenko, Yu. I.; Sidel nik, N. D., 2003. The Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus in Yakutia in the 20th century. Lesovedenie.(6). November-December 2003. 71-73.
Summary: Abstract: Analysis of Dendrolimus sibiricus outbreaks in larch forests conducted on the basis of literature data showed the influence of crown defoliation on the state of these stands. Repeated strong damage of crowns was found to lead to decline and death of trees. A single strong damage of crowns is reverse and does not destroy larch stands.
Isaev, A. S.; Kiselev, V. V.; Kalashnikov, E. N; Pleshikov, F. I.; Cherkashin, V. P., 1999. Geoinformation systems in prediction and control of mass insect outbreaks. Lesovedenie. 0(5). Sept.-Oct., 1999. 15-23.
Summary: Abstract: Problems on creating a system of forest entomological monitoring based on integration of existing information flows and the data obtained by using remote methods are considered. A scheme of the forest entomological monitoring approved in Krasnoyarsk Territory to predict and control the numbers of the most dangerous pests in boreal forests, Dendrolimus sibiricus and Monochamus urussovi Fisch., is suggested.
Kharuk Viacheslav I., Kenneth J. Ranson & Elena V. Fedotova, 2007. Spatial pattern of Siberian silkmoth outbreak and Taiga mortality. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 2007; 22: 531 536
Summary: Abstract: The latest catastrophic Siberian silkmoth (Dendrolimus superans sibiricus Tschetw.) outbreak occurred in central Siberia during 1994 1996. The relationship between forest stand mortality from insects and topographic features (azimuth, elevation, slope steepness) was analyzed based on a high-resolution digital elevation model, a pest damage map and Terra/ MODIS data. It was found that pest-induced forest mortality patterns depend on topographic features. Before the outbreak the major part of host forest species was found within the elevation zone of 150 500 m. After the outbreak, surviving darkneedle stands were found mainly at elevations higher than 400 m. The greatest damage was observed at elevations between 210 and 320 m, whereas maximum mortality was observed at elevations of about 200 m and minimal mortality at elevations of 300 m. With respect to slope steepness, maximum damage for all categories was observed for slopes of 5 208. Slightly damaged stands were most common at low slope angle (about 58 or less), whereas the highest proportion of stands with high tree mortality was found on steeper slopes. With respect to azimuth, insect damage is mostly uniform, with a small increase in damage on the south-west-facing slopes. The spatial pattern of the silkmoth outbreak can provide a basis for prioritizing Siberian silkmoth outbreak monitoring.
Kharuk, V. I.; K. J. Ranson, A. G. Kozuhovskaya, Y. P. Kondakov and I. A. Pestunov., 2004. NOAA/AVHRR satellite detection of Siberian silkmoth outbreaks in eastern Siberia. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 20 December, 2004, Vol. 25, NO. 24, 5543�5555
Summary: Abstract: During 1993�1996, in central Siberia, a silkmoth (Dendrolimus superans sibiricus Tschetw.) infestation damaged approximately 700 000 ha of fir, Siberian pine and spruce stands. Temporal (1995�1997) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images were used for pest outbreak monitoring of this event. Damaged stands were detected, with heavy (50�75% dead and dying trees) plus very heavy (w75%) levels of damage classified. Summer and winter images were used for delineation of the northern border ofthe region of pest outbreaks. The Siberian taiga insects were classified with respect to their harmfulness to forests, based on the frequency of outbreaks, the size of the damaged territory, and the available food sources based on forest type.
Klun J.A., Baranchikov V. C., Mastro V. C., Hijji Y., Nicholson J., Ragenovich I. & Vshivkova T.A., 2000. A sex attractant for the Siberian moth Dendrolimus superans sibiricus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 35. 158�166.
Kolomietz N.G., 1962. Parasitoids and predators of the Siberian moth. Novosibirsk: Siberian Branch, Academy of sciences of USSR. (in Russian).
Kovacs, K., Ranson, K.J., Kharuk, V.I., 2005. Detecting Siberian Silk Moth Damage in Central Siberia Using Multi-Temporal MODIS Data. International Workshop on the Analysis of Multi Temporal Remote Sensing Images, 2005: 16-18 May 2005: 25- 29
Krasnoshchekov, Yu. N.; Bezkorovainaya, I. N.; Kuz michenko, V. V., 2007. Transformation of forest litter properties under controlled burning of fir forests defoliated by Siberian moths in the lower Angara River Basin. Pochvovedenie.(2). FEB 2007. 170-178.
