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  • Leaves infected with Banana bunchy top virus (Photo: Ron Heu, Survey Entomologist - Hawaii Department of Agriculture)
  • Plants infected with Banana bunchy top virus (Photo: Ron Heu, Survey Entomologist - Hawaii Department of Agriculture)
  • Fruit infected with Banana bunchy top virus (Photo: Ron Heu, Survey Entomologist - Hawaii Department of Agriculture)
  • Morse coding of banana bunchy top virus (Photo: Ron Heu, Survey Entomologist - Hawaii Department of Agriculture)
  • Fruit infected with Banana bunchy top virus (Photo: Ron Heu, Survey Entomologist - Hawaii Department of Agriculture)
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Common name
BBTV (English), bunchy top (English), bunchy top virus (English), banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) (English), laufeti�iti�i (Samoan, American Samoa), abaca bunchy top virus (English)
Synonym
Ana bunchy top virus BBTV
Similar species
Coconut foliar decay virus (CFDV), Subterranean clover stunt virus (SCSV)
Summary
Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is a deadly pathogen which affects many areas of the world-wide banana industry. Infected banana plants produce increasingly smaller leaves on shorter petioles giving the plants a bunched appearance. Fruits may be distorted and plants become sterile before the whole mat (rhizome) eventually dies. The international spread of BBTV is primarily through infected planting materials.
Species Description
Ferreira et al. (2001) describes the onset of BBTV: \"The first symptoms consist of darker green streaks on the lower portion of the midrib, and later on the secondary veins of the leaf. Removing the \"white fuzz\" or wax covering the midrib makes it easier to see the streaking clearly. Streaks consist of a series of `dots' and short lines, often referred to as `morse code' streaking. As infection progresses, streak symptoms become evident on the leaf blade. When fruit is produced, some of the banana hands may have distorted and twisted fruit. Keikis or suckers that develop after infection are usually severely stunted, resulting in leaves `bunched' at the top of the stem. Leaves are usually short, stiff, erect and more narrow than normal. Leaves display marginal yellowing or chlorosis and necrosis or burning.\"

Symptoms are also described in detail by Thomas and Caruana (2000). The dot-dash symptoms and the dark green “hooks” seen as the streaks enter the petiole are most characteristic and are best viewed from the underside in transmitted light. A virus characterised by small (18 to 20 nm), isometric particles and a multi-component ssDNA genome has been purified from infected plants (Thomas and Caruana, 2000).

Lifecycle Stages
The Cooperative Extension Service (1997) states that, \"Banana bunchy top virus is spread by the banana aphid, which acquires the virus after at least four (but usually about 18) hours of feeding on an infected plant. The aphid can retain the virus through its adult life, for a period of 15-20 days. During this time, the aphid can transmit the virus to a healthy banana plant by feeding on it, possibly for as little as 15 minutes but more typically for about two hours.\"

To become infective, the aphids require a feeding period of at least 4 hours or more on diseased host plants. To transmit the virus, infective aphids require a minimum feeding period of 15 minutes on susceptible plants, though efficiency of transmission increases with longer feeds (1.5 to 2 hours) (Hu et al. 1996, Magee 1940). Magee's experiments indicated that an average of about 25 days incubation is necessary for the development of banana bunchy top symptoms. He also found that young, newly infected plantlets are a better source of virus than adult plants and that nymphs are more effective vectors than mature aphids.

Habitat Description
BBTV occurs in Musa (including banana, abaca, plantain and ornamental bananas) and Ensete in the family Musaceae. Although there are some reports of monocot hosts in related families, evidence is conflicting, and Musaceae are generally considered the only hosts (reviewed by Thomas and Caruana, 2000).
BBTV is transmitted by the aphid vector Pentalonia nigronervosa (Magee, 1927). The aphid spreads the virus through its feeding behaviour on susceptible species.

Principal source: Cooperative Extension Service. 1997. Banana Bunchy Top Virus. College of Tropical Agriculutre and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa.
Hawai‘i Department of Agriculture, 1999. Plant Pest Control: Banana Bunchy Top Virus

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dr John E Thomas \ Senior Principal Plant Virologist, Horticulture and Forestry Science \ Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries Queensland Australia

Publication date: 2005-07-06

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=141 on 26-07-2016.

