Global invasive species database

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Common name
Synonym
Agrostis alba , var. vulgaris
Agrostis tenius
Agrostis vulgaris
Agrostis sylvatica , Huds.
Agrostis tenius , Sibthorp
Agrostis tenuis , var. aristata
Agrostis tenuis , var. hispida
Agrostis tenuis , var. pumila
Similar species
Agrostis castellana, Agrostis sibrica, Agrostis gigantea, Agrostis stolonifera
Summary
Agrostis capillaris is a perennial grass that inhabits various environments ranging from urban to coastal wetland, including grassland as well as near arctic regions of the world. In areas of invasion A. capillaris reduces native biodiversity through disease transmission and competition. The many valuable uses of Agrostis capillaris have resulted in its widespread introduction into many non-native ranges around the world.
Species Description
Agrostis capillaris is a tufted perennial C3 tetraploid grass. It is variably described as reaching heights of 20-25cm (IPAO, undated) 70cm (NZPCN, 2010) or 100cm (Edgar & Forde, 1991). Roots have rhizomes and occasionally stolons. Leaves are flat, short and narrow measuring 100-150 x 1.5mm. Ribs and regular and margins slightly rough (NZPCN, 2010). The entire plant is hairless (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2003). Spikelets (flower clusters in grasses) are 1.5-3.5mm in length and purplish brown to greenish in colour (Edgar & Forde, 1991). Seed heads are usually 15cm long with spreading branches with tiny, brown seeds (NZPCN, 2010). It is a long-day plant with floral initials forming early May in the Northern hemisphere, with flowering peaking early July (Philipson, 1937 in Rapson & Wilson, 1992). A detailed description of the plant can be found in Edgar and Forde (1991).\r\n\r\n

A. capillaris is a highly variable species; plants can differ greatly in size, habit, presence of absence of stolons or rhizomes, type of inflorescence and in spikelet structure. Some of this variation may be the result of hybridisation with A. stolonifera and A. castellana (Edgar & Forde, 1991).

Notes
Agrostis capillaris is often referred to in many scientific articles and research as Agrostis tenuis. The accepted name according to ITIS is A. capillaris, while A. tenuis remains a synonym it is commonly found and incorrectly labeled as the primary name (ITIS, 2008).\r\n\r\n

A. capillaris is highly variable with many cultivars recognised. There is wide phenotypic and genotypic variation in populations (Grime et al., 1988). Common bent forms hybrids with creeping bent (A. stolonifera).

Lifecycle Stages
Agrostis capillaris has an active growth period in spring and summer accompanied by blooms midway through. Fruit and seed production begins at the same time blooms appear which lead to dispersal of A. capillaris seeds (USDA, NRCS, 2008).\r\n\r\n

In the Northern hemisphere flowering begins in early June, with flowering peaking in early July). Anthesis (time when flower is open and fully functional) occurs about 14 days after first emergence of inflorescences (Philipson, 1937 in Rapson & Wilson, 1992). In New Zealand inflorescence emergence occurred in December-January with anthesis occurring about 26 days later. There were some latitudinal trends with more southerly populations flowering earlier (Rapson & Wilson, 1992).

Uses
Agrostis capillaris, like many other members of the Agrostis genus are a valuable agronomic species because of their ability to produce fodder as well as provide food for grazing animals (APHIS, undated). A. capillaris is also used for tennis courts, high-grade lawns, golf course fairways and erosion control (Hubbard, 1984 in Zhao et al., 2006).
Habitat Description
Agrostis capillaris is known to invade disturbed areas and also frequently grows along roadsides (Manual, undated). A. capillaris is also abundant in wetlands including moist grasslands and open meadows as well as cultivated areas (IPAO, undated). It is frequent on acid grassland, damp soils, meadows, pasture and rough ground (Stace 1997 in Bond et al., 2007). In a study done in Oregon, A. capillaris was 10 times as abundant in areas after prescribed burn versus that of an unburned area (Wilson, 1999). It has a preference for poorly drained, fine to medium textured soils of pH 6.5 to 7.3 with a moderate level of organic matter (Dale et al., 1965). It is tolerant of temperature extremes and can grow at a range of altitudes from coastline up to 2,200 metres in British Columbia (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2003) and 2106 m in Australia (Pickering & Hill, 2007).
Reproduction
Agrotis capillaris propagates by way of highly abundant seeds and vegetatively by rhizomes and stolons. The large proportion of A. capillaris clones and low proportion of seedlings in populations suggests that much of its reproduction is vegetative (Smith, 1972 in Wilson, 1988). Flowers are wind pollinated, but are also spread by water, humans and vertebrates (Timmins & MacKenzie, 1995 in NZPCN, 2010). Seed is set from August to October in the northern hemisphere (Grime et al., 1988). Seeds may persist for 5 years or more (Thompson et al., 1993).
Nutrition
Agrostis capillaris has a lack of tolerance for magnesium, and therefore has difficulty growing in areas of higher magnesium concentrated soils like seashores (Wu, 1981). It can grow on dry, low fertility soils (Rapson & Wilson, 1992) and has high tolerance to heavy metals (Wilson, 1988) and arsenic (Watkins & Macnair, 1991). It does, however, require high light levels (Rapson & Wilson, 1992b).