Summary: Abstract: The results of studying the dynamics of forest litter properties in the loci of a Siberian moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus) mass outbreak are considered. As a fir forest defoliated by this pest bums, the reserves and fractional composition of the forest litter, its actual acidity, and its chemical composition drastically change. Upon the burning out of such forests, the litter complex of invertebrates is fully destroyed and begins restoring only two years after the fire.
Krasnoshchekov, Yu. N.; Valendik, E. N.; Bezkorovainaya, I. N.; Verkhovets, S. V.; Kisilyakhov, E. K.; Kuz michenko, V. V., 2005. The influence of controlled burning of forests damaged by Siberian moth on properties of soddy-podzolic soils in the Lower Angara River basin. Lesovedenie.(2). MAR-APR05. 16-24.
Summary: Abstract: The data on the post-fire dynamics of soil properties in foci of Siberian moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus) outbreaks are considered. The burning of forests previously damaged by Siberian moth is found to induce losses of carbon (75%) and nitrogen (about 50%) from the forest titter. At the same time, the total potassium and phosphorus contents increased by 3.2 times, concentrations of their mobile forms, by 4.3 and 12.3 times, respectively. In the first two months, the favorable effect of fire of physicochemical properties of soils was registered. A significant transformation of biological pocesses in the organic horizon of soils was registered after fire. In this horizon, the abundance of microarthropods and mite population were reduced by hundreds of times.
Liu Yan; Mei Hongjun., 1993. The biological characteristics and control of Dendrolimus superans sibiricus in the Daxinganling forest region [China]. Forest Science and Technology (China) 1002-1159 Serial number (no. 7) p. 25-26 July1993
NAPPFAST., 2008. NCSU APHIS Plant Pest Forecasting System. Date of last Update: 14 August 2008. Host Map Dendrolimus superans sibiricus (Tschetverikov) Siberian Moth
Summary: Available from: http://www.nappfast.org/caps_pests/maps/Host/Dendrolimus%20superans-sibiricus.pdf [Accessed 10 February 2009]
Orlinski, A. D., 2006. Outcomes of the EPPO project on quarantine pests for forestry. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 2006 Bulletin 36, 497�511
Orlinskii, A. D., 2001. Quarantine pests for forestry. Bulletin OEPP. 31(3). September, 2001. 391-396.
PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library), 2009. Synonyms Siberian silk moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Chetverikov (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)
Summary: Available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestSynonyms.aspx?id=979 [Accessed 10 February 2009]
Tsai, P. H; Hou T. C; Hwang F. S., 1979. On The Practice and Perspectives of Integrated Control of the Forest Insect Pests Pine Caterpillars in China. Acta Entomologica Sinica. 22(1). 1979. 45-52.
Summary: Abstract: About 40 spp. of pine caterpillars infesting conifers and broad-leafed trees were collected in China. They belong to 4 genera: Dendrolimus, Cyclophragma, Hoenimnema and Metanastria. These 6 spp. cause serious forest damage: D. superans (Butler) (= D. sibiricus Tsch.), distributed in the northeastern provinces and northern Sinkiang; D. tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu, in northern China; D. spectabilis Butler, in the provinces around the Gulf of Pohai; D. punctatus (Walker), in southern China; D. latipennis Walker, in Yunnan Province and D. kikuchii Matsumura, in southern China. Each species has its own preferred host trees, i.e., D. punctatus prefers Pinus massoniana, D. spectabilis to P. densiflora et al. Synecological relationships for the outbreak center of pine caterpillars were summarized. Integrated control of pine caterpillars requires species identification and surveys on distribution and outbreak centers, bionomics and pest forecasting, forest management for the prevention of the pest population growth, biological control for caterpillar population suppression and application of chemical insecticides in urgent situations.
