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Common name
Synonym
Brontispa froggatti , Sharp
Brontispa palmivora , Gres
Brontispa simmondsi , Mlk.
Brontispa reicherti
Brontispa simmondsi
Oxycephala longipennis
Oxycephala longissima
Brontispa castanea
Brontispa froggatti
Brontispa longissima , var. Javana
Brontispa longissima , var. Selebensis
Similar species
Octodonta nipae, Plesispa reichei, Anadastus
Summary
The Hispid palm leaf beetle attacks palm leaf fronds ( as the name suggests) especially those of the coconut tree. It is an introduced pest in many islands in the Pacific Ocean and also some nations of the Pacific Rim including Taiwan. Its impact on tropical and subtropical cropping systems can be severe.
Species Description
Descriptions vary. A small orange and black beetle; 10 mm long by 4 mm wide. The head and antennae are black and a small part of the wing cover is yellow-brown. The remainder of the wing cover is black (French 2006).The adult beetle is reddish brown in colour and is about 7.5 to 10 mm long and 1.5 to 2 mm wide; females which are generally larger than the males (Wickramananda 2007). Eggs are wide brown and measure 1.4mm by 0.5mm; larvae measure 8 to 10mm long; pupae measure 9 to 10mm long and 2mm wide (FAO 2007; ASEAN IPM 2007). For an illustration please see: Gressitt (1960): page 105.

IDENTIFICATION OF SYMPTOMS:  Young leaves appear burned or scorched resulting from the feeding damage of B. longissima (ASEAN IPM 2007). Larvae and adults feed on unopened fronds chewing narrow lines parallel to the midrib causing the leaf to look striped (French 2006).

Notes
Behavioural notes: The beetles are nocturnal and fly well. They always live in the still-folded leaflets and move outside only to infest the nearby palms or for mating.
Lifecycle Stages
Eggs are laid in the still-folded leaflets of both young and mature coconut palms. The eggs are surrounded by debris and excrement, and laid longitudinally in rows of an excavated area of leaf tissue. They in hatch between three to seven days. In two to five days they hatch to feed as larvae on the unopened leaves. In 36 days they form pupae which open 6 days later. The adult beetle matures two weeks after emergence from the pupa and lives for two to three months (French 2006; ASEAN IPM 2007; FAO 2007). The whole cycle from egg to adult occupies about five to seven weeks in Java and Sulawesi, but can extend to nine weeks in other (presumably cooler) places (Kalshoven 1981, Lever 1969, in FAO 2007).
Habitat Description
Temperatures between 24 and 28 deg;C are favourable for the growth of the beetle (Yihai et al. 2005). Young palms less than four years old are particularly attractive to the beetle and at greater risk of infestation; the young leaves of older trees are firmer and less suitable as breeding habitats (FOA 2007). The microenvironment of the beetle is in the heart leaves of the crown of palm trees (Liu Lin & Shiau 1989).
Reproduction
The female on average lays 120 eggs in the course of several weeks (Kalshoven 1981, in FAO 2007), which produce 40 larvae.
Nutrition
Hispid beetles Brontispa longissima are palmivorous insects (Creighton 1973, Lever 1979, in He et al. 2005/06). The larvae and adults are mostly found in the partly opened young leaflets of palms. Both adult and larvae typically feed on the epidermis and parenchyma of the leaves removing strips of tissues from the leaflets and destroying the growing points of the palms (Fenne 1996, Howard et al. 2000, in He et al. 2005/06; Gutierrez 1978).
Pathway
Lack of strict quarantine on the movement of palms (particularly ornamentals) is considered as a major factor in the spread of B. longissima (FAO 2007). It is suspected that this pest was accidentally introduced into Vietnam, the Maldives and the Philippines with shipments of ornamentals . The beetle can travel long distances by various means of transportation (Jian 2007). The spread of B. longissima and other coconut pests in Oceania is mainly attributed to human activities (Dharmaraju 1984, in FAO 2007).

Principal source: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2007. Developing an Asian-Pacific Strategy for Forest Invasive Species: The Coconut Beetle Problem - Bridging Agriculture and Forestry. [Report of the Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network Workshop 22–25 February 2005, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam (RAP PUBLICATION 2007/02)]. FAO: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific: Bangkok.

