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  • Pycnonotus cafer (Photo: KW Bridges, University of Hawai i)
  • Pycnonotus cafer (Photo: KW Bridges, University of Hawai i)
  • Pycnonotus cafer (Photo: KW Bridges, University of Hawai i)
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Common name
red-vented bulbul (English), Rußbülbül (German), Bulbul à ventre rouge (French), Bulbul cafre (Spanish)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul) is a noisy, gregarious bird distinguished by a conspicuous crimson patch below the root of the tail. It is aggressive and chases off other bird species and may also help to spread the seeds of other invasive species. It is an agricultural pest, destroying fruit, flowers, beans, tomatoes and peas. It occurs naturally from Pakistan to southwest China and has been introduced to many Pacific Islands, where it has caused serious problems by eating fruit and vegetable crops, as well as nectar, seeds and buds.
Species Description
Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul) is about 8.25 inches in length (Berger, 1972) and weighs between 26 and 45 grams (Long, 1981). In general it is dark and is crested (Pratt, 1987) with a white abdomen and rump and is crimson under the tail coverts (Berger, 1981). The immature bird is like the adult except there is some brownish edging on the feathers (Hawai'i Audubon Society, 1993). The red-vented bulbul is larger than the red-whiskered bulbul (P. jocosus) (Berger, 1981)

The male and female are similar in appearance, although the male tends to be slightly larger, (Stuart & Stuart 1999, in Vander Velde, 2002). \"It is usually found in trees (Kumar & Bhatt 2000), a quick flyer with a flight that is recognisable by being somewhat bouncy rather than even.\" (Vander Velde, 2002) \"The nest is cup-shaped, made of plant matter, with spider webs binding the outside. It is lined with soft material. In it are laid 2 to 5 pale pink to reddish eggs marked with darker spots and streaks. There are often two to three broods each year. When not breeding, they tend to form large flocks and gather together in communal roosts. (Islam & Williams 2000)\" (Vander Velde, 2002)

Habitat Description
Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbuls) live around secondary growth and shrub, cultivation, parks and gardens. They are also found in forest and agricultural areas. (Dept. of Agriculture - WA)
Reproduction
Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbuls) are known to breed year round (Hawai'i Audubon Society, 1993), with a peak between January and October (Berger, 1981). The birds can have up to three broods per season (Long, 1981). At any one time about two to four eggs are laid (Hawai'i Audubon Society, 1993). The eggs are pinkish-white base colour and are profoundly blotched with purplish brown (Berger, 1981). The nest is cup-shaped and made of rootlets and sometimes cobwebs (Long, 1981). The incubation period is about 14 days (Berger, 1981).\" (Shehata, 1996)
Nutrition
Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul) consumes fruits (e.g. bananas, lychees and papaya), berries, insects, flower nectar, seeds and buds, (Dept. of Agriculture - WA undated). \"Its primary food is berries and fruit. It is known to also eat plant buds, flowers, but it will also eat insects and small lizards (Islam & Williams 2000) and will come to sugar water. (Ralph 1984)\" (Vander Velde, 2002)
Pathway
Islam and Williams (2000) describe the red-vented bulbul as nesting in some very unorthodox locations within its native range, including the motor of a ceiling fan and the end of a curtain rod, both within buildings. It could even be speculated that a pair of birds could have constructed a nest in a container on a ship that was readying to come to the Marshalls. (Vander Velde, 2002)A fishing boat, originating from an Asian or another Pacific Islands country where the red-vented bulbul is established, could have brought some birds with them. (Vander Velde, 2002)

Principal source: Nancy Vander Velde, 2002. The Red-vented bulbul has come to Micronesia. Aliens - Number 16 2002. ISSN: 1173-5988 (ISSG)

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Nancy Vander Velde . Biological Consultant. Majuro The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)

Publication date: 2007-08-19

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Pycnonotus cafer. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=138 on 24-08-2016.

