Bao-Qian, Lu, Chen Yi-Qun, Bao Yan; Han Rui-Dong & Peng Zheng-Qiang. 2005. The feasibility of the controlling coconut leaf beetle (Brontispa longissima) with introducing natural enemies Asecodes hispinarum, Chinese Bulletin of Entomology42 (3): 254-258.
Summary: Abstract: The new invaded pest insect Brontispa longissima (Gestro) has been spread to 11 counties of Hainan Province since it was found in HaiKou in 2002. It may diffuse into the higher latitudinal provinces according to the latitude, climate, and host distribution analyses. It directly affected the development of agriculture, forestry, and travel industry. Analysis the ecological condition of Hainan Province and the character of B. longissima s hosts and natural enemies. We suggested that introducing natural enemies is a good method to control the pest.
Bao-Qian, Lu, Peng Zheng-Qiang, Tang Chao, Wen Hai-Bo, Jin Qi-An, Fu Yue-Guan & Du Yu-Zhou. 2005. Biological characteristics of Asecodes hispinarum Boucek (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae), Acta Entomologica Sinica 48 (6): 943-948.
Summary: Abstract: Asecodes hispinarum Boucek, an important larval endoparasitoid of Brontispa longissima (Gestro), was introduced into Hainan Province of China from Vietnam in March, 2004. The morphology, development, reproduction and reproductive potential of this wasp parasitoid were studied. The results showed that under the laboratory condition of 24 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C and RH 75% +/- 10%, the mean developmental duration of egg, larva and pupa were 2.8 days, 6.7 days, and 7.5 days, respectively; the longevity of adults without nutritional supplement was 2.5 days on average. Both the temperature and nutritional supplement affected the longevity of adults, and the mean longevity of female adults was longer than that of male adults. Fecundity (per female) was 43 on average and the peak of oviposition occurred within 12 hours after mating. The functional response of A. hispinarum to 4th instar larvae of B. longissima belonged to Holling s type II, and the parasitization efficiency of A. hispinarum decreased with the increasing of A. hispinarum density.
Bao-Qian, Lu, Peng Zheng-Qiang, Xu Chun-Ai, Tang Chao, Fu Yue-Guan, Du Yu-Zhou & Wan Fang-Hao. 2006. Biological characteristics of Tetrastichus brontispae Ferriere (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera : Hispidae), Acta Entomologica Sinica 49 (4): 643-649.
Summary: Abstract: Tetrastichus brontispae Ferri re, an important endoparasitoid of the coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima (Gestro) at pupal stage, was introduced into Hainan from Taiwan in 2004. Morphology, behavior, development, survival and reproduction of the parasitoid were studied under laboratory conditions. The results showed that T. brontispae female was bigger than male in body size, with obvious ovipositor. The number of parasitoid emerged from each host was averaged 21.5 with 77.4% females. The wasps could mate soon after emerging, and the mating behavior last 1 - 2 min. The peak of oviposition occurred 24 h after mating, and the temperature could affect the oviposition in the wasp. Sweet resources such as honey, sucrose, and glucose, especially honey, could prolong the longevity of adults, increase the fecundity and parasitism of females effectively. Laboratory experiments showed that the optimal temperature for development, survival I and reproduction of the parasitoid ranged from 20 degrees C to 28 degrees C, and the temperatures below 16 degrees C or above 30 degrees C were unfavorable for its survival. The developmental threshold and the effective accumulated temperature of T. brontispae were 9.6 degrees C and 324.9 day-degrees, respectively.
Guang-Jiang, Xiao, Zeng Ling, Li Qing & Lu Yong-Yue. 2006. Cold hardiness of palm leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 43 (4): 527-530.
Summary: Abstract: Supercooling points and freezing points of all stages of palm leaf beetle Brontispa longissima (Gestro) were measured in a laboratory population from Futian, Shenzhen City. The mean supercooling points of the egg, first instar larva, second instar larva, third instar larva, forth instar larva, fifth instar larva, pupa, male and female adults were - 9.8, - 4.3, - 3.9, - 4.9, - 5.0, - 4.2, - 9.0, - 5.5 and - 5.9 degrees C respectively while their freezing points were - 5.5, - 1.3, - 0.3, - 1.3, - 1.1, - 0.8, - 5.4, - 2.4 and - 2.7 degrees C. The results revealed stronger cold hardness in pupa and egg stages than in other stages. An analysis based on the data of air temperature over the years in Guangdong area suggested that all stages of the pest could survive in winter in most of Guangdong, but mainly were adults and pupae due to its biological character.
Guo, Jian. 2007. Coconut beetle management in Hainan Island, China: assessment of issues, new developments and future plans. In: Developing an Asian-Pacific Strategy for Forest Invasive Species: The Coconut Beetle Problem - Bridging Agriculture and Forestry. [Report of the Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network Workshop 22�25 February 2005, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam (RAP PUBLICATION 2007/02)]. FAO: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific: Bangkok.