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Forestry Division (Council Of Agriculture) Taiwan

Review:

Publication date: 2009-02-13

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Brontispa longissima. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1406 on 16-11-2018.

General Impacts
Host range: Up to 36 species in 26 genus have been recorded as host plants for the coconut hispid beetle; these include (APFSIN Undated): Coconut Cocos nucifera (most favored host); Royal palm Roystonea regia; Alexandra palm Archontophoenix alexandrae; Sago palm Metroxylon sagu; California fan palm Washingtonia filifera; Mexican fan palm Washingtonia robusta; Bottle palm Hyophorbe lagenicaulis; Chinese fan palm Livistonia chinensis; Madagascar palm Chrysalidocarpus lutescens; and Areca nut palm (betel palm) Areca catechu.
Direct damage: Seedlings, mature coconut trees and ornamental palms are all affected; however, palms up to five years old are at the greatest risk of infestation by the coconut hispid beetle (ASEAN IPM 2007; PestNet 2002). The coconut beetle attacks unopened young fronds; as the spear unfurls the beetle moves on to other palms or the next emerging spear; it does not attack leaves that are already emerged. Beetle larvae chew large areas of the leaflets killing underlying tissues and reducing leaf photosynthesis; photosynthesis may be reduced to zero in the case of multiple beetle attacks. Beetle attacks result in the reduction of the amount of reserves available to the plant to produce new growth or form reproductive structures; flower and fruit and subsequently “nut” production are significantly reduced. Infested palms are more susceptible to drought and diseases such as fungal rot (PestNet 2002). Severe infestations may result in the complete defoliation of the palm (Lu et al. 2008); in the worse cases palms, especially young ones, die from severe infestation (Kalshoven 1981, Stapley 1980, He et al. 2005/06).
Economic impacts: Agricultural: Coconut Cocos nucifera, oil palm Elaeis spp. And ornamental palms are all affected by the coconut hispid beetle and are all important industry crops. Coconut industries are at risk of reduced yields due to beetle infestations. Coconut production losses due to the coconut hispid beetle have been recorded to be as high as 30% to 50% in Vietnam and 50% to 70% in Samoa (Tan Viet 2004; Voegele 1989). South East Asia and the Pacific are particularly affected. Infestation by the coconut hispid beetle has the potential to have a drastic affect on the livelihoods of whole villages; in some localities 90% of the people rely on the coconut for their livelihood (Quirante 2007). Where the coconut hispid beetle has been left unchecked coconut processing factories have been shut down, thousands of workers have been let off and farmers have been left without work (Bernama 2007).
Tourist industry: Idyllic tropical island landscapes dotted with tall palm trees are an essential pull-factor employed to entice people to travel to South East Asia and the Pacific. Browning and dying palms degrade these landscapes, are unmarketable and have negative consequences for the tourism industry and the people whose livelihoods depend on tourism. The natural environment and its use for recreational activities is also spoiled for local people and residents.

Please follow this link for more information on the management and impacts of the coconut hispid beetle.

Management Info
Preventative measures: Prohibition of the movement of host palm seedlings (including ornamental palms) and potential habitat material, including palm produce (eg: coconut leaves, items made from palm fibers) is necessary to prevent spread of the beetle pest to new areas. The use of check points, emergency legislation and emergency measures are all useful management tools. This might include cutting down infested palms and hanging insecticide bags on palms up to three kms from the area of infestation. Raising awareness among stakeholders and the general public and training programs are important for the ongoing monitoring of beetle presence and to increase awareness of the risks involved in shifting palms and palm products. Phytosanitary measures in plantations and nurseries should also be encouraged.

Inspection and monitoring: Adult beetles, larvae and eggs are all located inside the tightly folded leaves young heart leaves in the throat of the palm; these leaves should be targeted during inspection. Symptoms of infestation by B. longissima include necrotic patches on the young leaflets which appear as white streaks and are caused by the beetle chewing the leaf (Fenne 1996, Howard et al. 2000, in He et al. 2005/06). Injured leaves of coconut seedlings show large, dead patches resulting from the coalescing of feeding strips; the leaves finally tear leaving a ragged appearance (He et al. 2005/06).

