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  • Trogoderma granarium lateral view (Photo: Willow Warren of the Department of  Agriculture Western Australia)
  • Trogoderma granarium dorsal view (Photo: Willow Warren of the Department of  Agriculture Western Australia)
  • Trogoderma granarium ventral view (Photo: Willow Warren of the Department of  Agriculture Western Australia)
  • Trogoderma granarium detailed view (Photo: Willow Warren of the Department of  Agriculture Western Australia)
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Common name
khapra beetle (English), trogoderma (dermeste) du grain (French), khaprak�fer (German), escarabajo khapra (Spanish)
Synonym
Trogoderma quinquefasciata , Leesberg
Trogoderma khapra , Arrow
Trogoderma afrum , Priesner
Similar species
Summary
Trogoderma granarium are considered a pest of considerable impact to stored foodstuffs. It maintains its presence in food storage in very low numbers and is able to survive long periods of time in an inactive state.
Species Description
Trogoderma granarium is a member of the Coleoptera family Dermestidae. The adult males are 1.4-2.3mm long, 0.75-1.1mm wide; adult females are 2.1 - 3.4mm long, 1.7 - 1.9mm wide, ovate and densely hairy beetles. Colour of the khapra beetle is as follows: head and pronotum dark reddish-brown, elytra reddish-brown, usually with indistinct lighter reddish-brown fasciae; venter of thorax and abdomen reddish-brown; legs yellowish-brown. The setae on the dorsal surface are of two types: evenly distributed, coarse, semi-erect, yellowish-brown ones; and , few scattered, dark reddish brown setae, colour of setae follows the colour of cuticles.The pronotum medially and laterally has indistinct patches of yellowish-white, ensiform setae, and elytra with two or three indistinct band of yellowish-white, ensiform (flattened) setae. The median ocellus on the front is always distinct. Antennae are yellowish-brown, 9, 10 or 11 segmented, with 3-5 segmented club.
Please see PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) Species Content Page Beetles: Khapra beetle for high quality diagnostic and overview images.
Notes
There are many genera within the Dermestidae family that are similar to T. granarium. Separation of genera needs specialist knowledge and a good reference library. There are over 120 described Trogoderma spp. worldwide and many more still remains undescribed. A great majority of the species have no economic importance but occasionally turn up in commodities causing confusion amongst stored grain entomologists. T. variabile Ballion, T. inclusum Le Conte and T. glabrum Herbst are some of the species, T. variabile being the most common. Identification of the most common stored product pest T. granarium and separation of the local Trogoderma spp. from them is difficult and needs experience with the genus. The greatest difficulty is that most of the specimens collected in the infested commodity are in larval form and need special preparation to enable the scientist to examine it through a compound microscope. Adult specimens are usually scarce and damaged therefore the genitals should be dissected and examined. It is advisable to do so even in the case of undamaged adults.
Lifecycle Stages
The Khapra beetle development rates and survival varies depending on the host species, temperature, light, moisture, season, based on these factors there can be from one to nine generations per year. High humidity has a slowing down effect on the population buildup. Adult longevity is between 12-25 days and females lay between 50-100 eggs. Larvael development usually takes 4-6 weeks. Larvae molt between 4-15 times. The pupal stage lasts 2-5 days and quiescent adult stage 1-2 days. The larval stage however, can last from a month to a year, if it enters diapause. Also they are capable of surviving without food for a period of several years.
Habitat Description
Trogoderma granarium is synanthropic (associated with man or with human dwellings). They are found in grain stores, food stores, malthouses, seed processing plants fodder production plants, dried milk factories, merchant stores, stores of packing materials (used sacks, bags, crates).
\r\nTrogoderma granarium occurs in hot, dry conditions, predictably in areas which, for at least 4 months of the year, have a mean temperature greater than 20°C and an RH below 50% (CABI CPC).
Reproduction
Trogoderma granarium exhibit gonochorism (reproduction involves separate male and female individuals).
Nutrition
Trogoderma granarium will feed on most dried plant or animal matter. However, Trogoderma granarium prefer grain and cereal products, particularly wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, rice, flour, malt and noodles. They can feed on products with as little as 2% moisture content and can develop on animal matter such as dead mice, dried blood and dried insects.