Walker, K. 2007. Siberian silk moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 8/7/2007 3:25:49 PM. Available online: http://www.padil.gov.a
Summary: Available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=979 [Accessed 10 February 2009]
General information
Baranchikov Y.N. 1987. Trophical specialization of Lepidoptera. Krasnoyarsk. Institute of Forest and wood AN USSR. (in Russian).
Baranchikov, Yu. N. and N. I. Kirichenko., Feeding and Growth of Caterpillars of the Siberian Moth Dendrolimus superans sibiricus (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae) During Summer Diapause
Summary: Abstract:The role of the larval summer diapause in the intrapopulation synchronization of adult emergence in the Siberian moth Dendrolimus superans sibiricus Tschtvr. was assessed. The prolongation of the larval stage occurs owing to decreased consumption, assimilation, and utilization of food, in spite of the favorable conditions for development. It was shown for the example of 4th instar larvae that the summer diapause increases larval period to 3 weeks and significantly decreases the rate of food consumption in comparison with controls. In diapausing larvae, the utilization of food consumed by the larval decreases by 20% and the efficiency of use of consumed and utilized food for larval growth falls by half in comparison with controls. As a result, the relative growth rate in diapausing larvae is strongly reduced (0.009 mg/day against 0.073 mg/day in controls).
Abstract available from: http://www.maik.ru/abstract/enteng/2/enteng1084_abstract.pdf [Accessed 10 February 2009]
Baranchikov Yu.N. & Kirichenko N.I., 2002. Feeding and growth of caterpillars of the Siberian moth Dendrolimus superans sibiricus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) during summer diapause. Entomological Review. 82. 1084-1089.
Baranchikov Yu.N. & Kondakov Yu.P., 1997. Outbreaks of the Siberian moth Dendrolimus superans sibiricus Tschtwrk in central Siberia. Proceedings of USDA Interagency Gypsy Moth Forum. USDA Forest Service, NEFES. (US).
Baranchikov Yu.N. , Kondakov Yu.P. & Petrenko E.S., 2001. Catastrophic outbreaks of Siberian moth in Krasnoyarsk Kray. National Security of Russia. ed . by A. A . Lepeshev. Znaniye, Russia. 146-167. (in Russian)
Baranchikov Yu.N. & Perevoznikova V.D., 2004. Siberian moth outbreaks as sources of additional carbon flux. Academician V.N.Sukachev Memorial Meetings. Proc. Vol. XX. Insects in forest ecosystems. Moscow: KMK Press, p.32-53 (in Russian).
Baranchikov Yu.N., Perevoznikova V.D. & Tsaagaantsodj N., 2008. Ecological peculiarities of soil cover in mountainous larch forest of Bogdo-Ula reserve, destroyed by Siberian moth. Proc. Russian-Mongolian Symposium on Global and regional peculiarities of Baikal region ecosystems transformation, Ulan-Bator, p. 157-161 (in Russian).
Baranchikov Yu.N.; Pet ko V. M. & Ponomarev V.L., 2007. The Russians are coming - aren t they? Siberian moth in European forests. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W., ed. Proceedings, 17th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2006; Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-10. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 18-20.
Baranchikov Yu., Tschebakova N., Parfenova E. & Kirichenko N., 2010. Climate constraints for Siberian moth distribution in Europe. In: McManus, Katherine A; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings. 20th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2009; 2009 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-51. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 63.
Boldaruev V.O., 1969. Population dynamics of the Siberian moth and its� parasitoids. Ulan-Ude: Buryat publisher house (Buryatskoe Knijnoe izdanie). (in Russian).
Chistyakov Yu.A., 1999. Lasiocampidae. In: Ler, P. A. (ed.). Identification book of insects of Russian Far East. V. Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Part I: 586� 617. Vladivostok. Dalnauka. (in Russian).
Dubatolov V.V. & Zolotuhin V.V., 1992. A list of Lasiocampidae from the territory of the former USSR (Insecta, Lepidoptera). Atalanta. 23. 531-548.
Epova V.I ., 1999. The List of Chewing-Insects of Baikal� Siberia. Nauka, Russia. (in Russian).
Furiaev V.V., 1966. Fires in the forests damaged by Siberian Moth. Nauka, Moscow. (in Russian).
Geispitz K.F., 1957. Photoperiodical and temperature reactions effecting the seasonal development of pine moths Dendrolumus pini L. and D. sibiricus Tschtv. (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae) . Entomological Review. 44. 538-553 (in Russian).