Please follow this link for detailed information on the management and impacts of the coconut hispid beetle.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Brontispa longissima
Informations on Brontispa longissima has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Brontispa longissima in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Host range: Up to 36 species in 26 genus have been recorded as host plants for the coconut hispid beetle; these include (APFSIN Undated): Coconut Cocos nucifera (most favored host); Royal palm Roystonea regia; Alexandra palm Archontophoenix alexandrae; Sago palm Metroxylon sagu; California fan palm Washingtonia filifera; Mexican fan palm Washingtonia robusta; Bottle palm Hyophorbe lagenicaulis; Chinese fan palm Livistonia chinensis; Madagascar palm Chrysalidocarpus lutescens; and Areca nut palm (betel palm) Areca catechu.
Direct damage: Seedlings, mature coconut trees and ornamental palms are all affected; however, palms up to five years old are at the greatest risk of infestation by the coconut hispid beetle (ASEAN IPM 2007; PestNet 2002). The coconut beetle attacks unopened young fronds; as the spear unfurls the beetle moves on to other palms or the next emerging spear; it does not attack leaves that are already emerged. Beetle larvae chew large areas of the leaflets killing underlying tissues and reducing leaf photosynthesis; photosynthesis may be reduced to zero in the case of multiple beetle attacks. Beetle attacks result in the reduction of the amount of reserves available to the plant to produce new growth or form reproductive structures; flower and fruit and subsequently “nut” production are significantly reduced. Infested palms are more susceptible to drought and diseases such as fungal rot (PestNet 2002). Severe infestations may result in the complete defoliation of the palm (Lu et al. 2008); in the worse cases palms, especially young ones, die from severe infestation (Kalshoven 1981, Stapley 1980, He et al. 2005/06).
Economic impacts: Agricultural: Coconut Cocos nucifera, oil palm Elaeis spp. And ornamental palms are all affected by the coconut hispid beetle and are all important industry crops. Coconut industries are at risk of reduced yields due to beetle infestations. Coconut production losses due to the coconut hispid beetle have been recorded to be as high as 30% to 50% in Vietnam and 50% to 70% in Samoa (Tan Viet 2004; Voegele 1989). South East Asia and the Pacific are particularly affected. Infestation by the coconut hispid beetle has the potential to have a drastic affect on the livelihoods of whole villages; in some localities 90% of the people rely on the coconut for their livelihood (Quirante 2007). Where the coconut hispid beetle has been left unchecked coconut processing factories have been shut down, thousands of workers have been let off and farmers have been left without work (Bernama 2007).
Tourist industry: Idyllic tropical island landscapes dotted with tall palm trees are an essential pull-factor employed to entice people to travel to South East Asia and the Pacific. Browning and dying palms degrade these landscapes, are unmarketable and have negative consequences for the tourism industry and the people whose livelihoods depend on tourism. The natural environment and its use for recreational activities is also spoiled for local people and residents.

Please follow this link for more information on the management and impacts of the coconut hispid beetle.

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
CAMBODIA
CHINA
FRENCH POLYNESIA
MALDIVES
PHILIPPINES
SAMOA
TAIWAN
THAILAND
VIET NAM
Mechanism
[9] Parasitism
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Habitat degradation
[27] Socio-Economic
  • [9] Damage to agriculture
  • [9] Damage to forestry
  • [1] Modification of landscape
  • [8] Damage to ornamentals
Management information
Preventative measures: Prohibition of the movement of host palm seedlings (including ornamental palms) and potential habitat material, including palm produce (eg: coconut leaves, items made from palm fibers) is necessary to prevent spread of the beetle pest to new areas. The use of check points, emergency legislation and emergency measures are all useful management tools. This might include cutting down infested palms and hanging insecticide bags on palms up to three kms from the area of infestation. Raising awareness among stakeholders and the general public and training programs are important for the ongoing monitoring of beetle presence and to increase awareness of the risks involved in shifting palms and palm products. Phytosanitary measures in plantations and nurseries should also be encouraged.