General Impacts
Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbuls) are reported to destroy fruits, flowers, beans, tomatoes, peas and ripe fruit (e.g. bananas and other soft fruits), (Dept. of Agriculture - WA undated). They may also help in the spread of seeds of other invasive species.
Management Info
Preventative measures: In March 1977, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed that Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbuls) be added to the list of injurious species that should not be imported into the United States without a special permit, (Dept. of Agriculture - WA undated).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Pycnonotus cafer
NATIVE RANGE
  • india
  • pakistan
  • sri lanka
  • viet nam
Informations on Pycnonotus cafer has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Pycnonotus cafer in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbuls) are reported to destroy fruits, flowers, beans, tomatoes, peas and ripe fruit (e.g. bananas and other soft fruits), (Dept. of Agriculture - WA undated). They may also help in the spread of seeds of other invasive species.
Red List assessed species 4: CR = 3; EN = 1;
Locations
FRENCH POLYNESIA
MARSHALL ISLANDS
Mechanism
[2] Competition
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [2] Habitat degradation
Management information
Preventative measures: In March 1977, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed that Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbuls) be added to the list of injurious species that should not be imported into the United States without a special permit, (Dept. of Agriculture - WA undated).
Locations
MARSHALL ISLANDS
NEW ZEALAND
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
None
Bibliography
13 references found for Pycnonotus cafer

Managment information
Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.
Summary: This report reviews available information on the adverse effects of 14 alien vertebrates considered to be �significant invasive species on islands of the South Pacific and Hawaii, supplementing the authors� experience with that of other workers.
Biosecurity New Zealand, undated. Pests and Disease List Red-Vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer
Summary: Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests/red-vented-bulbul [Accessed 12 March 2010]
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Gill, B.J. Hunt, G.R. and Sirgouant S. 1995. Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) in New Caledonia. Notornis, 42: 214-215.
General information
Barr� N., Dutson G. 2000 - Oiseaux de Nouvelle-Cal�donie. Liste comment�e. Suppl�ment Alauda, 68(3) : 1-48.
Summary: Liste comment�e des oiseaux de Nouvelle-Cal�donie
BirdLife International 2006. Pomarea nigra. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/146954/0 [Accessed 12 March 2010]
Blanvillain, C., Salducci, J.M., Tutururai, G., & Maeura, M. 2003. Impact of introduced birds on the recovery of the Tahiti Flycatcher (Pomarea nigra), a critically endangered forest bird of Tahiti. Biological Conservation, 109, 197-205.
Summary: Cette �tude sugg�re que le Martin triste et le Bulbul � ventre rouge repr�sentent une menace importante pour la survie du Monarque de Tahiti.
Department of Agriculture and Food - Western Australia (WA). undated. Pycnonotus cafer Red-vented Bulbul
Summary: Available from: http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/content/pw/vp/bird/redventbulbul.htm [Accessed 11 February 2008].
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Pycnonotus cafer
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Pycnonotus+cafer&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Pascal, M., Barr�, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Fr�tey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements n�o-cal�doniens de vert�b�br�s : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom
Summary: Synth�se des introductions d esp�ces de vert�br�s en Nouvelle-Cal�donie et �valuation de leurs impacts.
Shehata, Cherie., 1996. Red-vented bulbul - Pycnonotus cafer. University of Hawaii, Botany department.
Thibault, J.C., Meyer, J.Y. 2001. Contemporary extinctions and population declines of the monarchs (Pomarea spp.) in French Polynesia, South Pacific. Oryx 35 (1), 73�80.
Summary: Des enqu�tes intensives conduites entre 1998 et 2000 indiquent que quatre sous-esp�ces de Monarques se sont �teintes de cinq �les de l archipel des Marquises dans les derni�res d�cennies. L introduction du Rat noir en est la cause principale et la pr�sence r�cente d oiseaux introduits agressifs constituent une menace supplementaire.
Vander Velde, Nancy., 2002. The Red-vented bulbul has come to Micronesia. Aliens - Number 16 2002. ISSN: 1173-5988 (ISSG)
Summary: A report on the Red-vented bulbul written by Nancy for the Aliens news letter.
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Pycnonotus cafer
Barr�,
Nicolas
Geographic region: Pacific
Organization:
Institut Agronomique n�o-Cal�donien.
Address:
Axe 2 Diversit�s biologique et fonctionnelle des Ecosyst�mes BP 73, 98890 Pa�ta, Nouvelle-Cal�donie (France)
Phone:
(687) 437425
Fax:
Ghestemme,
Thomas
Geographic region: Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Soci�t� d Ornithologie de Polyn�sie fran�aise
Address:
Soci�t� d Ornithologie de Polyn�sie B.P. 21098 98713 - Papeete Tahiti Polyn�sie Fran�aise
Phone:
(689) 52 11 00
Fax: