Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
Common name
water couch (English), creeping paspalum (English), kodo-millet (English), rice grass (English), native Paspalum (English), kodo (Hindi), tho nduru levu (Fijian), tho ndina (Fijian), co duru levu (Fijian), kodo millet (English), tho ni ndina (Fijian), cow grass (English), mijo koda (Spanish), desum (Palauan), Kodohirse (German), ditch millet (English), ricegrass paspalum (English), kodomillet (English), kodra (Hindi), Indian paspalum (English), Indian crown grass (English)
Paspalum scrobiculatum , var. bispicatum
Paspalum scrobiculatum , var. scrobiculatum
Paspalum cartilagineum , J. Presl
Paspalum commersonii , Lam.
Paspalum orbiculare , G. Forst.
Paspalum polystachyum , R. Br.
Paspalum scrobiculatum , var. commersonii (Lam.) Stapf
Paspalum scrobiculatum , var. polystachyum (R. Br.) Stapf
Similar species
Paspalum scrobiculatum is a noxious weed in the United States and is potentially invasive in the Pacific.
Species Description
Paspalum scrobiculatum is a tufted perennial grass; 120 to 150 cm tall; culms stout, erect, glabrous, somewhat bulbous at base, sheaths 7 to 14 cm long, glabrous or with sparse hairs at the collar, compressed, basal ones often purplish; ligule very short, but with a dense row of hairs just behind it; blades flat, 12 to 40 cm long, 3 to 12 mm wide, acute, scabrous, glaucous on upper surface; inflorescence of 4 to 6 racemes, these 2 to 4 cm long, alternate, distant, their axis 4 to 9 cm long, villous at base, sometimes pilose in the axils; rachis 1 to 1.5 mm wide, scabrous, usually reddish on the margins; spikelets paired, 2 to 2.5 mm long, broadly elliptic, imbricate, glabrous; second glume and sterile lemma 3-nerved; fertile lemma indurated, finely pitted; caryopsis 1.5 mm long, compressed-elliptic, pale (Stone 1970, in PIER 2006).
Please follow this link for images: Forestry Images. 2008. Kodomillet .
Paspalum scrobiculatum is economically important. Its uses include: human food (cereal), animal food (fodder, forage) and medicine (USDA-NRCS 2008). It is harvested as a wild cereal in west Africa and in India.
Habitat Description
Invaded habitat: Along the ditch, road sides, upland and tidal rice fields, rubber plantations; wet, open, cultivated areas; up to 1800 m altitude (SEAMEO BIOTROP 2008).\n
In Fiji, Paspalum scrobiculatum is abundant at elevations up to 1 300 m in clearings, along roadsides, in pastures, ditches, waste land, etc. (Smith 1979, in PIER 2006). In Hawaii, P. scrobiculatum is common on slopes in poor, thin soil where few other grasses will grow, and in wet, swampy ground, 0 to 1 070 m (Wagner et al. 1999, in PIER 2006).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the EU-funded South Atlantic Invasive Species project, coordinated by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)


Publication date: 2010-08-16

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2021) Species profile: Paspalum scrobiculatum. Downloaded from on 28-09-2021.

General Impacts
Paspalum scrobiculatum is declared a 'noxious or quarantine weed' in at least ten states in America. It is declared a noxious weed by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Paspalum scrobiculatum
  • angola
  • australia
  • benin
  • botswana
  • burkina faso
  • cameroon
  • china
  • cote d'ivoire
  • gambia
  • ghana
  • guinea
  • india
  • indonesia
  • kenya
  • liberia
  • malaysia
  • mali
  • mauritania
  • mauritius
  • mozambique
  • myanmar
  • namibia
  • nigeria
  • pakistan
  • philippines
  • reunion
  • senegal
  • sierra leone
  • south africa
  • sri lanka
  • swaziland
  • taiwan
  • tanzania, united republic of
  • thailand
  • togo
  • uganda
  • zambia
  • zimbabwe
Informations on Paspalum scrobiculatum has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Paspalum scrobiculatum in information
Arrival date
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Paspalum scrobiculatum is declared a 'noxious or quarantine weed' in at least ten states in America. It is declared a noxious weed by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS).
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
11 references found for Paspalum scrobiculatum

Management information
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR). 2008. Plants of Hawaii: Poaceae > Paspalum scrobiculatum Ricegrass
Summary: Images.
Available from: [Accessed 10 December 2008], 2008. kodomillet Cyperales > Poaceae > Paspalum scrobiculatum Linnaeus
Summary: Images.
Available from: [Accessed 10 December 2008]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
McCulloch, Neil. 2006. A review of the status and habitat of the St Helena Wirebird Charadrius sanctaehelenae, including an assessment of the potential impact of construction of the proposed St Helena Airport. Environment & Heritage Service Commonwealth House 35 Castle Street Belfast BT1 1GU UK February 2006
Summary: Available from: Statement/Volume_4_Technical_Appendices/ES_Vol_4_App%209_Terrestrial%20Eco_9.4_Final%20Wirebird%20Report%202006.pdf [Accessed 25 October 2008]
General information
Gray, Alan & Paul Robinson., 2007. Davis Expedition Fund., Report on Expedition/Project. Expedition/Project Title: Ascension Island. Travel Dates: 04/02/20007 - 16/02/2007. Location: Ascension Island.
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 20 August 2008]
Gray, Alan, Tara Pelembe and Stedson Stroud. 2005. The conservation of the endemic vascular flora of Ascension Island and threats from alien species, Oryx 39 (4)
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 10 December 2008]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2009. Online Database Paspalum scrobiculatum L.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: [Accessed 25 October 2008]
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). 2006. Paspalum scrobiculatum L., Poaceae
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 10 December 2008]
SEAMEO BIOTROP (The Southeast Asian Regional Centre for Tropical Biology). 2008. Invasive Alien Species
Summary: Available from: [Accessed 19 January 2009]
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Paspalum scrobiculatum
Paspalum scrobiculatum
water couch, creeping paspalum, kodo-millet, rice grass, native Paspalum, kodo, tho nduru levu, tho ndina, co duru levu, kodo millet, tho ni ndina, cow grass, mijo koda, desum, Kodohirse, ditch millet, ricegrass paspalum, kodomillet, kodra, Indian paspalum, Indian crown grass
Date assessed
Year published
Eicat category
Justification for EICAT assessment
Confidence rating
Mechanism(s) of maximum impact
Countries of most severe impact
Description of impacts
Recommended citation
(2021). Paspalum scrobiculatum. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).