Inspection and monitoring: Adult beetles, larvae and eggs are all located inside the tightly folded leaves young heart leaves in the throat of the palm; these leaves should be targeted during inspection. Symptoms of infestation by B. longissima include necrotic patches on the young leaflets which appear as white streaks and are caused by the beetle chewing the leaf (Fenne 1996, Howard et al. 2000, in He et al. 2005/06). Injured leaves of coconut seedlings show large, dead patches resulting from the coalescing of feeding strips; the leaves finally tear leaving a ragged appearance (He et al. 2005/06).

Please follow this link for detailed information on the management and impacts of the coconut hispid beetle.

Locations
AMERICAN SAMOA
AUSTRALIA
CAMBODIA
CHINA
FIJI
GUAM
INDONESIA
LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
MALDIVES
NAURU
NEW CALEDONIA
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
PHILIPPINES
SAMOA
SOLOMON ISLANDS
THAILAND
VANUATU
VIET NAM
Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
49 references found for Brontispa longissima

Managment information
ASEAN IPM Knowledge Network Center. 2007. The Coconut Leaf Bettle, Brontispa longissima (Gestro)
Summary: Available from: http://aseanipm.da.gov.ph/brontispa.htm [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Asia - Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network (APFSIN). 2006. Invasives: Newsletter of APFSIN 6.
Summary: Available from: http://www.fs.fed.us/global/topic/invasives/december2006.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Asia - Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network (APFSIN). Undated. Invasive Pest Factsheet: Coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima
Summary: Available from: http://www.fao.org/forestry/media/13374/1/0/ [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Bao-Qian, Lu, Chen Yi-Qun, Bao Yan; Han Rui-Dong & Peng Zheng-Qiang. 2005. The feasibility of the controlling coconut leaf beetle (Brontispa longissima) with introducing natural enemies Asecodes hispinarum, Chinese Bulletin of Entomology42 (3): 254-258.
Summary: Abstract: The new invaded pest insect Brontispa longissima (Gestro) has been spread to 11 counties of Hainan Province since it was found in HaiKou in 2002. It may diffuse into the higher latitudinal provinces according to the latitude, climate, and host distribution analyses. It directly affected the development of agriculture, forestry, and travel industry. Analysis the ecological condition of Hainan Province and the character of B. longissima s hosts and natural enemies. We suggested that introducing natural enemies is a good method to control the pest.
Bao-Qian, Lu, Peng Zheng-Qiang, Tang Chao, Wen Hai-Bo, Jin Qi-An, Fu Yue-Guan & Du Yu-Zhou. 2005. Biological characteristics of Asecodes hispinarum Boucek (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae), Acta Entomologica Sinica 48 (6): 943-948.
Summary: Abstract: Asecodes hispinarum Boucek, an important larval endoparasitoid of Brontispa longissima (Gestro), was introduced into Hainan Province of China from Vietnam in March, 2004. The morphology, development, reproduction and reproductive potential of this wasp parasitoid were studied. The results showed that under the laboratory condition of 24 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C and RH 75% +/- 10%, the mean developmental duration of egg, larva and pupa were 2.8 days, 6.7 days, and 7.5 days, respectively; the longevity of adults without nutritional supplement was 2.5 days on average. Both the temperature and nutritional supplement affected the longevity of adults, and the mean longevity of female adults was longer than that of male adults. Fecundity (per female) was 43 on average and the peak of oviposition occurred within 12 hours after mating. The functional response of A. hispinarum to 4th instar larvae of B. longissima belonged to Holling s type II, and the parasitization efficiency of A. hispinarum decreased with the increasing of A. hispinarum density.
Bao-Qian, Lu, Peng Zheng-Qiang, Xu Chun-Ai, Tang Chao, Fu Yue-Guan, Du Yu-Zhou & Wan Fang-Hao. 2006. Biological characteristics of Tetrastichus brontispae Ferriere (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera : Hispidae), Acta Entomologica Sinica 49 (4): 643-649.
