Principal source: Cohen, A. N. 2005. Watersipora subtorquata (d'Orbigny, 1952). Guide to exotic species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA,.
Geller, J, Mackie, J., Schroeder, G., and Gerhinger, D. 2008. Distribution of highly invasove bryozoans belonging to a cryprtic species complex in the genus Watersipora determined by DNA sequences. Final Report to California Department of Fish and Game, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing, CA.
Mackie, J.A., Keough, M.J., and Christidis, L. 2006. Invasion patterns inferred from cytochrome oxidase I sequences in three bryozoans, Bulga neritina, Watersipora subtorquata, and Watersipora arcuata. Marine Biology. Vol. 149: 285-295.
Boyd, M.J. 2002. Appendix B: Non-indigenous marine species of Humbolbt Bay, California, A report to the California Department of Fish and Game. A Survey of non-indigenous species in the coastal and estuarine wawters of California. CA Department of Fish and Game.
Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Review: Dr. Josh Mackie, Invertebrate Zoology and Molecular Ecology Lab. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories. California USA
Publication date: 2008-05-22
Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Watersipora subtorquata. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1384 on 23-10-2017.