CERIS (2004) lists the primary seed and cereal grain hosts: Avena sativa (oat), Cicer arietinum (garbanzo), Glycine max (soybean), Hordeum vulgare (barley), Lens culinaris (lentil), Oryza sativa (rice), Pisum sativum (garden pea), Sorghum bicolor (grain sorghums), Tri ticum aestivum (wheat), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), and Zea mays subsp. mays (corn). Preferred animal feeds and concentrates include: rolled and ground barley, ground corn, ground dog food, rolled oats, dried orange pulp, ground rice, and cracked and gr ound wheat bran. Nuts that may serve as primary hosts include: Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Carya illinoensis (pecan), Juglans spp. (walnut), and Prunus dulcis (almond). Grocery commodities that sometimes serve as hosts include: bread, dried coconuts, cor nmeal, crackers, white and whole wheat flour, hominy grits, baby cereals, pearl barley, and wheat germ. Larvae can feed, but not fully develop on seeds of Medicago sativa subsp. sativa (alfalfa), noodles, Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean), and raisins.

Pathway
Increased human movement - tourism.Bulk commodities such as grain and uncleaned containers.

Principal source:

Compiler: Andras (Andy) Szito, Curator/Entomologist, Department of Agriculture Western Australia Entomology Branch. Australia & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Andras (Andy) Szito, Curator/Entomologist, Department of Agriculture Western Australia Entomology Branch. Australia.

Publication date: 2007-05-31

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Trogoderma granarium. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=142 on 29-09-2016.

General Impacts
Trogoderma granarium have no direct effects on the environment. The indirect effects however, are loss of stored grain and the effect of fumigation agents on the environment. If the beetle is left undisturbed in stored grain it can cause significant weight loss and in case of seeds it may lead to significant reduction in seed viability. Weight loss can be between 5-30% in sometimes in extreme cases 70%. Severe infestation may cause unfavourable changes in chemical composition. Larvae typically attack the embryo point or a weak place in the pericarp of grain or seed, but will attack other parts during heavy infestations. Young larvae feed on damaged seed, while older larvae are able to feed on whole grains. The khapra beetle can damage dry commodities of animal origin. Large numbers of larval skins and setae may cause dermatitis and/or allergic reactions. Larvae wander in and out of sacked material, weakening the sacks, which may ultimately tear (CERIS, 2004).The fumigant methyl bromide (CH3Br) is an ozone-depleting substance and in high concentrations, is known to cause a failure in the respiratory functioning and central nervous system in humans. Presence of this pest attracts trade restriction implications. Non-khapra beetle countries enforce quarantine restrictions on the imported commodities from khapra beetle countries.
Management Info
Eradication of khapra beetle can be difficult due to its habit of hiding in cracks and crevices, and its ability to enter diapause, which\r\nmay reduce its susceptibility to some control methods, so control methods designed to eradicate new infestations must be able to\r\npenetrate throughout the infested material or facilities (CERIS, 2004). In case of low level of infestation detection by inspection is not reliable.

Preventative measures: T. granarium is of quarantine concern because its spread is mainly through international trade. Inspection at ports and entry points provide an effective way to restrict entry of this pest. The Diagnostic Protocol for the regulated pest T. granarium prepared by the EPPO (European and Mediterreanean Plant Protection Organization), in english and french recommends means of positive identification and detection of the insect pest. The protocol also includes information on description, impacts, host range, geographical distribution. The Pest Risk Assessment of the khapra beetle conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA, APHIS, PPQ), addresses the likelihood of the beetle becoming established in the United States, the economic consequences of khapra beetle infestation in the US, and available information regarding pathways, probability of detection, and marketing/export consequences of infestation in the US.\r\n