Liu, S. D, Lin S.C., Shiau J.F. 1989. Microbial Control of Coconut Leaf Beetle Brontispa longissima with Greent Muscardine fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 53 (3): 307-314.
Lu, Baoqian, Tang, Chao, Peng, Zhengqiang, La Salle, John & Wan, Fanghao. 2008. Biological assessment in quarantine of Asecodes hispinarum Boucek (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) as an imported biological control agent of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera : Hispidae) in Hainan, China. Biological Control 45 (1): 29-35.
Nishikawa, Masaru, Cuc, Nguyen, Thi Thu & Kunimi, Yasuhisa. 2006. Second record of Chelisoches variegatus (BURR, 1917) (Dermaptera, Chelisochidae) from Vietnam, with consideration as a biological control agent of coconut leaf beetle, Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology 12 (2): 207-214.
Summary: Abstract: Chelisoches variegatus (BURR) is secondary recorded from Vietnam and redescribed. A key to the Vietnamese species of the genus Chelisoches was provided. Preliminary studies on the potential to use C. variegatus in the biological control against the coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima are also presented.
Voegele, J.M., 1989. Biological Control of Brontispa longissima in Western Samoa: An Ecological and Economic Evaluation. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 27 (1989) 315-329
Wu Qing, Liang Guang-Wen & Zeng Ling. 2006. Host plants and natural enemies for coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, in Shenzhen, Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 43 (4): 530-534.
Summary: Abstract: There are 36 species in 26 genus recorded as host plants for coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima (Gestro) in Shenzhen, China. Among them, several species, such as Cocos nucifera, Roystonea regia, Archontophoenix alexandrae, Caryota ochlandra, Areca triandra, Syagrus romenzoffiana, Caryota cmingji, Phoenix hanceana and Ravenea rivulari were seriously damaged by the beetle. Eleven predatory natural enemies and three pathogenic microorganism species were recorded as effective factors on palm leaf beetle population in Shenzhen. The important species were Formica sp., Cheatospania sp., Parattenodera sinensis and Metarhizium anisopliae.
Xiao Guang-Jiang, Lu Yong-Yue & Zeng Ling. 2007. Toxicity and control effect of avermectin on the palm leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 44 (4): 530-533.
Summary: Abstract: Palm leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima (Getro), is an invasive pest for palm plants in south China. Some species of Palmae were seriously damaged by the beetle in some localities of South China, especially in Hainan. Toxicity and control effect of avermectin to palm leaf beetle were reported in this paper. LD50 of avermectin to the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults were 8.119 x 10(-6), 4.152 x 10(-6), 9.458 x 10(-6), 7.609 x 10(-6) and 8.434 x 10(-6) mu g/egg, respectively, and LD90 were 1.044 x 10(-4), 5.545 x 10(-5), 6.663 x 10(-5) and 1.466 x 10(-4) mu g/egg. respectively. Control effect of avermectin on palm leaf beetle in the field was nearly 100%, which would be maintained about 1 month.
Yihai, Zhong, Li Hong, Liu Kui, Wen Haibo, Jin Qi an & Peng Zhengqiang. 2005. Effects of temperature on Brontispa longissima population growth, Yingyong Shengtai Xuebao 16 (12): 2369-2372.
Summary: Abstract: The study on the development, survival and reproduction of Brontispa longissima at 5 different temperature (16, 20, 24, 28, 32 degrees C) showed that the threshold temperature and effective accumulative temperature for the whole generations of Brontispa longissima were 11. 08 degrees C and 966.22 degrees C I respectively, and 4 similar to 5 generations could occur in a year in Danzhou, Hainan Province. One generation had the highest survival rate (92.5 %) at 28 degrees C, but failed to survive at 32 degrees C. Brontispa longissima reared at 28 degrees C had the greatest intrinsic increasing rate (r(m) = 0. 0260), finite increasing capacity (lambda = 1. 0263), and population trend index ( I = 50.8). The shortest mean generation time (123. 1 d) and population doubling time (26.7 d) were obtained at 20 degrees C and 28 degrees C, respectively. The temperature from 24 degrees C to 28 degrees C was suitable for the development and reproduction of Brontispa longissima.
Zhang Zhi Xiang, Cheng DongMei, Jiang Ding Xing & Xu Han Hong. 2004. Spread, damage and control methods of Brontispa longissima, Entomological Knowledge 41 (6): 522-526.
Summary: Abstract: B. longissima was ranked as the second class quarantinable dangerous pest forbidden to be introduced into the mainland of China in 1994. It was first found in Panyu, Guangdong Province, China, in September 1999 and was found in Hainan Province in June 2002. At present, it has spread to cause damage in Hainan, Guangdong, Taiwan and Hongkong. The hosts, damage symptom, spread and control methods of B. longissima are summarized in this paper.