Principal source: USDA, NRCS. 2008. Agrostis capillaris L. colonial bentgrass. The PLANTS Database
USDA, ARS, 2008. Agrostis tenuis Sibth. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Invasive Plants of Asian Origin Established in the US and Their Natural Enemies Agrostis tenuis Bentgrass

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Expert review underway:

Publication date: 2010-07-20

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Agrostis capillaris. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1365 on 27-08-2016.

General Impacts
Agrostis capillaris impacts native biodiversity in its known introduced range by out competing and replacing native species (Johnston, 2001). The spread of A. capillaris has decreased the cover of native herbs in some New Zealand grasslands, leading to reductions in endemic grassland moths (White, 1991). Agrostis capillaris adapts in two main ways to environmental stresses: by adapting genetically, and through plasticity. In New Zealand Rapson and Wilson (1992, 1992b) showed A. capillaris populations to be highly plastic, which may give adaptive advantages in New Zealand’s unpredictable and small scale environment and contribute to its invasiveness (Rapson & Wilson, 1992b).\r\n\r\n\r\n

A. capillaris is also a known carrier of the Barley yellow-dwarf virus (BYDV), which reduces populations of native grasses in New Zealand (Davis, 2001).

Management Info
Physical: The use of prescribed burning has shown a dramatic increase in growth of Agrostis capillaris, so is not an effective management tool (Wilson, 1999). Similarly grazing is not effective due to its low growth form. Grazing can even increase abundance (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2003). Mechanical removal by hand pulling, ploughing, grubbing and harrowing can reduce common bent and prevent seeding. This method is most effective in spring or early summer before seed set. Control by manual removal is however labour intensive and can be difficult due to broken stolons which can develop roots and regrow (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2003). Short rotations with root crops may help reduce the weed (Bond et al., 2007).\r\n\r\n

Chemical: The gramicides cycloxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl have been used in the effective management of A. capillaris (Clay, 2006). A. capillaris is also susceptible to the herbicide dalapon (Evans, 1964). A study found that the application of the herbicide BAS 9052 OH on A. capillaris produced a 100% mean control rate (Hosaka, 1984). Glyphosate applied to soil before emergence of A. capillaris has been found to be effective in reducing growth (Salazar, 1982). Hexazinone has also been used in successful treatment and control of various weed and grass species including A. capillaris (White, 1990).\r\n\r\n

Biological: There are no known biological agents available for A. capillaris (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2003; Froude, 2002).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Agrostis capillaris
NATIVE RANGE
  • afghanistan
  • albania
  • armenia
  • austria
  • azerbaijan
  • belarus
  • belgium
  • bulgaria
  • china
  • czech republic
  • denmark
  • estonia
  • ex-yugoslavia
  • finland
  • france
  • georgia
  • germany
  • greece
  • hungary
  • iran, islamic republic of
  • ireland
  • italy
  • kazakhstan
  • latvia
  • lithuania
  • moldova, republic of
  • netherlands
  • norway
  • poland
  • portugal
  • romania
  • russian federation
  • spain
  • sweden
  • switzerland
  • tunisia
  • turkey
  • ukraine
  • united kingdom
Informations on Agrostis capillaris has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Agrostis capillaris in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Agrostis capillaris impacts native biodiversity in its known introduced range by out competing and replacing native species (Johnston, 2001). The spread of A. capillaris has decreased the cover of native herbs in some New Zealand grasslands, leading to reductions in endemic grassland moths (White, 1991). Agrostis capillaris adapts in two main ways to environmental stresses: by adapting genetically, and through plasticity. In New Zealand Rapson and Wilson (1992, 1992b) showed A. capillaris populations to be highly plastic, which may give adaptive advantages in New Zealand’s unpredictable and small scale environment and contribute to its invasiveness (Rapson & Wilson, 1992b).\r\n\r\n\r\n

A. capillaris is also a known carrier of the Barley yellow-dwarf virus (BYDV), which reduces populations of native grasses in New Zealand (Davis, 2001).