Physical In India, the use of deoiled neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder mixed into wheat seemed to be an effective and cheap method to control the pest in stored wheat (EPPO, 2004). Heat treatment has proved to be very effective. The treatement involves a 30-minute exposure at 60oC (140oF) which has given a 100% kill of all stages of the khapra beetle (Ismail et al., 1988 in CERIS, 2004). Mortality of larvae begins at 42.5oC (108.5oF); complete mortality however required 8 days exposure at that temperature (Battu et al., 1975 in CERIS, 2004). Diapausing larvae are more resistant to high temperatures than non-diapausing larvae. It has been reported that some natural mortality of larvae occur in stores due to warming caused by activities of khapra beetle itself. In storage facilities trapping proved to be a useful surveillance tool using pheromone and larval traps. Treatment with fast electrons, using a linear accelerator, could provide an efficient method of controlling khapra beetle in store grain (CERIS, 2004).

Chemical: The most effective treatment is methylbromide fumigation. The control of the species requires higher concentration of methyl bromide because different developmental stages and physiological states (diapausa) exhibits different sensitivity. Replacement of methyl bromide (CH3BR) with phosphine, carbondioxide, carbonyl sulphide, sulfuryl fluoride or other fumigants and their combination are being investigated. Surface treatment is not reliable because of the unique ability of larvae of spending longer period of time hiding in cracks and crevices in facultative diapausa (inactive state). Khapra beetle is known to show signs of tolerance or resistance to phosphine and malathion. Facilities that can not be fumigated may be sanitized and treated with a surface application of insecticide. Malathion applied repeatedly is currently approved for control of khapra beetle infestations in structures and surrounding surface areas(CERIS, 2004).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Trogoderma granarium
Informations on Trogoderma granarium has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Trogoderma granarium in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Trogoderma granarium have no direct effects on the environment. The indirect effects however, are loss of stored grain and the effect of fumigation agents on the environment. If the beetle is left undisturbed in stored grain it can cause significant weight loss and in case of seeds it may lead to significant reduction in seed viability. Weight loss can be between 5-30% in sometimes in extreme cases 70%. Severe infestation may cause unfavourable changes in chemical composition. Larvae typically attack the embryo point or a weak place in the pericarp of grain or seed, but will attack other parts during heavy infestations. Young larvae feed on damaged seed, while older larvae are able to feed on whole grains. The khapra beetle can damage dry commodities of animal origin. Large numbers of larval skins and setae may cause dermatitis and/or allergic reactions. Larvae wander in and out of sacked material, weakening the sacks, which may ultimately tear (CERIS, 2004).The fumigant methyl bromide (CH3Br) is an ozone-depleting substance and in high concentrations, is known to cause a failure in the respiratory functioning and central nervous system in humans. Presence of this pest attracts trade restriction implications. Non-khapra beetle countries enforce quarantine restrictions on the imported commodities from khapra beetle countries.
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Eradication of khapra beetle can be difficult due to its habit of hiding in cracks and crevices, and its ability to enter diapause, which\r\nmay reduce its susceptibility to some control methods, so control methods designed to eradicate new infestations must be able to\r\npenetrate throughout the infested material or facilities (CERIS, 2004). In case of low level of infestation detection by inspection is not reliable.

Preventative measures: T. granarium is of quarantine concern because its spread is mainly through international trade. Inspection at ports and entry points provide an effective way to restrict entry of this pest. The Diagnostic Protocol for the regulated pest T. granarium prepared by the EPPO (European and Mediterreanean Plant Protection Organization), in english and french recommends means of positive identification and detection of the insect pest. The protocol also includes information on description, impacts, host range, geographical distribution. The Pest Risk Assessment of the khapra beetle conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA, APHIS, PPQ), addresses the likelihood of the beetle becoming established in the United States, the economic consequences of khapra beetle infestation in the US, and available information regarding pathways, probability of detection, and marketing/export consequences of infestation in the US.\r\n