Gninenko, Yu. & V. Yu. Kryukov., 2007. Siberian Moth in Forets of the European Part of Russia. National Centre For Agrarian Sciences. Plant Science, 44, 256?258 2007, Sofia
Summary: Abstract: Dendrolimus sibiricus is widespread in coniferous forests of Siberia, northern-east China, northern Mongolia and northern Korea. The penetration of this species into coniferous forests situated to the west of Ural that was registered at the beginning of the 20th century resulted in its appearance in last years in central regions of the European part of Russia. In the article there are data allow to come to conclusion that also in the future the phytophagan will move to the west and extend its natural habitat. Keeping the same speed it can appear in forests of Belorussia, Baltic and Finland
Grechkin V.P., 1960. Siberian moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus Tshchtw.) � a pest of forest in Mongolia. Zoologicheskiy Zhurnal, v. 39, No. 1, p. 84-96.(in Russian).
Isaev, A. S.; Kondakov, Yu. P.; Kiselev, V. V., 1995. Spatial structure of Dendrolimus sibiricus populations between outbreaks. Lesovedenie. 0(6). 1995. 3-12.
Summary: Abstract: The spatial structure of Dendrolimus sibiricus populations at landscape and biocoenotic levels has been studied. Interrelationships and the level of variability in structural and dynamic characters of aboriginal populations in the period between outbreaks have been revealed. Mosaic distribution of population numbers is considered as a characteristic feature of many forest insects. Specificity of the spatial structure is explained not only by heterogeneity of the environment, but biological and ecological peculiarities of eruptive and prodromic species of forest insects. Lability of the spatial structure is shown to be of adaptive feature for providing an optimal use of ecological niches. It reduces competition to a minimum keeping informational and functional relations between intrapopulational groups occupying reservations of different type.
Isaev A.S., Rozhkov A.S. & Kiselev V.V., 1988. Fir Sawfly beetle Monohamus Urussovi (Fisch). Nauka, Novosibirsk. (in Russian).
Kirichenko, Natalia; Stefan Vidal, Yuri Baranchikov., 2006. European conifers as host plants for neonate larvae of the Siberian Moth � a potential invasive species to Europe. IUFRO Working Party 7.03.10 Proceedings of the Workshop 2006, Gmunden/Austria
Kirichenko N.I. & Baranchikov Y.N ., 2007. Appropriateness of needles of different conifer species for the feeding and growth of larvae from two populations of the Siberian moth. Russian Journal of Ecology. 38. 198-203.
Kirichenko, N. I.; Baranchikov, Yu. N., 2008. The determination of needle loss under partial defoliation of forest stands by the Siberian moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus). Lesovedenie.(4). JUL-AUG 2008. 68-72.
Summary: Abstract: The results of experimental assessment of food norms for Siberian moth larvae reared on needles of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica), Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica), Siberian spruce (Picea obovata), and Scots pine (Pinus syvestris) are discussed. The food norms may be corrected on the basis of the data on the larva mortality only in the case of high larva dieback in the older aged groups. The relationships between the larva mass and the food mass consumed may be directly used for the determination of the food norm for Siberian moth affected each of the Siberian coniferous species
Kirichenko N.I., Baranchikov Yu.N., Kenis M. & Vidal S., 2008. Douglas fir � a new host plant for Siberian moth larvae. Quarantine and plant protection (Zaschita i karantin rasteniy). Moscow. 8. 30-31 (in Russian).
Kirichenko N.I., Baranchikov Yu.N. & Vidal S., 2009. Host plant preference and performance of the potentially invasive Siberian moth (Dendrolimus superans sibiricus) on European coniferous species. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 11: 247-254.
Kirichenko, N. I; Flament, J.; Baranchikov, Y. N.; Gregoire, J. -C., 2008. Native and exotic coniferous species in Europe - possible host plants for the potentially invasive Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtv. (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae) Bulletin OEPP. 38(2). AUG 2008. 259-263.