General Impacts
BBTV is a destructive pathogen in many banana-cultivating areas of the world (Su et al. 2003). The Hawaii's Department of Agriculture (1999) describes the affect of the virus stating, \"Infected banana plants are stunted and produce small, deformed fruits. In advanced stages of the disease, plants do not produce any fruit. Infected banana plants are useless and serve only as a source of the virus. A tiny insect called the banana aphid spreads the disease by carrying the virus to healthy plants after feeding on infected plants.\" Banana-production is usually unprofitable in areas severely affected by BBTV, though disease incidence may be low in adjacent sites.
Management Info
There are no resistant varieties of banana plant known. The Cooperative Extension Service (1997) believes that the most important methods to control BBTV involve, \"killing the aphid vector (disease carrier) and roguing (removing and destroying) infected banana plants. By killing the aphids on the banana plant, dispersal of virus-carrying aphids to nearby, healthy banana plants is avoided. Since the only host of BBTV is banana, roguing infected trees reduces spread of the virus by reducing the opportunity for aphids to aquire the virus or for people to obtain and transport infected suckers or planting material.\"

The Cooperative Extension Service gives detailed instructions for controlling BBTV at home and in a commercial setting. Please refer to Cooperative Extension Service, 1997. Brooks (2000) also offers detailed step-by-step instructions to homeowners and commercial growers for the eradication of BBTV. Please refer to Brooks, 2000.

For details on chemical, physical, biological control options, please see management information.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)
Informations on Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
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Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) in information
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Species notes for this location
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Management notes for this location
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Impact information
BBTV is a destructive pathogen in many banana-cultivating areas of the world (Su et al. 2003). The Hawaii's Department of Agriculture (1999) describes the affect of the virus stating, \"Infected banana plants are stunted and produce small, deformed fruits. In advanced stages of the disease, plants do not produce any fruit. Infected banana plants are useless and serve only as a source of the virus. A tiny insect called the banana aphid spreads the disease by carrying the virus to healthy plants after feeding on infected plants.\" Banana-production is usually unprofitable in areas severely affected by BBTV, though disease incidence may be low in adjacent sites.
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
There are no resistant varieties of banana plant known. The Cooperative Extension Service (1997) believes that the most important methods to control BBTV involve, \"killing the aphid vector (disease carrier) and roguing (removing and destroying) infected banana plants. By killing the aphids on the banana plant, dispersal of virus-carrying aphids to nearby, healthy banana plants is avoided. Since the only host of BBTV is banana, roguing infected trees reduces spread of the virus by reducing the opportunity for aphids to aquire the virus or for people to obtain and transport infected suckers or planting material.\"

The Cooperative Extension Service gives detailed instructions for controlling BBTV at home and in a commercial setting. Please refer to Cooperative Extension Service, 1997. Brooks (2000) also offers detailed step-by-step instructions to homeowners and commercial growers for the eradication of BBTV. Please refer to Brooks, 2000.

For details on chemical, physical, biological control options, please see management information.

Locations
Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
Control
Monitoring
Bibliography
29 references found for Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)

