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  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Photo: Trevor James, AgResearch)
  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Photo: Trevor James, AgResearch)
  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera fruits (Photo: Trevor James, AgResearch)
  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera habit (Photo: Trevor James, AgResearch)
  • Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Photo: Tim Parkinson, flickr.com/photos/timparkinson (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/))
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Common name
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera), and bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) are South African coastal plants that have become invasive in Australia and New Zealand. They can invade both undisturbed and disturbed areas, and proliferate because of their rapid growth, large seed production, lack of predators or pathogens, and adaptability to new environments. C. monilifera outcompetes native vegetation and can form dense canopies.
Species Description
Bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) is a perennial, evergreen shrub, normally 1-2m high, but it can form canopies up to 10m high. It is a sprawling shrub, with stems branched and woody, and the upper stems often purple. Leaves are 20-80mm long, oval to oblong, tapering at base and alternate along the stems. Leaves have smooth edges. Bitou bush has an extensive root system and appears to be more aggressive than boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera). It has yellow, chrysanthemum-like flowers that are up to 20mm in diameter, and are clustered at the ends of branches. Fruit has a green fleshy skin that becomes brown and black on maturity, and contains a single egg-shaped seed 5-7mm long that is dark brown to black when dry (CRC, 2003a).

In contrast boneseed C. m. monilifera grows as an erect bush, and has leaves with serrated edges (CRC, 2003b). Boneseed flowers from August to February. The flowers are characterized by a bright yellow and daisy-like appearance and are typically 25-30 mm in diameter. Each flower consists of 5 to 6 ray florets that are 13 mm in length accompanied by a number of disk florets. The leaves of boneseed are smooth and leathery, with a length of up to 7cm long and width of 3.5cm wide. Additionally, they are irregularly serrated with 3 to 9 teeth each side. In younger plants, the stems are generally wolly and ribbed, eventually becoming smooth as they mature. Fruits are round and green with very thin, but hard fleshy covering. As they ripen, they become darker in colour (DOC, undated; RNZIH, 2005).

Notes
Results of a study by Barker et al (2009) indicate the existence of substantial intraspecific variation within C. monilifera. The authors of the study observe that the results obtained from this study are of significance to scientists working on the biocontrol of this species especially in the ascertaining of the genetic lineage and geographic origins of the invasive plants so more effective biocontrol agents can be identified from their natural populations.

Boneseed and bitou bush can hybridise to produce fertile plants with intermediate characteristics (ARMCANZ 2000).

Lifecycle Stages
Bitou bush can flower year round, but peaks between April and June. Fruit ripens during winter and early spring (CRC, 2003a). Boneseed forms flowers in late winter and spring, but are not shed until summer (CRC, 2003b).
Habitat Description
Bitou bush grows in a range of environments, from open exposed dunes to shaded forests. It is tolerant of shade, salinity, strong wind, windblown sand and water, drought, low nutrients, and to some extent, disturbances such as fire. It grows poorly in wet or swampy soils and has a low tolerance to frost.

Boneseed also grows under a wide range of climatic conditions, but prefers sandy or medium-textured soils and disturbed situations, particularly near the sea.
Boneseed is fire sensitive, whereas bitou bush is more variable in its response, depending on the intensity of the fire (CRC, 2003(a)(b); ARMCANZ 2000).

Reproduction
Both bitou bush and boneseed seeds germinate at any time of the year, but mostly in autumn, remaining viable for at least two years. Seedlings grow rapidly during winter and a few plants may flower in the first year (in particular on burnt areas where there is little competition). Usually, however, plants are at least 18 months or up to three years before flowering (CRC, 2003(a)(b)).
Pathway
Chrysanthemoides monilifera was used in Australia to revegetate areas after sandmining from 1946 to 1968 (CRC, 2003a).It is most likely that Chrysanthemoides monilifera was first introduced to Australia via ship ballast water (CRC, 2003a).

Principal source: CRC, 2003a. Weed Management Guide Bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata)
CRC, 2003b. Weed Management Guide Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera)

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from ASB Community Trust, New Zealand
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Chrysanthemoides monilifera. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1350 on 28-08-2016.

General Impacts
Chrysanthemoides monilifera outcompetes native vegetation in coastal environments in Australia and New Zealand, and invasion can lead to a decline in both floral and faunal diversity, changing ecosystem composition. It grows in a range of habitats, and will resprout after fire, slashing or herbicide application. In addition, it can create a favourable environment for other invasive weeds, such as asparagus fern (Asparagus densiflorus), lantana (Lantana camara) and glory lily (Gloriosa superba) (CRC, 2003(a)(b)).
Management Info
Preventative measures: Prevention and early intervention is the most cost-effective form of weed control. Once an infestation of Chrysanthemoides monilifera occurs, it is important to prevent the spread of seeds into surrounding areas. Established plants should be destroyed before they flower. Raising awareness amongst recreational vehicle users is important in coastal areas where seed can be spread by their activity (CRC, 2003a).