Summary: Abstract: The performance of young larvae of the potentially invasive Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtv. has been studied for the first time on the native and exotic coniferous species which are widely distributed and of considerable commercial value in Europe. Picea, Abies, the introduced Pinus species (five-needle pine only), and species from the exotic genera Pseudotsuga and Cedrus (all Pinaceae) are found to be suitable hosts for pest development. Two-needle pines and species from non-native Tsuga (also Pinaceae) are poor hosts in terms of larval performance though they may support growth of neonates (most sensitive to food quality). Coniferous species from other families: Taxaceae and Cupressaceae are inedible for the pest. The fact that the Siberian moth is able to survive and develop on all the tested genera of Pinaceae and that some of them constitute two thirds of the European forests underline how harmful this defoliator could be in the case of its introduction into European countries.
Kirichenko N.I., Flament J., Baranchikov Yu.N. & Gr�goire J.-C., 2008. Native and exotic coniferous species in Europe � possible host plants for the potentially invasive Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtv. (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae) // Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 38. 259-263.
Kolomiets, N. G., 1995. Zonal peculiarities of needle- and leaf-eating insect outbreaks in forests of the West Siberian Lowland. Lesovedenie. 0(6). 1995. 13-17.
Summary: Abstract: The data collected in the Siberian Uvals ( 63 degree N and 73 degree E) confirm that the West Siberian Lowland territory is not uniform for outbreaks of needle- and leaf-eating insects. Southwards from the isoline of the optimal heat-moisture ratio (according to D. I. Abramovich, 1952) the outbreaks of Dendrolimus sibiricus, Lymantria dispar, L., monacha, Bupalus piniarius and some species of sawflies arise periodically in large areas. These pests are very dangerous for forests. Northwards from this isoline the mass reproduction of lepidopterans is made difficult or impossible. Sawflies (Diprion pini, Pristiphora erichsoni, Croesus septentrionalis and Caliroa annulipes) penetrate up to the polar circle and in ecotones of the Siberian Uvals form centers of reproduction. There is no essential damage of forest there
Kondakov Yu.P., Baranchikov Yu.N., Cherkashin V.P. & Korets M.A. 2001. Regions of Siberian moth outbreaks in Yenisey Siberia. Map (Scale 1:1 800 000). Krasnoyarsk: Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RASc. (in Russian).
Krasnoshchekov Yu.N. & Bezkorovainaya I.N., 2008. Soil functioning in foci of Siberian moth population outbreaks in the southern taiga subzone of Central Siberia. Biology Bulletin Volume 35, Number 1, p.70-79.
Krasnoshchekov, Yu. N; Vishnyakova, Z. V., 2003. Changes in properties of soils in foci of Siberian moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus) outbreaks. Pochvovedenie.(12). December 2003. 1453-1462.
Summary: Abstract: The experimental data on the transformation of properties of soddy-deeply podzolic soils and raw humus burozems under fir forests defoliated by the Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus are analyzed. In the first two months after the addition of Siberian moth excrements to the forest litter, the population of all ecological-trophic groups of microorganisms was shown to increase by 13 times, that of ammonifying phototrophs and microorganisms, taking part in humus mineralization, by 42 and 9 times, respectively. The leaching of water-soluble carbon from litters in forests defoliated by the Siberian moth was by 2126% higher than that from litters of control ones. A year later, it was reduced to 14%. The content of exchangeable hydrogen and total acidity decreased, and the degree of base saturation increased. Within 56 years after the Siberian moth invasion, the transformation of physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological properties of soils was specified by succession development of the plant cover.
Mikkola, Kauri; Stahls, Gunilla., 2008. Morphological and molecular taxonomy of Dendrolimus sibiricus Chetverikov stat.rev. and allied lappet moths (Lepidoptera : Lasiocampidae), with description of a new species. Entomologica Fennica. 19(2). JUN 13 2008. 65-85.
Summary: Abstract: The populations of the well-known forest pest, Dendrolimus sibiricus Chetverikov, 1908 stat.rev., were sampled in the European foothills of the Ural Mountains, Russia. D. sibirieus is a species distinct from the Japanese taxon D. superans (Butler, 1877). Another taxon from the Southern Urals, taxonomically close to D. pini (Linnaeus), is described here as D. kilmez sp.n. The synthetic female pheromones prepared for D. pini and D. sibiricus attracted equally well all three taxa present, and thus cannot be used to identify these species. The Ural populations of D. sibiricus show differences in external appearance, and as already in the 1840s Eversmann indicated that the species had caused local forest damage, D. sibiricus must be a long-established species in the Ural area. Thus, natural spreading westward of the pest is not to be expected. The five Dendrolimus species of the northern Palaearctic and the male genitalia are illustrated, and the distinguishing characters are listed. Two Matsumura lectotypes are designated.
Mikkola K. & Stahls G., 2008. Morphological and molecular taxonomy of Dendrolimus sibiricus Chetverikov stat.rev. and allied lappet moths (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), with description of a new species. Entomologica Fennica. 19. 65-85.
Rozhkov A.S., 1963. The Siberian Moth. AS USSR Press. USSR. (In Russian) .
Sokolov, V. A., 2003. Problems in sustainable development of the forest industry in Siberia. Lesnoe Khozyaistvo Ekologiya
Summary: Abstract:Nine percent of global forest resources is located in Siberia, Russia. Statistics on composition of forest stands, standing volume, and forecasted logging volumeplanned cut area in Siberia are presented. The authors state that the current planned cut area is twice beyond a sustainable level. Data on forest fires in 1991-2000, Dendrolimus sibiricus infestations, timber harvesting in 1960-2000 are presented. The authors argue that transfer of forestry to a sustainable model needs to be linked to an economic reform, development of a forestry model which is both environmentally and economically sustainable, efficient spending and investment. Use of GIS [geographical information systems] in forest management is emphasised. The principal future trends in forest management are identified as scientifically justified zoning and reforestation, complex evaluation of forest resources (taking into account both environmental and economic factors), and development of felling systems based on environmental conditions.
Turova G.I., Baranchikov Yu.N. & Korets M.A., 2004. Regions of forest pathology in Sakhalin Island. Map (Scale 1:1 200 000). Krasnoyarsk: Sukachev Institute of forest SB RASc. (In Russian).
Vetrova, V. P.; Isaev, A. S; Pashenova, N. V.; Konstantinov, M. Yu., 1998. Estimation of threat of Monochamus urussovi outbreak in dark coniferous stands damaged by Dendrolimus sibiricus in the Lower Angara River region. Lesovedenie. 0(3). May-June, 1998. 58-67.
Summary: Abstract: Dynamics of Monochamus urussovi numbers and propagation infection through it in dark coniferous stands damaged by Dendrolimus sibiricus in the Lower Angara River region was investigated in 1994-1996. Formation of Monochamus urussovi primary loci in the stands completely devoid of needles because of Dendrolimus sibiricus was registered. Relations between occupation of stands by Monochamus urussovi and the time and degree of their defoliation were revealed. A suggestion of realizing the first stage of the outbreak due to migration of beetles to damaged stands and transition of populations to the stage of maximum (1998) is made based on the analysis of the xylophage numbers dynamics. In the loci an epidemic level of distributing fungi by Monochamus urussovi was observed.
Vinokurov N.N. & Isaev A.P., 2002. Siberian moth in Yakutia // Nauka I technika v Yakutii 3, 53�56. (In Russian).
Yurchenko G.I., Baranchikov Yu.N. & Korets M.A., 2005. Regions of forest pathology in Khabarovsk kray. Map. (Scale 1:1 500 000). Krasnoyarsk: Sukachev Institute of forest SB RASc. (In Russian).
Yurchenko G.I., Baranchikov Yu.N. & Krasnopeyev S.M., 2004. Regions of insect pest outbreaks on the forests of Primorskiy kray. Map. (Scale 1:1 000 000). Vladivostok: Pacific institute of geography FEB RASc. (In Russian).
Zolotuhin V.V., 1995. An annotated checklist of the Lasiocampidae of Kazakhstan and MiddleAsia. Atalanta. 26. 273-290.
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Dendrolimus sibiricus
Baranchikov,
Dr. Yuri
Organization:
Department of Forest Zoology, Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences
Address:
Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia
Phone:
+7(3912)-49-48-36
Fax:
+7(3912)-49-48-36
Kirichenko,
Dr. Natalia
Organization:
Department of Forest Zoology, Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences
Address:
Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia
Phone:
+7 (391) 2433686
Fax:
+7 (391) 2433686