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Common name
Synonym
Callidium fuscum , (Fabricius, 1787)
Similar species
Summary
Tetropium fuscum (the brown spruce longhorn beetle) is a high risk invasive species native to Europe and Asia that has been introduced to Nova Scotia, Canada where it has ravaged red spruce (Picea rubens) stands. Eradication efforts by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) were deemed ineffective. Quarantine and preventative measures are being employed while other methods of control are investigated.
Species Description
The brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum) is a small beetle 8-19 mm long. It has a black or dark-brown head covered with long hairs and a longitudinal groove between its long, thin reddish-brown antennae. The black pronotum is angular, wide, and bulging with a punctured plate and a longitudinal hole. It has an elongate and flattened body. The elytra are brown, tan, or yellowish with 2-3 longitudinal grooves. Its legs are short and dark brown or reddish brown with reddish-brown tarsi. Larvae have a segmented yellowish-white body with a reddish-brown head bearing a lateral white band, characteristic to its genus. They are14-28 mm long and have prominent legs. Pupa are white and are about 17 long and 4 mm wide. They have a bulged pronotum and a slightly raised mesonotum and bulging abdominal tergites with acute spinules alongside a common longitudinal groove. The most easily distinguishable characteristic is its asperate, rough, pronotum, a feature not exhibited by any other Tetropium spp. in eastern North America (Dobesberger, 2005; CFIA, 2005; Kolk & Starzyk, 1996; Smith and Hurley, 2000).
Notes
The fungus Ophiostoma tetropii is believed to have been introduced to Canada from Europe along with Tertopium fuscum, since it is morphologically and phylogenetically identical to European specimens, found only in trees infested by T. fuscum, and bears no record in North America prior to the introduction of T. fuscum. Ophiostomatoid fungi are a known associate of Tetropium spp. Ophiostoma piceae is a known associate of North American native beetle Tetropium cinnamopterum. Some believe O. tetropii has good potential as an indicator for T. fuscum, as existing keys are incomplete and identification can be difficult (Jacobset al. 2003; Smith and Harrison 2007).
Lifecycle Stages
Brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum) larvae hatch 10-14 days after oviposition. Larvae proceed to bore through the phloem and cambium feeding under bark and upper wood, producing extensive, irregular galleries about 2cm wide that are filled with frass. They molt 4 times within about a 2 month period of feeding. Upon maturation the larvae begin to tunnel horizontally about 2-5 cm, then vertically for 3-4cm where they construct a pupal chamber filled with and closed off by frass. Pupation lasts about 14 days and sexually mature adults emerge from holes 4-7 mm in diameter. This cycle requires about 120 days but may take 360 days depending on environmental or nutiritional conditions, as larvae often overwinter inside the wood (Dobesberger, 2005; Kolk & Starzyk, 1996).
Habitat Description
The brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum) occurs in conifer forests where they parasitize spruce (Picea spp.), pine (Pinus spp.), and fir (Abies spp.) trees. In Europe it attacks Norway spruce (Picea abies), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), blue spruce (Picea pungens), Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), silver fir (Abies alba), and occasionally larches (Larix spp.). In the introduced range in Nova Scotia, Canada, red spruce (Picea rubens) is the preferred host of T. fuscum, although it is known to infest white spruce (Picea glauca), black spruce (Picea mariana), and Norway spruce (Dobesberger, 2005). In Canada T. fuscum only attacks Picea spp. and has not been found on other genera of conifers such as Abies or Larix spp. (Dobesberger, 2009).
Reproduction
Sexual. Oviparous. Brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum) adults are sexually mature upon emergence seeking mates immediately. They are generally active June through August. Adults emerge staggeredly and live for about three weeks. Copulation takes place in minutes. A few days following copulation, females oviposit about 80-150 eggs into bark crevices singly or sometimes several clusters of 10 eggs. Presumably, females deposit associate fungus Ophiostoma tetropii spores along with eggs, as in the case of other insect/fungi parasite relationships (Kolk & Starzyk, 1996; Dobesberger, 2005; Jacobs et al. 2003).
Nutrition
The brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum) relies solely on nutrition attained from its larval and pupal stages which bore through the phloem and cambium of hosts feeding on woody tissue. Adults do not feed. As T. fuscum is found in conjuction with associate fungus Ophiostoma tetropii, one may conclude that it is essential in breaking down plant tissue, weaking the tree, and maybe even providing a direct source of nourishment for the beetle larvae and pupae as with more closely studied insect/fungus parasite complexes (Kolk & Starzyk, 1996; Jacobs et al. 2003).