The Australian Weed Committee's Bitou bush and Boneseed Management Manuals compile and evaluate best-practice management techniques currently being used by a range of community volunteers and land managers in Australia. They provide detailed information on effective bitou bush and boneseed control techniques in various situations, and advice on developing a comprehensive management plan.
A bitou bush and boneseed species profile that describes in detail their physical characteristics, distinguishing features and descriptions of similar species to aid in accurate identification is also available. This information will help people choose the most appropriate control methods for their site.

Please follow this link for detailed information on physical, chemical and biological control options.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Chrysanthemoides monilifera
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • south africa
Informations on Chrysanthemoides monilifera has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
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Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Chrysanthemoides monilifera in information
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Impact information
Chrysanthemoides monilifera outcompetes native vegetation in coastal environments in Australia and New Zealand, and invasion can lead to a decline in both floral and faunal diversity, changing ecosystem composition. It grows in a range of habitats, and will resprout after fire, slashing or herbicide application. In addition, it can create a favourable environment for other invasive weeds, such as asparagus fern (Asparagus densiflorus), lantana (Lantana camara) and glory lily (Gloriosa superba) (CRC, 2003(a)(b)).
Red List assessed species 1: VU = 1;
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Mechanism
[8] Competition
[1] Parasitism
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[11] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [8] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Soil or sediment modification: erosion
[3] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Human nuisance 
  • [1] Limited access to water, land and other
Management information
Preventative measures: Prevention and early intervention is the most cost-effective form of weed control. Once an infestation of Chrysanthemoides monilifera occurs, it is important to prevent the spread of seeds into surrounding areas. Established plants should be destroyed before they flower. Raising awareness amongst recreational vehicle users is important in coastal areas where seed can be spread by their activity (CRC, 2003a).

The Australian Weed Committee's Bitou bush and Boneseed Management Manuals compile and evaluate best-practice management techniques currently being used by a range of community volunteers and land managers in Australia. They provide detailed information on effective bitou bush and boneseed control techniques in various situations, and advice on developing a comprehensive management plan.
A bitou bush and boneseed species profile that describes in detail their physical characteristics, distinguishing features and descriptions of similar species to aid in accurate identification is also available. This information will help people choose the most appropriate control methods for their site.

Please follow this link for detailed information on physical, chemical and biological control options.

Bibliography
62 references found for Chrysanthemoides monilifera

Managment information
Adair, R. J.; Holtkamp, R. H., 1999. Development of a pesticide exclusion technique for assessing the impact of biological control agents for Chrysanthemoides monilifera Biocontrol Science & Technology. 9(3). Sept., 1999. 383-390.
Australian Weeds Committee, undated. National Weeds Strategy, Weed Identification: Bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata)
Summary: Available from: http://www.weeds.org.au/cgi-bin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.tpl&card=S06 [Accessed 18 March 2008]
Batianoff, George N, 1997. A beachcomber s notes on bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata (DC.) Norl.) in Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly. 12(4). 1997. 177-179.
Benham, S. P., pers. comm.., 2008. Steve P. Benham, Biodiversity Ranger-Flora, Department of Conservation, New Zealand.
Bradfield, G. 2007. Boneseed busting. Weedbusters website.
Briden, Keith and Ian Popay., 2004. Controlling bone-seed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera) with seedlings with clopyralid. Department of Conservation (DOC)
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/SciencePoster68.pdf [Accessed 18 March 2008]
Cother, E. J., 2000. Pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata (Bitoubush) and Selected Species of the Coastal Flora in Eastern Australia. Biological Control Volume 18, Issue 1, May 2000, Pages 10-17
CRC, 2003a. Weed Management Guide Bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata)
Summary: Available from: http://www.weeds.gov.au/publications/guidelines/wons/pubs/c-monilifera-rotundata.pdf [Accessed 22 February 2011]
CRC, 2003b. Weed Management Guide Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera).
Summary: Available from: http://www.weeds.gov.au/publications/guidelines/wons/pubs/c-monilifera-monilifera.pdf [Accessed 22 February 2011]
CSIRO, 2006. Invasive plants; Fact Sheet: Bitou bush biological control
Summary: Available from: http://www.csiro.au/resources/ps21w.html [Accessed 18 March 2008]
CSIRO, 2007. Invasive plants; Management and control of boneseed: boneseed rust fungus, a highly promising candidate for biocontrol
Summary: Available from: http://www.csiro.au/science/BoneseedBiocontrol.html [Accessed 18 March 2008]
CSIRO. 2008. Rust fungus to tear backbone out of boneseed.
Summary: Available from: http://www.csiro.au/news/RustFungus.html [Accessed 8 April 2008]
CSIRO Entomology., 2007. Bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera sp. rotundata). Biological Control Agent: leaf-rolling moth, Tortrix sp.
Summary: Available from: http://www.ento.csiro.au/weeds/bitoubush/index.html [Accessed 18 March 2008]
Department of Conservation. 2005. Motuihe Weed Control Strategy. Draft June 2004, with updates to October 2005.
Summary: Available from: http://www.motuihe.org.nz/motuihe/imgUpload/Weeds/Weed%20Strategy.doc [Accessed 8 April 2008]
Department of Conservation (DOC), undated. Weed Alert Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera)
Department of Primary Industries and Water (DPIW) Tasmania., 2008. Boneseed - Statutory Weed Management Plan Chrysanthemoides monilifera (L.) Norlindh
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/TPRY-5GS5TS?open [Accessed 18 March 2008]
Downey, Paul O.; Royce H. Holtkamp, John E. Ireson, Raelene M. Kwong and Anthony . Swirepik., 2007. A review of the Chrysanthemoides monilifera biological control program in Australia: 1987�2005. Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.22(1) 2007
Edwards, P. B., 1998. Seasonal abundance and parasitism of Mesoclanis seed flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa, and implications for the biological control of Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Asteraceae) in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 88(4). Aug., 1998. 407-414.
Edwards, Penelope B.; Holtkamp, Royce H.; Adair, Robin J. 1999. Establishment and rapid spread of the bitou seed fly, Mesoclanis polana Munro (Diptera: Tephritidae), in eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology. 38(2). May 4, 1999. 148-150.
Environment Bay of Plenty (EBOP) Regional Council., Sustainable Options, Pest Plant Control 08. Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera)
Environment Waikato. 2003. Beachcare group wins community award.
Environment Waikato. 2006. Weed amnesty for Raglan. Media release.
Greater Wellington Regional Council., 2001. Pest Plants Everyone s Responsibility : Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera)
Hawley, J. 2005. Motuihe Restoration Plan. Prepared for the Motuihe Trust, February 2005. J. Hawley, Landscape Architect, and Department of Conservation
Summary: Available from: http://www.motuihe.org.nz/motuihe/imgUpload/Restoration/Motuihe%20Restoration%20Plan%20Final%20February%202005.pdf [Accessed 4 April 2008]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Jeff Thomas, Damien Hofmeyer, Andrew S. Benwell., 2006. Bitou Bush control (after fire) in Bundjalung National Park on the New South Wales North Coast Ecological Management & Restoration 7 (2) , 79�92
Kleinjan, C.A.; &, J K. Scott., 1996. Selection of Cassida spp. from southern Africa for the biological control of Chrysanthemoides monilifera in Australia. Annals of Applied Biology 128 (3) , 373�385
Laurence, J., pers. comm., 2008. John Laurence. Motuihe Trust chairman. Auckland. NZ.
Manawa. 2004. Habitat restoration/biodiversity: Motuora - progress on planting year 2004.
Mason, T.J., and French, K., 2007. Management regimes for a plant invader differentially impact resident communities. Biological Conservation Volume 136, Issue 2, April 2007, Pages 246-259
Matarczyk, Julie A.; Willis, Anthony J.; Vranjic, John A.; Ash, Julian E., 2002. Herbicides, weeds and endangered species: Management of bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) with glyphosate and impacts on the endangered shrub, Pimelea spicata. Biological Conservation. 108(2). December, 2002. 133-141.
Scott, John K., 1996. Population Ecology of Chrysanthemiodes monilifera in South Africa: Implications for its Control in Australia. The Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 33, No. 6. (Dec., 1996), pp. 1496-1508.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Weedbusters, undated. Detailed information sheet. Chrysanthemoides monilifera subspecies monilifera
Summary: Available from: http://weedbusters.co.nz/weed_info/detail.asp?WeedID=84 [Accessed 18 March 2008]
Willies, A.J & J. Memmott., 2005. The potential for indirect effects between a weed, one of its biocontrol agents and native herbivores: A food web approach. Biological control: 2005 vol:35 iss:3 pg:299 -306
Winks, Chris J.; Simon V. Fowler and Lindsay A. Smith., 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61-72 (December 2004)
Wood, Alan, R., 2006. Preliminary host specificity testing of Endophyllum osteospermi (Uredinales, Pucciniaceae), a biological control agent against Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp monilifera. Biocontrol Science and Technology: 2006 vol:16 iss:5 pg:495 -507
Wood, Alan R., Crous, Pedro W., 2005a. Morphological and molecular characterization of Endophyllum species on perennial asteraceous plants in South Africa. Mycological Research: 2005 vol:109 pg:387 -400
Wood, A.R., 2002. Infection of Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera by the rust fungus Endophyllum osteospermi is associated with a reduction in vegetative growth and reproduction. Australasian Plant Pathology 2002. 31(4) 409 - 415
Wood, A. R. and P. W. Crous., 2005b. Epidemic increase of Endophyllum osteospermi (Uredinales, Pucciniaceae) on Chrysanthemoides monilifera. Biocontrol Science and Technology, Volume 15, Issue 2 March 2005 , pages 117 - 125
General information
Australian Natural Resources Atlas (ANRA)., 2007. Biodiversity Assessment - NSW North Coast, Important Wetlands
Summary: Available from: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/vegetation/assessment/nsw/ibra-nnc-imp-wetlands.html [Accessed 18 March 2008]
Barker N.P., S. Howis, B. Nordenstam, M. K�llersj�, P. Elden�s, C. Griffioen, H.P. Linder, 2009. Nuclear and chloroplast DNA-based phylogenies of Chrysanthemoides Tourn. ex Medik. (Calenduleae; Asteraceae) reveal extensive incongruence and generic paraphyly, but support the recognition of infraspecific taxa in C. monilifera. South African Journal of Botany 75 (2009) 560�572
Batianoff, George N; Franks, Andrew J., 1998. Environmental weed invasions on South-East Queensland foredunes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 107(0). Sept. 11, 1998. 15-34.
Cristobal, Jose Carlos; Camunas, Elena; Crespo, Manuel B., 1998. Chrysanthemoides monilifera (L.) Norl. (Asteraceae) new record for the Iberian flora. Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid. 56(2). Dec., 1998. 390-391
Government of South Australia., 2005. Infestation Level of Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Boneseed) by Hundreds in the State of South Australia.
John A. Vranjic, Matthew J. Woods, Julian Barnard., 2000. Soil-mediated effects on germination and seedling growth of coastal wattle (Acacia sophorae) by the environmental weed, bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) Austral Ecology 25 (5) , 445�453
Lindsay, A. Elizabeth & Kris French., 2004. Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata invasion alters decomposition rates in coastal areas of south-eastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 198 (2004) 387�399
Lindsay, A. Elizabeth & Kris French., 2006. The impact of the weed Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata on coastal leaf litter invertebrates. Biological Invasions (2006) 8: 177�192
Lindsay, A. Elizabeth & Kristine French., 2005. Litterfall and nitrogen cycling following invasion by Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata in coastal Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 2005 42 , 556�566
Mason, T.J., K. French, & K.G. Russell., 2007. Moderate impacts of plant invasion and management regimes in coastal hind dune seed banks. Biological Conservation Volume 134, Issue 3, January 2007, Pages 428-439
Meek, Paul D., 1998. Weed seeds and whoopsie daisies : Viability of bitou bush Chrysanthemoides monilifera seeds in fox (Vulpes vulpes) scats. Plant Protection Quarterly. 13(1). 1998. 21-24.
O Shea, E. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. B., 2000. The impact of suburbanization on remnant coastal vegetation in Hobart, Tasmania. Applied Vegetation Science. 3(2). December, 2000. 243-252.
Simmons, D.M and D.W. Flint., 1986. Variation in Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Compositae) in eastern Australia. Weed Research, 1986, Volume 26, 427-432
Thomas, P. B.; Possingham, H.; Roush, R., 2000. Effects of soil disturbance and weed removal on germination within woodlands infested by boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera). Plant Protection Quarterly. 15(1). 2000. 6-13.
Thomas, P. B., Possingham, H., Roush, R., 2005. Effects of boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera (L.) Norl. ssp. monilifera) on the composition of the vegetation and the soil seed bank of an open eucalypt woodland. Plant Protection Quarterly, 2005 (Vol. 20) (No. 2) 74-80
Summary: Abstract Only
Weiss, P.W and Noble, I.R., 1984. Status of coastal dune communities invaded by Chrysanthemoides monilifera. Australian Journal of Ecology (1984) 9, 93-98
Wilkie, Lance; Gerasimos Cassis and Michael Gray., 2007. The effects on terrestrial arthropod communities of invasion of a coastal heath ecosystem by the exotic weed bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata L.). Biol Invasions (2007) 9:477�498
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