Global invasive species database

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Common name
 
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Summary
Berberis buxifolia, commonly known as calafate, and Darwin’s barberry (Berberis darwinii) are among the top twelve invasive alien plants on the Falkland Islands, categorised as a result of an assessment on the potential of non-native flora to cause land management problems and economic impact. Additionally they both achieved high scores of above 16 in a risk assessment that categorised non-native flora as potentially invasive plants because they out-compete local flora species and reduce agricultural productivity.
Species Description
Berberis buxifolia grows to a height of 1 - 1.5 m and has many arching branches which are covered in many tripartite spines. It flowers in summer, bearing many small yellow flowers, which are hermaphroditic, making it self-fertile; it is pollinated by insects. It has edible blue-black berries which are harvested for jams or eaten fresh; in some parts of South America it is commercially grown for this purpose (Belton, 2008).
Uses
Berberis buxifolia is often used as an ornamental species. It is also grown for its potential medical uses, as a garden plant or bonsai, whilst its wood is also used to make a red dye (Belton, 2008).
Pathway
Berberis buxifolia is a popular ornamental species on the Falkland Island's and can be spread via domestic planting (USDA, ARS, 2010)

Principal source:

Compiler: Interim compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the EU-funded South Atlantic Invasive Species project, coordinated by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2021) Species profile: Berberis buxifolia. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1416 on 28-09-2021.

Management Info
Preventative measures: Berberis buxifolia was listed among the top twelve invasive alien plants on the Falkland Islands, categorised as a result of an assessment on the potential of non-native flora to cause land management problems and economic impact. Additionally it achieved a top score of 19 in a risk assessment that categorised non-native flora that scored above 15 as potentially invasive plants because they out-compete local flora species and reduce agricultural productivity. (Whitehead (2008) in Otley et al, 2008).

Chemical/Physical/Mechanical: The main technique used in the control of B. buxifolia on the Falkland Islands is a \"Cut and paste treatment\" (Belton, 2008), which includes the cutting of all stems as close to the ground as possible, and the application of a herbicide called \"Vigilant\" which is applied as a paste (Belton, 2008). Foliar spraying of a herbicide is another technique which should be successful. It has not been tested on B. buxifolia itself, however it has been proven as an effective technique on other Berberis sp. Manual and mechanical removal are also an option, however broken roots often re-sprout, so these methods are not recommended.

Integrated management: There are several management options that have been suggested for the control of B. buxifolia (Belton, 2008) on the Falkland Islands. \"Do nothing\", has been suggested (Belton, 2008) as the species currently affects very few landowners, and thus causes very little perceived annoyance. This option will also contribute very little impact economically in the short term, however it will also allow the problem to increase, and is thus not a long term solution. \"Containment\" has also been suggested (Belton, 2008). The costs associated with this method are probably very low, however due to the dispersal method of the species, bird dispersal, it will also be very hard and is thus, considered not appropriate. \"Site-led management\" has been suggested (Belton, 2008). This would involve the identification of B. buxifolia sites and the prioritization of their treatment. Those sites deemed high priority and those where very little resources are required would be treated first, with others treated when resources and funds are available. This method seems appropriate as it would treat large sites, hopefully reducing their potency, as well as stopping sites of little establishment from becoming more infested. \"Eradication\" is the last method proposed (Belton, 2008). This would be the largest type of operation to be undertaken, however as B. buxifolia is considered to be in a lag phase in only some areas, this type of treatment may only be effective in these areas, not in other areas where growth has become exponential. This method is not deemed appropriate. The responsibility of control is also an issue raised by Belton (2008). Affected and concerned landowners, a lead government agency, and a charitable trust have all been suggested as possible figureheads to take responsibility of B. buxifolia control. Only the establishment of a charitable trust is considered as an option in Belton's (2008) report. Various steps have been suggested as a sort of plan for the management scheme. 2008 was to include the mapping and abundance of B. buxifolia, the establishment of a Trust of the Falklands and the initiation of control measures on the smallest infected areas. 2009 was to include the acquisition of funding for necessary resources, although the continuation of actual control measures is not mentioned. 2010 is to include further funding acquisition, review of control techniques to establish a best practice.

Cultural: Community support and education on the effects of B. buxifolia has been identified as very important within the control programme on the Falkland Islands (Belton, 2008).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Berberis buxifolia
NATIVE RANGE
  • argentina
  • chile
Informations on Berberis buxifolia has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Berberis buxifolia in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Preventative measures: Berberis buxifolia was listed among the top twelve invasive alien plants on the Falkland Islands, categorised as a result of an assessment on the potential of non-native flora to cause land management problems and economic impact. Additionally it achieved a top score of 19 in a risk assessment that categorised non-native flora that scored above 15 as potentially invasive plants because they out-compete local flora species and reduce agricultural productivity. (Whitehead (2008) in Otley et al, 2008).