Principal source: Dobesberger, E.J. 2005. Tetropium fuscum. Science Division, Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
Kolk, A., Starzyk, J.R. 1996. Blackspruce long-horn beetle - Tetropium castaneum (L.) and Brown spruce long-horn beetle - Tetropium fuscum fabr. The Atlas of Forest Insect Pests. Multico Warszawa, 705.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)., 2005. Factsheet: Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle - Tetropium fuscum.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Erhard Dobesberger, Canadian Food Inspection Agency

Publication date: 2008-06-05

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Tetropium fuscum. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1391 on 19-11-2018.

General Impacts
The brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum) is considered a very high risk invasive species. Outside of its native range, it is a primary pest of spruce and pine trees and is high risk species for spread, establishment, and reproduction potential, as well as inflicting economic and environmental damage. It is only a secondary pest in its native range, usually attacking only weakened and dying trees, while it attacks healthy, vigorous trees in Canadian forests where trees lack developed defense mechanisms, and specific predators or parasites are not present. Outbreak levels may persist for a decade inflicting continual damage over extesive conifer tracts. In Point Pleasant Park, Halifax, Nova Scotia, T. fuscum has ravaged red spruce trees with mortality rates estimated up to 70% and managed to escape its previous containment area. Spruce accounts for 60% of Nova Scotia's forest volume and T. fuscum poses a serious threat to the conifer lumber industry. Further infestation in Canada is likely to result in large scale ecological changes and biodiversity reduction by changing forest composition. Even control and eradication programs are likely to have environmental effects. Mass tree infestations also cause increased wildfire frequency and intensity (Dobesberger, 2005; NAPPO, 2000).
Management Info
Preventative measures: Preventative measures are the best means of managing the brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum). Great care should be taken to quarantine invasive populations and prevent their spread. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) passed The Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle Infested Places Order shortly after its introduction in Canada which established a containment area and restricted the movement of unprocessed wood. Heat treatment of 56° for 30 minutes is required on wood large enough to bear any form of T. fuscum, an adequate phytosanitary requirement.
Trapping and visual ground surveys are being conducted to monitor any further spread. Traps baited with high-release host-volatile lures and brown spruce longhorn beetle pheromones were deployed extensively around the containment area and in neighboring provinces. Cross-vane pan traps, IPM Intercept PT traps, and polyester quilt bands were all effective traps. Recommended baits include spruce blend with ethanol lures and brown spruce longhorn beetle pheromones. Visual inspection detecting trees with excessive resin flow and elliptical exit holes 4 mm in diameter should raise caution. The use of bioclimatic analysis to provide for rapid spatial assessments of possible distributions and potential impacts may be of use in preventing the spread of T. fuscum and other invasives (McKenney et al. 2003; Sweeney et al. 2004(a)(b); CFIA, 2005; CFIA 2007; Mushrow et al. undated).
Recent work by Silk et al (2007) found that Tetropium fuscum and Tetropium cinnamopterum males emit a pheromone called fuscumol, which was attractive to males and females when combined with host volatiles. Further study by Sweeney et al (2008) determined that the most effective lure combination consisted of a blend of racemic (50:50 ratio of S and R isomers) and host volatiles. This will be a useful tool for early detection and survey of T. fuscum in high risk areas (Sweeney et al. 2008).

Physical: Physical removal and chipping or incineration of infested trees was practiced in Canada in attempts to control T. fuscum infestations. This was found to be an ineffective means of eradication by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency in 2005. The CFIA has since shifted efforts towards containment. There is presently no effective treatment for infected trees (CFIA, 2005; CFIA, 2007).