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
Mechanism
[2] Competition
[1] Disease transmission
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [2] Reduction in native biodiversity
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Plant/animal health
Management information
Physical: The use of prescribed burning has shown a dramatic increase in growth of Agrostis capillaris, so is not an effective management tool (Wilson, 1999). Similarly grazing is not effective due to its low growth form. Grazing can even increase abundance (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2003). Mechanical removal by hand pulling, ploughing, grubbing and harrowing can reduce common bent and prevent seeding. This method is most effective in spring or early summer before seed set. Control by manual removal is however labour intensive and can be difficult due to broken stolons which can develop roots and regrow (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2003). Short rotations with root crops may help reduce the weed (Bond et al., 2007).\r\n\r\n

Chemical: The gramicides cycloxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl have been used in the effective management of A. capillaris (Clay, 2006). A. capillaris is also susceptible to the herbicide dalapon (Evans, 1964). A study found that the application of the herbicide BAS 9052 OH on A. capillaris produced a 100% mean control rate (Hosaka, 1984). Glyphosate applied to soil before emergence of A. capillaris has been found to be effective in reducing growth (Salazar, 1982). Hexazinone has also been used in successful treatment and control of various weed and grass species including A. capillaris (White, 1990).\r\n\r\n

Biological: There are no known biological agents available for A. capillaris (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2003; Froude, 2002).

Locations
CANADA
NEW ZEALAND
Management Category
Unknown
Bibliography
47 references found for Agrostis capillaris

Managment information
Clay, D.V.; F.L. Dixon, I. Willoughby., 2006. Efficacy of graminicides on grass weed species of forestry. Crop Protection 25 (2006) 1039�1050
Summary: Article which features the effective use of gramicides on grass weeds and the results that follow.
Evans, Stanley., 1964. The herbicidal control of broad-leaved and grass weeds in established grasslands. Grass and Forage Science 19 (2) , 205�211
Summary: Provides information on management strategies and effectiveness of herbicides on unwanted species in grasslands.
Froude, V.A. 2002 Biological control options for invasive weeds of New Zealand protected areas. Science for Conservation, 199. Department of Conservation.
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc199.pdf [Accessed 20 July, 2010]
Hosaka, Hideo; Hideo Inaba; Hisao Ishikawa., 1984. Weed Control and Herbicide Technology Response of Monocotyledons to BAS 9052 OH. Weed Science, Vol. 32, No. 1. (Jan., 1984), pp. 28-32.
Summary: Article that discusses the use of postmergence applications of herbicides on various plants and their effects on growth factors.
New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2005. Unwanted Organisms. Factsheet Lonicera japonica
Salazar, Luis C.; Arnold P. Appleby., 1982. Herbicidal Activity of Glyphosate in Soil. Weed Science, Vol. 30, No. 5. (Sep., 1982), pp. 463-466.
Summary: Paper with pertinent management information regarding the use of glyphosate in soil.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
White, Diane E.; Laura Witherspoon-Joos and Michael Newton., 1990. Herbaceous weed control in conifer plantations with hexazinone and nitrogen formulations. New Forests Volume 4, Number 2 / June, 1990
Summary: Study that looked at effects of chemical herbicides mixed with fertilizers on various weed species and surrounding tree species.
General information
APHIS undated. APHIS Preliminary Risk Assessment on the Petition for a Determination of Nonregulated Status for Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) Genetically Engineered (Event ASR368) for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate submitted by Monsanto Company and the Scotts Company.
Summary: Report issued that discusses the status of many species from the genus Agrostis and other various invaders and their roles in non-native areas.
Available from: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/03_10401p_ra.pdf [Accessed 25 February 2008]
Batson, M.G., 1998. Agrostis castellana (Poaceae), Dominant Agrostis Species, Found in Bent Grass Pastures in South-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany Volume 46, 1998
Summary: This article attempts to determine which species makes up the largest percentage of bent grass pastures in Australia.
Carnahan, J.A., 1961. Ecological interaction between introduced and indegenous plants species in the Manawatu district In Carnahan: Indegenous and Introduced Plants in Manawatu.
Summary: Paper looking at habitat types and various exotic species that inhabit them in New Zealand.
Dale, H.M., Harrison, P.J. & Thomson, G.W. 1965. Weeds as indicators of physical characteristics in abandoned pastures. Canadian Journal of Botany, 43: 1319- 1327.
Summary: Available from: http://rparticle.web-p.cisti.nrc.ca/rparticle/AbstractTemplateServlet?calyLang=eng&journal=cjb&volume=43&year=1965&issue=11&msno=b65-139 [Accessed 20 July, 2010]
Davis, L.T. & P.L. Guy., 2001. Introduced plant viruses and the invasion of a native grass flora. Biological Invasions 3: 89�95, 2001.
Summary: Article featuring information on introduced plant viruses and their effect on native grasses.
Edgar, E & M.B. Forde., 1991. Agrostis L. in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1991, Vol. 29: 139-161
Summary: Provides information on the genus Agrostis in New Zealand including, distribution and hybridization.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), 2008. Species: Agrostis tenuis Sibthorp
Summary: Available from: http://data.gbif.org/species/13785195/ [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW)., 2007. Agrostis tenuis (Poaceae)
Summary: Website containing the summary information about particular species from the Global Compendium of Weeds.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/agrostis_tenuis/ [Accessed 24 February]
Invasive Plants of Asian Origin Established in the US and Their Natural Enemies Agrostis tenuis Bentgrass
Summary: Website that provides information on foreign invaders of Asian origin and their natural enemies.
Available from: http://www.invasive.org/weeds/asian/agrostistenuis.pdf [Accessed 24 February 2007]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database Agrostis capillaris L.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=185249 [Accessed 24 February 2008]
Johnston, Frances M. and Catherine M. Pickering., 2001. Alien Plants in the Australian Alps. Mountain Research and Development Vol 21 No 3 August 2001: 284�291
Summary: Report on the status of alien weed species in Australian Alps.
Kelley, A. D.; V. F. Bruns., 1975. Dissemination of Weed Seeds by Irrigation Water. Weed Science, Vol. 23, No. 6. (Nov., 1975), pp. 486-493.
Summary: Article discussing the use and effectiveness of irrigation waterways to distribute seeds for grasses and weeds.
Lewis, J., 1973. Longevity of crop and weed seeds: Survival after 20 years in soil. Weed Research 13 (2) , 179�191
Summary: Article which looks at longevity of seeds in various soil types.
Lloyd, Kelvin M.; William G. Lee and Susan Walker., 2006. Takahe Valley Hut: a focal point for weed invasion in an isolated area of Fiordland National Park, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology (2006) 30(3): 371-375
Summary: Report on the ability of various exotic weed species to grow in close proximity to field stations.
Manual of Grasses for North America. Grass Manual on the Web. Agrostis capillaris.
Summary: Database project available on the web that provides information on plant species including distribution map, images, lifecycles, etc. Available from: http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/default.htm [Accessed 17 March 2008]