Chemical/Physical/Mechanical: The main technique used in the control of B. buxifolia on the Falkland Islands is a \"Cut and paste treatment\" (Belton, 2008), which includes the cutting of all stems as close to the ground as possible, and the application of a herbicide called \"Vigilant\" which is applied as a paste (Belton, 2008). Foliar spraying of a herbicide is another technique which should be successful. It has not been tested on B. buxifolia itself, however it has been proven as an effective technique on other Berberis sp. Manual and mechanical removal are also an option, however broken roots often re-sprout, so these methods are not recommended.

Integrated management: There are several management options that have been suggested for the control of B. buxifolia (Belton, 2008) on the Falkland Islands. \"Do nothing\", has been suggested (Belton, 2008) as the species currently affects very few landowners, and thus causes very little perceived annoyance. This option will also contribute very little impact economically in the short term, however it will also allow the problem to increase, and is thus not a long term solution. \"Containment\" has also been suggested (Belton, 2008). The costs associated with this method are probably very low, however due to the dispersal method of the species, bird dispersal, it will also be very hard and is thus, considered not appropriate. \"Site-led management\" has been suggested (Belton, 2008). This would involve the identification of B. buxifolia sites and the prioritization of their treatment. Those sites deemed high priority and those where very little resources are required would be treated first, with others treated when resources and funds are available. This method seems appropriate as it would treat large sites, hopefully reducing their potency, as well as stopping sites of little establishment from becoming more infested. \"Eradication\" is the last method proposed (Belton, 2008). This would be the largest type of operation to be undertaken, however as B. buxifolia is considered to be in a lag phase in only some areas, this type of treatment may only be effective in these areas, not in other areas where growth has become exponential. This method is not deemed appropriate. The responsibility of control is also an issue raised by Belton (2008). Affected and concerned landowners, a lead government agency, and a charitable trust have all been suggested as possible figureheads to take responsibility of B. buxifolia control. Only the establishment of a charitable trust is considered as an option in Belton's (2008) report. Various steps have been suggested as a sort of plan for the management scheme. 2008 was to include the mapping and abundance of B. buxifolia, the establishment of a Trust of the Falklands and the initiation of control measures on the smallest infected areas. 2009 was to include the acquisition of funding for necessary resources, although the continuation of actual control measures is not mentioned. 2010 is to include further funding acquisition, review of control techniques to establish a best practice.

Cultural: Community support and education on the effects of B. buxifolia has been identified as very important within the control programme on the Falkland Islands (Belton, 2008).

Locations
FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS)
Management Category
Prevention
Bibliography
12 references found for Berberis buxifolia

Management information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Otley H, Munro G, Clausen A and Ingham B. 2008. Falkland Islands State of the Environment Report 2008. Falkland Islands Government and Falklands Conservation, Stanley.
Summary: Available from: http://www.epd.gov.fk/wp-content/uploads/Falkland%20Islands%20State%20of%20the%20Environment%20Report%202008_final_sm.pdf [Accessed 20 August 2008]
Otley H, Munro G, Clausen A and Ingham B. 2008. Falkland Islands State of the Environment Report 2008. Falkland Islands Government and Falklands Conservation, Stanley.
General information
Alien Plants in Ireland, 2008. Berberis buxifolia Lam.
Summary: Available from: http://www.biochange.ie/alienplants/result_options.php?blz=1&families=Berberidaceae&p=i&species=50 [Accsessed 20 August 2008]
Birdlife International, n.d. Keppel Island. PART II: Falkland Islands Important Bird Areas
Broughton, D. A. & McAdam, J. H. 2002. The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland Islands. Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 2, 153 � 190
Dallimore, W., 1919. The Falkland Islands. Forestry. Tussock Grass. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Gardens, Kew), Vol. 1919, No. 5 (1919)
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), 2008. Species: Berberis buxifolia Lam.
Summary: Available from: http://www.gbif.net/species/15229840/ [Accessed 15 June 2010]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database. Berberis L.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=18814 [Accessed 20 August 2008]
Low, Alan J., 1986. Tree planting in the Falkland Islands. Forestry, Vol. 59, No. 1,1986
UniProt, 2008. Species Berberis buxifolia
Summary: Available from: http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/186720 [Accessed 20 August 2008]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Berberis buxifolia
Berberis buxifolia
Date assessed
Year published
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Justification for EICAT assessment
Confidence rating
Mechanism(s) of maximum impact
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Recommended citation
(2021). Berberis buxifolia. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).