Biological: Natural control agents native to North America include woodpeckers and the parasitic wasp, Rhyssa persuasoria and possibly Rhyssa lineolata and Rhimphoctona macrocephala which have been reared in red spruce logs in Pleasant Park, Nova Scotia, in attempts to control T. fuscum there. Natural enemies in the beetle's native range include parasitoids: Townesia tenuiventris, Dolichomitus dux, Dolichomitus terebrans, Dolichomitus tuberculatus, Neoxorides collaris, Odontocolon spinipes, Odontocolon dentipes, Xorides praecatorius, Rhimphoctona obscuripes, Rhimphoctona megacephalus, Atanycolus initiator, Atanycolus sculpturatus, Doryctes mutillator, Doryctes obliteratus, Wroughtonia dentator, and Billaea trianglifera; and predators: Laphria gilva, Thanasimus spp, Athous subfuscus, Raphidia spp., Phaoestigma notata, Inocellia crassicornis, Palloptera usta, and many woodpecker species. Finally, soil-borne fungus Beauveria bassiana may be a potential control which can be applied to tree bands or bait logs (Dobesberger, 2005; Sweeney et al. 2005).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Tetropium fuscum
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • central europe
  • japan
  • northern europe
  • russian federation
  • southern europe
  • turkey
Informations on Tetropium fuscum has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Tetropium fuscum in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum) is considered a very high risk invasive species. Outside of its native range, it is a primary pest of spruce and pine trees and is high risk species for spread, establishment, and reproduction potential, as well as inflicting economic and environmental damage. It is only a secondary pest in its native range, usually attacking only weakened and dying trees, while it attacks healthy, vigorous trees in Canadian forests where trees lack developed defense mechanisms, and specific predators or parasites are not present. Outbreak levels may persist for a decade inflicting continual damage over extesive conifer tracts. In Point Pleasant Park, Halifax, Nova Scotia, T. fuscum has ravaged red spruce trees with mortality rates estimated up to 70% and managed to escape its previous containment area. Spruce accounts for 60% of Nova Scotia's forest volume and T. fuscum poses a serious threat to the conifer lumber industry. Further infestation in Canada is likely to result in large scale ecological changes and biodiversity reduction by changing forest composition. Even control and eradication programs are likely to have environmental effects. Mass tree infestations also cause increased wildfire frequency and intensity (Dobesberger, 2005; NAPPO, 2000).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
CANADA
Central Europe
Northern Europe
Southern Europe
Mechanism
[4] Parasitism
Outcomes
[6] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [4] Damage to forestry
  • [1] Alteration of recreational use and tourism
Management information
Preventative measures: Preventative measures are the best means of managing the brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum). Great care should be taken to quarantine invasive populations and prevent their spread. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) passed The Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle Infested Places Order shortly after its introduction in Canada which established a containment area and restricted the movement of unprocessed wood. Heat treatment of 56° for 30 minutes is required on wood large enough to bear any form of T. fuscum, an adequate phytosanitary requirement.
Trapping and visual ground surveys are being conducted to monitor any further spread. Traps baited with high-release host-volatile lures and brown spruce longhorn beetle pheromones were deployed extensively around the containment area and in neighboring provinces. Cross-vane pan traps, IPM Intercept PT traps, and polyester quilt bands were all effective traps. Recommended baits include spruce blend with ethanol lures and brown spruce longhorn beetle pheromones. Visual inspection detecting trees with excessive resin flow and elliptical exit holes 4 mm in diameter should raise caution. The use of bioclimatic analysis to provide for rapid spatial assessments of possible distributions and potential impacts may be of use in preventing the spread of T. fuscum and other invasives (McKenney et al. 2003; Sweeney et al. 2004(a)(b); CFIA, 2005; CFIA 2007; Mushrow et al. undated).
Recent work by Silk et al (2007) found that Tetropium fuscum and Tetropium cinnamopterum males emit a pheromone called fuscumol, which was attractive to males and females when combined with host volatiles. Further study by Sweeney et al (2008) determined that the most effective lure combination consisted of a blend of racemic (50:50 ratio of S and R isomers) and host volatiles. This will be a useful tool for early detection and survey of T. fuscum in high risk areas (Sweeney et al. 2008).

Physical: Physical removal and chipping or incineration of infested trees was practiced in Canada in attempts to control T. fuscum infestations. This was found to be an ineffective means of eradication by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency in 2005. The CFIA has since shifted efforts towards containment. There is presently no effective treatment for infected trees (CFIA, 2005; CFIA, 2007).

Biological: Natural control agents native to North America include woodpeckers and the parasitic wasp, Rhyssa persuasoria and possibly Rhyssa lineolata and Rhimphoctona macrocephala which have been reared in red spruce logs in Pleasant Park, Nova Scotia, in attempts to control T. fuscum there. Natural enemies in the beetle's native range include parasitoids: Townesia tenuiventris, Dolichomitus dux, Dolichomitus terebrans, Dolichomitus tuberculatus, Neoxorides collaris, Odontocolon spinipes, Odontocolon dentipes, Xorides praecatorius, Rhimphoctona obscuripes, Rhimphoctona megacephalus, Atanycolus initiator, Atanycolus sculpturatus, Doryctes mutillator, Doryctes obliteratus, Wroughtonia dentator, and Billaea trianglifera; and predators: Laphria gilva, Thanasimus spp, Athous subfuscus, Raphidia spp., Phaoestigma notata, Inocellia crassicornis, Palloptera usta, and many woodpecker species. Finally, soil-borne fungus Beauveria bassiana may be a potential control which can be applied to tree bands or bait logs (Dobesberger, 2005; Sweeney et al. 2005).