Summary: Abstract: Tetrastichus brontispae Ferri re, an important endoparasitoid of the coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima (Gestro) at pupal stage, was introduced into Hainan from Taiwan in 2004. Morphology, behavior, development, survival and reproduction of the parasitoid were studied under laboratory conditions. The results showed that T. brontispae female was bigger than male in body size, with obvious ovipositor. The number of parasitoid emerged from each host was averaged 21.5 with 77.4% females. The wasps could mate soon after emerging, and the mating behavior last 1 - 2 min. The peak of oviposition occurred 24 h after mating, and the temperature could affect the oviposition in the wasp. Sweet resources such as honey, sucrose, and glucose, especially honey, could prolong the longevity of adults, increase the fecundity and parasitism of females effectively. Laboratory experiments showed that the optimal temperature for development, survival I and reproduction of the parasitoid ranged from 20 degrees C to 28 degrees C, and the temperatures below 16 degrees C or above 30 degrees C were unfavorable for its survival. The developmental threshold and the effective accumulated temperature of T. brontispae were 9.6 degrees C and 324.9 day-degrees, respectively.
Bernama. 2007. Vietnam To Help Philippines To Solve Coconut Beetle Problem.
Summary: Available from: http://www.bernama.com/bernama/v3/news_lite.php?id=278707 [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Biocontrol News and Information. 2008. pestscience.com. Biocontrol News and Information 28(4), 67N�83N
Summary: Available from: http://www.pestscience.com/PDF/News2804.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
CSIRO, 2004. Entomology Home. 2. Scientific Names. Brontispa longissima (Gestro)
Summary: Available from: http://www.ento.csiro.au/aicn/name_s/b_726.htm [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Dejon, Roberto C. 2008. Dreaded Brontispa Infests Coco Trees, Ormoc City Government Website
Summary: Available from: http://www.ormoc.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=64&Itemid=35 [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Fenner, T.L. 2003. Agnote: Palm Leaf Beetle (Brontispa longissima). [371 No. I54 March 2003 Agdex No: 620 ISSN No: 0157-8243]
Summary: Available from: https://transact.nt.gov.au/ebiz/dbird/TechPublications.nsf/33077864701967D169256EFE004F63C1/$file/371.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
French, Bruce R. 2006. Insect Pests of Food Plants of Papua New Guinea: A compendium
Summary: Available from: http://www.helpthehungry.net/Docs/Insects%20on%20food%20plants%20in%20PNG.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Gressitt, J. Linsley. 1960. Hispine beetles from New Caledonia (Chrysomelidae), Pacific Insects 2 (2)
Summary: Available from: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/fiji/pdf/gressitt1960.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Guang-Jiang, Xiao, Zeng Ling, Li Qing & Lu Yong-Yue. 2006. Cold hardiness of palm leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 43 (4): 527-530.
Summary: Abstract: Supercooling points and freezing points of all stages of palm leaf beetle Brontispa longissima (Gestro) were measured in a laboratory population from Futian, Shenzhen City. The mean supercooling points of the egg, first instar larva, second instar larva, third instar larva, forth instar larva, fifth instar larva, pupa, male and female adults were - 9.8, - 4.3, - 3.9, - 4.9, - 5.0, - 4.2, - 9.0, - 5.5 and - 5.9 degrees C respectively while their freezing points were - 5.5, - 1.3, - 0.3, - 1.3, - 1.1, - 0.8, - 5.4, - 2.4 and - 2.7 degrees C. The results revealed stronger cold hardness in pupa and egg stages than in other stages. An analysis based on the data of air temperature over the years in Guangdong area suggested that all stages of the pest could survive in winter in most of Guangdong, but mainly were adults and pupae due to its biological character.
Guo, Jian. 2007. Coconut beetle management in Hainan Island, China: assessment of issues, new developments and future plans. In: Developing an Asian-Pacific Strategy for Forest Invasive Species: The Coconut Beetle Problem - Bridging Agriculture and Forestry. [Report of the Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network Workshop 22�25 February 2005, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam (RAP PUBLICATION 2007/02)]. FAO: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific: Bangkok.
Gutierrez, J. 1978. Biological control of the coconut hispid and a survey of fruit flies in American Samoa. ORSTOM Centre, Nomea Laboratory of Applied Zoology. South Pacific Commission Noumea, New Caledonia December
Summary: Available from: http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_08-09/09529.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
He, L.S., Ong, K.H., Yik, C.P., Fong, Y.K and Chan, H.J.A. 2005/06. Chemical Control of Hispid Beetles (Brontispa longissima) on Palms. Singapore J Pri Ind 32: 80-92.
Summary: Available from: http://www.ava.gov.sg/NR/rdonlyres/5A163534-CCA6-4956-8D79-97688A0FF681/20655/AVAchapter8.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Liu, S. D, Lin S.C., Shiau J.F. 1989. Microbial Control of Coconut Leaf Beetle Brontispa longissima with Greent Muscardine fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 53 (3): 307-314.
Lu, Baoqian, Tang, Chao, Peng, Zhengqiang, La Salle, John & Wan, Fanghao. 2008. Biological assessment in quarantine of Asecodes hispinarum Boucek (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) as an imported biological control agent of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera : Hispidae) in Hainan, China. Biological Control 45 (1): 29-35.
Nakamura, Satoshi. 2008. Research Highlight Biological Control of the Invasive Insect Pest, Brontispa longissima, which Damages the Coconut Tree, JIRCAS Newsletter 52: pg 6
Summary: Available from: http://ss.jircas.affrc.go.jp/english/publication/newsletter/2007/jircasnewsletter52.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Nakamura, Satoshi; Kazuhiko Konishi and Keiji Takasu., undated. Invasion of the coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima: Current situation and control measures in Southeast Asia
Summary: Available from: http://www.agnet.org/activities/sw/2006/589543823/paper-899851121.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Nishikawa, Masaru, Cuc, Nguyen, Thi Thu & Kunimi, Yasuhisa. 2006. Second record of Chelisoches variegatus (BURR, 1917) (Dermaptera, Chelisochidae) from Vietnam, with consideration as a biological control agent of coconut leaf beetle, Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology 12 (2): 207-214.
Summary: Abstract: Chelisoches variegatus (BURR) is secondary recorded from Vietnam and redescribed. A key to the Vietnamese species of the genus Chelisoches was provided. Preliminary studies on the potential to use C. variegatus in the biological control against the coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima are also presented.
PestNet. December 2002. Brontispa sp., Hispine beetle
Summary: Available from: http://www.pestnet.org/Summaries/Crops/Plantationcrops/Coconutandoilpalm/Brontispasphispinebeele/tabid/1535/Default.aspx [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Quirante, Ninfa B. 2007. Brontispa infests 52 cocotrees in Paranas, Samar. Philippine Information Agency.
Summary: Available from: http://www.pia.gov.ph/?m=12&sec=reader&rp=2&fi=p070925.htm&no=11&date= [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
South Pacific Commission (SPC)., 1985. Coconut Hispine Beetle. Advisory Leaflet 17. 1983 Reprint 1985.
Summary: Available from: http://www.spc.int/pps/PDF%20PALs/PAL%2017%20Coconut%20hispine%20beetle%201983.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Tan Viet, Tran. Classical Biological Control of the Coconut Hispine Beetle (Brontispa longissima Gestro) in Viet Nam
Summary: Available from: www.agnet.org/activities/sw/2006/954198798/paper-505395537.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Tran Tan Viet. 2004. Classical biological control of coconut hispine beetle with the parasitoid Asecodes hispinarum Boucek (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Viet Nam
Summary: Available from: https://www.ippc.int/cds_upload/1115175069697_AD522E02.pdf [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Voegele, J.M., 1989. Biological Control of Brontispa longissima in Western Samoa: An Ecological and Economic Evaluation. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 27 (1989) 315-329
Voegele, J.M.; Klingauf, F.; Engelhardt, T., 1989. Economics of biological pest control: a case study from western Samoa. Gesunde Pflanzen (Germany, F.R.) - ISSN 0367-4223 v. 41(7) p. 255-258 (1989)