McCully, Kevin V.; M. Glen Sampson; Alan K. Watson., 1991. Weed Biology and Ecology Weed Survey of Nova Scotia Lowbush Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) Fields. Weed Science, Vol. 39, No. 2. (Apr. - Jun., 1991), pp. 180-185.
Summary: Survey conducted to determine the most common and prevalent weed species in low bush blueberry fields in Nova Scotia.
McDougall, K., Colonization by alpine native plants of a stabilized road verge on the Bogong High Plains,Victoria. ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT & RESTORATION VOL 2 NO 1 APRIL 2001
Summary: Paper which discusses the revegetation of native plants versus exotic plants in Australia.
Milbau, A., Nijs, I., De Raedemaecker, F., Reheul, D., De Cauwer, B., 2005. Invasion in grassland gaps: the role of neighbourhood richness, light availability and species complementarity during two successive years. Functional Ecology 2005 19, 27�37
Summary: Paper that analyzes the impacts of invaders when placed into specific gaps of synthesized communities.
Milbau, Ann, Nijs, Ivan, Van Peer, Liesbeth, Reheul, Dirk, De Cauwer, Benny., 2003. Disentangling invasiveness and invasibility during invasion in synthesized grassland communities. New Phytologist. 159(3). September 2003. 657-667.
Summary: Study performed to determine traits that contribute to invasiveness and invasibility of certain perennial grass species.
Pickering, Catherine and Wendy Hill., 2007. Roadside Weeds of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Mountain Research and Development Vol 27 No 4 Nov 2007: 359�367 doi:10.1659/mrd.0805
Pickering, C. & Hill, W. 2007. Roadside weeds of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Mountain Research and Development, 27(4): 359-367.
Porcher Michel H. et al. 1995 - 2020, Sorting Agrostis Names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database�� (M.M.P.N.D)� - A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia. (2006).
Summary: Database which includes synonyms and common names in multiple languages. Available from: http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Agrostis.html [Accessed 14 March 2008]
Rapson, G. L.; J. B. Wilson ., 1988. Non-Adaptation in Agrostis capillaris L. (Poaceae). Functional Ecology, Vol. 2, No. 4. (1988), pp. 479-490.
Summary: Report that expresses the findings that Agrostis capillaris has an inability to adapt to some environmental factors.
Rapson, G.L. & Wilson, J.B. 1992. Genecology of Agrostis capillaris (Poaceae) � an invader into New Zealand. 1. Floral phenology. New Zealand Journal of Botany 30, 1-11.
Summary: Available from: http://www.royalsociety.org.nz/Site/publish/Journals/nzjb/1992/1.aspx [Accessed July 20, 2010]
Rozefelds, A. C. F.; B, L. Cave, D. I. Morris and A. M. Buchanan., 1999. The Weed Invasion in Tasmania since 1970. Australian Journal of Botany Volume 47, 1999
Summary: Article discussing the invasion of weeds in Tasmania, which includes the species Agrostis capillaris.
Thompson, K. Band, S. R. & Hodgson, J. G. 1993. Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7, 236-241.
Tilman, Elizabeth A.; David Tilman; Michael J. Crawley; A. E. Johnston Biological Weed Control via Nutrient Competition: Potassium Limitation of Dandelions. Ecological Applications, Vol. 9, No. 1. (Feb., 1999), pp. 103-111.
Summary: Paper testing alternative control methods for unwanted plants. Rather than herbicides, interspecific competition is used to ward off nuscience weeds.
USDA, ARS, 2008. Agrostis tenuis Sibth. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Summary: Resource that gives common names, native and introduced ranges and links to other sources.
Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?2017 [Accessed 24 February 2008]
USDA, NRCS. 2008. Agrostis capillaris L. colonial bentgrass. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 16 February 2008). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Summary: Online resource that provides quality facts of various plant species in the United States and their distribution and ranges.
Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=AGCA5 [Accessed 25 February 2007]
Walton, D. W. H., 1975. European weeds and other alien species in the Subantarctic. Weed Research, 1975, Volume 15, 271-282
Summary: Report that presents the alien flora of subantartcic islands in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Watkins, A.J. & Macnair, M.R. 1991. Genetics of arsenic tolerance in Agrostis capillaris L. Heredity, 66: 47-54.
White, E.G. 1991. The changing abundance of moths in A tussock grassland, 1962�1989 and 50 to 70 year trends. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 15: 5�22.
Summary: Available from: http://www.newzealandecology.org/nzje/free_issues/NZJEcol15_1_5.pdf [Accessed 20 July, 2010]
Wilson, J.B. 1988. The cost of heavy-metal tolerance: an example . Evolution, 42(2): 408-413.
Wilson, J.B. & Rapson, 1995. The genetics of naturalization: a comparison of morphological variation within and between populations of Agrostis capillaris L. as an exotic in New Zealand and as a native in Britain. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 19(2): 195-202.
Wilson, Mark V., 1999. Evaluating Prescribed Burning to Improve Prairie Quality in the Willamette Floodplain Research Natural Area, W. L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon. Submitted to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Western Oregon Refuge Complex Agreement 14-48-0001-96749
Summary: Study that analyzed the effects of prescribed burning on various weed and grass species management.
Wu, Lin., 1981. The Potential for Evolution of Salinity Tolerance in Agrostis stolonifera L. and Agrostis tenuis Sibth. New Phytologist, Vol. 89, No. 3. (Nov., 1981), pp. 471-486.
Summary: Paper discussing the testing of evolution in regard to salinity tolerance in two species of Agrostis grasses.
Zhao, H., Bughrara, S.S. & Oliveira, J.A. 2006. Genetic diversity in colonial bentgrass (Agrostis Capillaris L.) revealed by EcoRI�MseI and PstI�MseI AFLP markers. Genome, 49: 328-335.
Contact
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