Locations
CANADA
Management Category
Control
Bibliography
28 references found for Tetropium fuscum

Managment information
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)., 2005. Factsheet: Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle - Tetropium fuscum
Summary: Available from: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pestrava/tetfus/tetfuse.shtml [Accessed 4 February 2008]
Dobesberger, E.J. 2005. Tetropium fuscum. Science Division, Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
Summary: This is in depth and informative profile provides much information on all aspects of Tetropium fuscum.
Available from: http://spfnic.fs.fed.us/exfor/data/pestreports.cfm?pestidval=122&langdisplay=english [Accessed 5 February 2008]
European and Mediterreanean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO), 2002. Reporting Service 2002, No. 2
Summary: Information on Canadian outbreak.
Available from: http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/2002/Rse-0202.doc [Accessed 4 February 2008]
Gord, Henry.; Jon Sweeney, Wayne MacKay, Richard Hamelin, Georgette Smith, Marie-Jos� C�t� and Nicole Lecours., 2005. Update On Survey And Eradication Of The Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle, And Summary Of Recent Research. Proceedings, 16th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2005 GTR-NE-337
McKenney, Daniel W.; Anthony A. Hopkin, Kathy L. Campbell, Brendan G. Mackey and Robert Foottit., 2003. Opportunities for Improved Risk Assessments of Exotic Species in Canada Using Bioclimatic Modeling. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Issue Volume 88, Numbers 1-3 / October, 2003
Summary: McKenney recommends using biolimatic modeling to assess possible distributions and impacts of invasives.
Mushrow, Lisa .; Andrew Morrison, Jon Sweeney, and Dan Quiring., undated. Heat as a phytosanitary treatment for the brown spruce longhorn beetle. The Forestry Chronicle. Pages 224-228
North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO), 2003. Factsheet: Tetropium fuscum F.
Summary: Available from: http://www.pestalert.org/Detail.CFM?recordID=11 [Accessed 4 February 2008]
Silk, P.J., Sweeney, J., Wu, J., Price, J., Gutowski, J.M. & Kettela, E.G. 2007. Evidence for a male-produced pheromone in Tetropium fuscum (F.) and Tetropium cinnamopterum (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Naturwissenschaften 94: 697-701.
Sweeney, J.; G. Thurston, R. Lavall�e, R. Trudel, P. Desrochers, C. C�t�, C. Guertin, S. Todorova, H.H. Kope and R. Alfaro., 2005. Beauveria bassiana For Control Of The Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle, Tetropium Fuscum (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Proceedings, 16th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2005 GTR-NE-337
Sweeney, Jon and Georgette Smith., 2002. Host Preference of the Brown Spruce Longhorned Beetle, Tetropium fuscum (Fabr.) on Selected North American Conifers. Proceedings: 2002 U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum GTR-NE-300
Sweeney, Jon.; Jessica Price, Wayne MacKay, Bob Guscott, Peter de Groot and Jerzy Gutowski. 2005. Detection Of The Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle, Tetropium fuscum (F.) With Semiochemical-Baited Traps, Tree Bands, And Visual Surveys Proceedings�Interagency Research Forum on Gypsy Moth and other Invasive Species
Sweeney, Jon; Peter De Groot; Linda MacDonald; Sandy Smith; Christian Cocquempot; Marc Kenis and Jerzy M. Gutowski., 2004a. Host Volatile Attractants and Traps for Detection of Tetropium fuscum (F.), Tetropium castaneum L., and Other Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Environmental Entomology Volume 33, Issue 4 (August 2004)
Summary: Abstract of a study on trapping of Tetropium fuscum in Canada.
Sweeney, J.; Peter de Groot, and Linda MacDonald., 2002. Response of the Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle, Tetropium fuscum (Fabr.) to Host Volatiles. Proceedings: 2002 U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum GTR-NE-300
Sweeney, J.; Peter de Groot, Linda MacDonald and Jerzy M. Gutowski., 2004b. Recent Improvements In The Efficacy Of Trapping The Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle, Tetropium fuscum (F.), Using Host Volatile-Baited Traps Proceedings, XV USDA Interagency Research Forum on Gypsy Moth and Other Invasive Species 2004 GTR-NE-332
The Nature Conservancy (TNC)., 2004. Gallery of Pests: Pests & pathogens not too widely spread Brown Longhorned Spruce Beetle - Tetropium fuscum Fabricius
Summary: Available from: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/products/gallery/tetfu1.html [Accessed 4 February 2008]
General information
Allen, E.A. and L.M. Humble., 2002. Symposium contribution: Nonindigenous species introductions: a threat to Canada�s forests and forest economy. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 24: 103�110 (2002)
Summary: A brief mention of Tetropium fuscum s introduction in Canada.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)., 2005. Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle - Tetropium fuscum;
Summary: This Canadian Food Inspection Agency website provides several sources concering details about the Tetropium fuscum invasion and control measures taken by the government. This site includes Brown Spruce Longhorn Beelte in Canada, BSLB survey Update: 2007, Infested Places Order, and a Questions and Answers.
Available from: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pestrava/tetfus/tetfuse.shtml [Accessed 11 February 2008].
Chronicle-Herald. 2000. Beetles killing park spruce likely arrived from port. Staff Reporter. Metro section. 5/24/2000.
Summary: This news article details the inrtoduction of Tetropium fuscum in Point Pleasnt Park, Nova Scotia.
Available from: http://www.pestalert.org/storage/Halifa%2Ehtm [Accessed 6 February 2008]
Dobesberger, E.J. 2009. Brown spruce longhorn beetle. Fact Sheet 2009. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Plant Health Science Division, Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Tetropium Kirby in Richardson, 1837
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=702042 [Accessed 14 January 2008]
Jacobs, Karin; Keith, A. Seifert, Ken J. Harrison, Georgette Smith, and Thomas Kirisits., 2002. Hitchhikers with Invasive Tetropium fuscum (Fabr.) (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae) in Atlantic Canada Proceedings: 2002 U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum GTR-NE-300
Jacobs, Karin; Keith A Seifert; Ken J Harrison; Thomas Kirisits., 2003. Identity and phylogenetic relationships of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with invasive and native Tetropium species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Atlantic Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany, 81(4), 316-329.
Summary: Associate fungi Ophiostoma tetropii is dicussed in conjunction with Tetropium fuscum.
Kolk, A., Starzyk, J.R. 1996. Blackspruce long-horn beetle - Tetropium castaneum (L.) and Brown spruce long-horn beetle - Tetropium fuscum fabr. The Atlas of Forest Insect Pests. Multico Warszawa, 705. posted: www.forestpests.org
Summary: An informative profile on Tetreopium fuscum with good morphology and reproductive information
Available from: http://www.forestpests.org/poland/blackspruce.html [Accessed 4 February 2008].
Netherlands Biodiversity Information Facility (NLBIF)., undated. Tetropium fuscum (Fabricius, 1787) Brown spruce longhorn beetle
Summary: NLBIF is the Dutch national node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).
Available from: http://www.nlbif.nl/species_details.php?name=Tetropium+fuscum [Accessed 4 February 2008]
North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO), 2003. Datasheet: Tetropium fuscum F.
Summary: Word document data sheet on Tetropium fuscum available from NAPPO
Available from: http://www.pestalert.org/storage/datasheet%2Ertf [Accessed 6 February 2008]
Smith, G. and J. E. Hurley., 2000. Scientific Note: First North American Record of the Palearctic Species Tetropium fuscum (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Atlantic Forestry Centre, P.O. Box 4000, Fredericton, NB E3B 5P7, CANADA. The Coleopterists Bulletin, 54(4):540. 2000.
Summary: Abstract citing the first authenticated report of Tetropiu fuscum in Canada.
Smith, Georgette and Ken Harrison., 2007. Definitive diagnostics for beetles and bluestain. Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service
Summary: Notes on taxonomy, and mention of Ophiostoma tetropii as an indicator for Tetropium fuscum
Available from: http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/subsite/nefpc/abstractharrison3 [Accessed 4 February 2008]
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Tetropium fuscum
Dobesberger,
Erhard
Organization:
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Address:
1400 Merivale Road T1-1-328 Ottawa, ON K1A 0Y9
Phone:
(613) 773-5282
Fax:
(613) 773-5391