Summary: Abstract: An analysis is given about the costs and benefits of a biological control strategy against the coconut pest, Brontispa longissima in western Samoa. This beetle was accidentally introduced in 1980 and brought under control with the introduction and establishment of two parasite species. Despite relatively high initial costs of 450 000 WS $ (= DM) for the collection, introduction, mass-rearing and country-wide release of the parasites, positive net returns were already achieved within the fourth year of the project. The internal rate of return exceeds 40 per cent for a ten year period. All farmers benefit from the biological control strategy. There are no additional cost at farm level.
Wickramananda, R. 2007. The coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima. Crop Protection Division, Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka
Summary: Available from: http://210.212.229.11:8080/dspace/bitstream/123456789/3880/1/r.wickramananda%20-%20icj%20-jan07-20-21.PDF [Accessed 12 Decemeber 2008]
Wu Qing, Liang Guang-Wen & Zeng Ling. 2006. Host plants and natural enemies for coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, in Shenzhen, Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 43 (4): 530-534.
Summary: Abstract: There are 36 species in 26 genus recorded as host plants for coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima (Gestro) in Shenzhen, China. Among them, several species, such as Cocos nucifera, Roystonea regia, Archontophoenix alexandrae, Caryota ochlandra, Areca triandra, Syagrus romenzoffiana, Caryota cmingji, Phoenix hanceana and Ravenea rivulari were seriously damaged by the beetle. Eleven predatory natural enemies and three pathogenic microorganism species were recorded as effective factors on palm leaf beetle population in Shenzhen. The important species were Formica sp., Cheatospania sp., Parattenodera sinensis and Metarhizium anisopliae.
Xiao Guang-Jiang, Lu Yong-Yue & Zeng Ling. 2007. Toxicity and control effect of avermectin on the palm leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 44 (4): 530-533.
Summary: Abstract: Palm leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima (Getro), is an invasive pest for palm plants in south China. Some species of Palmae were seriously damaged by the beetle in some localities of South China, especially in Hainan. Toxicity and control effect of avermectin to palm leaf beetle were reported in this paper. LD50 of avermectin to the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults were 8.119 x 10(-6), 4.152 x 10(-6), 9.458 x 10(-6), 7.609 x 10(-6) and 8.434 x 10(-6) mu g/egg, respectively, and LD90 were 1.044 x 10(-4), 5.545 x 10(-5), 6.663 x 10(-5) and 1.466 x 10(-4) mu g/egg. respectively. Control effect of avermectin on palm leaf beetle in the field was nearly 100%, which would be maintained about 1 month.
Yihai, Zhong, Li Hong, Liu Kui, Wen Haibo, Jin Qi an & Peng Zhengqiang. 2005. Effects of temperature on Brontispa longissima population growth, Yingyong Shengtai Xuebao 16 (12): 2369-2372.
Summary: Abstract: The study on the development, survival and reproduction of Brontispa longissima at 5 different temperature (16, 20, 24, 28, 32 degrees C) showed that the threshold temperature and effective accumulative temperature for the whole generations of Brontispa longissima were 11. 08 degrees C and 966.22 degrees C I respectively, and 4 similar to 5 generations could occur in a year in Danzhou, Hainan Province. One generation had the highest survival rate (92.5 %) at 28 degrees C, but failed to survive at 32 degrees C. Brontispa longissima reared at 28 degrees C had the greatest intrinsic increasing rate (r(m) = 0. 0260), finite increasing capacity (lambda = 1. 0263), and population trend index ( I = 50.8). The shortest mean generation time (123. 1 d) and population doubling time (26.7 d) were obtained at 20 degrees C and 28 degrees C, respectively. The temperature from 24 degrees C to 28 degrees C was suitable for the development and reproduction of Brontispa longissima.
Zhang Zhi Xiang, Cheng DongMei, Jiang Ding Xing & Xu Han Hong. 2004. Spread, damage and control methods of Brontispa longissima, Entomological Knowledge 41 (6): 522-526.
Summary: Abstract: B. longissima was ranked as the second class quarantinable dangerous pest forbidden to be introduced into the mainland of China in 1994. It was first found in Panyu, Guangdong Province, China, in September 1999 and was found in Hainan Province in June 2002. At present, it has spread to cause damage in Hainan, Guangdong, Taiwan and Hongkong. The hosts, damage symptom, spread and control methods of B. longissima are summarized in this paper.
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