Managment information
ABC Radio Australia. 2004. HAWAII: Virus jeopardises multi-million dollar banana industry. ABC Radio Interview conducted by H. F. Tay.
Summary: Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/ra/pacbeat/stories/s1091695.htm [Accessed 09 November 2004]
Abdel-Aziz, N. A., A. M. Abdel-Salam, H. N. Soliman, and S. M. El-Saghir. 1998. Heat and chemotherapeutic agents as tools for elimination of two banana virus(es). Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology. 26(1):13-28.
Cooperative Extension Service. 1997. Banana Bunchy Top Virus. College of Tropical Agriculutre and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Gee II, David E., pers. comm. 2006. Wildlife Biologist, Guam Division of Aquatic & Wildlife Resources and Guam team member of the Pacific Invasives Learning Network (PILN).
Hu J. S, Wang M, Sether D, Xie W, Leonhardt K. W., 1996. Use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to study transmission of banana bunchy top virus by the banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa). Annals of Applied Biology 128, 55-64.
Kiritani, K., and H. J. Su. 1999. Papaya ring spot, banana bunchy top, and citrus greening in the Asia and Pacific Region: Occurrence and control strategy. JARQ-Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly. 33(1):23-30.
Magee C. J. P., 1940. Transmission studies on the banana bunchy-top virus. The Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 6, 109-110.
Magnaye, L. V. and R. V. Valmayor. UNDATED. BBTV, CMV and other viruses affecting banana in Asia and the Pacific.
Manickam, K., S. Doraiswamy, T. Ganapathy, and R. Rabindran. 2002. Early detection of banana bunchy top virus in India using polymerase chain reaction. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica. 37(1-3):9-16.
Thomas J. E, Smith M. K, Kessling A. F, Hamill S. D., 1995. Inconsistent transmission of banana bunchy top virus in micropropagated bananas and its implication for germplasm screening. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 46, 663-671.
General information
Brooks, F. 2000. Banana bunchy top virus. Pests and Diseases of American Samoa.
Herman, S. R., D. K. Becker, R. M. Harding, and J. L. Dale. 2001. Promoters derived from Banana bunchy top virus-associated components S1 and S2 drive transgene expression in both tobacco and banana. Plant Cell Reports. 20(7):642-646.
Horser, C. L., M. Karan, R. M. Harding, and J. L. Dale. 2001. Additional Rep-encoding DNAs associated with banana bunchy top virus. Archives of Virology. 146(1):71-86.
Hughes, A. L. 2004. Birth-and-death evolution of protein-coding regions and concerted evolution of non-coding regions in the multi-component genomes of nanoviruses. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution. 30(2):287-294.
ICTV (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses). 2002. Banana Bunchy Top Virus.
Summary: Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB/790p1001.htm [Accessed 09 November 2004]
Kagy, V., J. E. Thomas, M. Sharman, and F. Mademba-Sy. 2001. First record of banana bunchy top disease in New Caledonia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 30(1):71.
Kenyon, L., M. Brown, C. Maritime, and P. Khonje. 1997. First report of banana bunchy top virus in Malawi. Plant Disease. 81(9):1096.
Manickam, K., S. Doraiswamy, T. Ganapathy, G. T. Mala, and R. Rabindran. 2001. Characterization and serological detection of Banana bunchy top virus in India. Zeitschrift Fuer Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 108(5):490-499.
Niagro, F. D., A. N. Forsthoefel, R. P. Lawther, L. Kamalanthan, B. W. Ritchie, K. S. Latimer, and P. D. Lukert. 1998. Beak and feather disease virus and porcine circovirus genomes: Intermediates between the geminiviruses and plant circoviruses. Archives of Virology. 143(9):1723-1744.
Su, H. J., L. Y. Tsao, M. L. Wu, and T. H. Hung. 2003. Biological and molecular categorization of strains of Banana bunchy top virus. Journal of Phytopathology 151(5): 290-296.
Sun, D. J., H. Y. Wei, W. Q. Cai, and Y. C. Tian. 2002. Cloning of banana bunchy top virus Chinese Zhangzhou isolate DNA 4 and the promoter activity of its non-coding region. Acta Botanica Sinica. 44(8): 941-945.
Wantichakorn, R., R. M. Harding, and J. L. Dale. 2000. Sequence variability in the coat protein gene of two groups of banana bunchy top isolates. Archives of Virology. 145(3):593-602.
Wellings, P. W., P. H. Hart, V. Kami, and D. C. Morneau. 1994. The introduction and establishment of Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hym., Aphidiinae) in Tonga. Journal of Applied Entomology. 118(4-5):419-428.
Wu R. Y, Su H. J., 1991. Regeneration of healthy banana plantlets from banana bunchy top virus-infected tissues cultured at high temperature. Plant Pathology 40, 4-7.
Xie, W. S., and J. S. Hu. 1995. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and detection of banana bunchy top virus in Hawaii. Phytopathology. 85(3):339-347.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)
Thomas,
John E
Organization:
Senior Principal Plant Virologist, Horticulture and Forestry Science
Address:
Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries Plant Pathology Building 80 Meiers Road Indooroopilly Queensland 4068, Australia
Phone:
61 7 3896 9371
Fax:
61 7 3896 9533