Physical In India, the use of deoiled neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder mixed into wheat seemed to be an effective and cheap method to control the pest in stored wheat (EPPO, 2004). Heat treatment has proved to be very effective. The treatement involves a 30-minute exposure at 60oC (140oF) which has given a 100% kill of all stages of the khapra beetle (Ismail et al., 1988 in CERIS, 2004). Mortality of larvae begins at 42.5oC (108.5oF); complete mortality however required 8 days exposure at that temperature (Battu et al., 1975 in CERIS, 2004). Diapausing larvae are more resistant to high temperatures than non-diapausing larvae. It has been reported that some natural mortality of larvae occur in stores due to warming caused by activities of khapra beetle itself. In storage facilities trapping proved to be a useful surveillance tool using pheromone and larval traps. Treatment with fast electrons, using a linear accelerator, could provide an efficient method of controlling khapra beetle in store grain (CERIS, 2004).

Chemical: The most effective treatment is methylbromide fumigation. The control of the species requires higher concentration of methyl bromide because different developmental stages and physiological states (diapausa) exhibits different sensitivity. Replacement of methyl bromide (CH3BR) with phosphine, carbondioxide, carbonyl sulphide, sulfuryl fluoride or other fumigants and their combination are being investigated. Surface treatment is not reliable because of the unique ability of larvae of spending longer period of time hiding in cracks and crevices in facultative diapausa (inactive state). Khapra beetle is known to show signs of tolerance or resistance to phosphine and malathion. Facilities that can not be fumigated may be sanitized and treated with a surface application of insecticide. Malathion applied repeatedly is currently approved for control of khapra beetle infestations in structures and surrounding surface areas(CERIS, 2004).

Bibliography
8 references found for Trogoderma granarium

Managment information
CERIS (The Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems), 2004. Purdue University
Summary: A pest risk analysis of the khapra beetle conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA, APHIS, PPQ). Includes a pest data sheet.
Available from: http://www.ceris.purdue.edu/napis/pests/khb/freg/khb98pra.html [Accessed 1st September, 2004].
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), undated. Data Sheet on Trogoderma granarium
Summary: Links are provided to a pest data sheet, a global distribution map, diagnostic protocol for identification and detection and images of the khapra beetle.
Available from: http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/QP_insects.htm [Accessed 1st September, 2004].
Graham, R. 2006. Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 1/10/2006 4:07:38 PM.
Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria s Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=124 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library). Species Content Page Beetles Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae: Megatominae)
Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria s Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology.
The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2)Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4)Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia.
PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=124 [Accessed 30 May 2006]
General information
Banks, H. J. 1994. Illustrated identification keys for Trogoderma granarium, T. glabrum, T. inclusum and T. variabile (Colaoptera: Dermestidae) and other Trogoderma associated with stored products. Commonwealtyh Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; Division of Entomology, Technical Paper No. 32. 66pp.
CABI and EPPO 1998. Distribution Maps of Quarantine Pests for Europe. CABI in association with EPPO: about 800pp.
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Insectos. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - insects is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Insectos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Insectos is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Insectos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Smith, I. M., McNamara, D. G., Scott, P. R. and Holderness, M. 1996. Quarantine Pests for Europe, Data sheets on Quarantine Pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). CABI in association with EPPO. 1440pp.
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Trogoderma granarium
Rees,
David P.
Stored product pests, including Trogoderma granarium and Prostephanus truncatus, with particular interest in stored product pest control - Worldwide
Organization:
Post Harvest Entomologist, Stored Grain Research Laboratory, CSIRO Entomology
Address:
GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 1700
Phone:
+61 2 62464198
Fax:
+61 2 62464202
Szito,
Andras (Andy)
Stored product pests, including pest Trogoderma species, with particular interest in taxonomy and identification
Website
Organization:
Department of Agriculture Western Australia, Plant Research and Development Services
Address:
3 Baron-Hay Court, South Perth, WA 6151, Australia
Phone:
(+61 8) 9368 3248, 9368 3965
Fax:
(+61 8) 9368 3223, 9474 2840