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  • Hemidactylus frenatus (Photo: Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.durell.org)
  • Hemidactylus frenatus (Photo: Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.durell.org)
  • Hemidactylus frenatus (Photo: Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.durell.org)
  • Hemidactylus frenatus (Photo: Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.durell.org)
  • Hemidactylus frenatus (Photo: Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.durell.org)
  • Hemidactylus frenatus (Photo: Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.durell.org)
  • Hemidactylus frenatus (Photo: Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.durell.org)
  • Hemidactylus frenatus (Photo: Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.durell.org)
  • Hemidactylus frenatus (Photo: Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.durell.org)
  • Hemidactylus frenatus (Photo: Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust www.durell.org)
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Common name
bridled house gecko (English), common house gecko (English), Asian house gecko (English), Asiatischer Hausgecko (German), Chichak (English, Asia), Gewöhnlicher Halbfingergecko (German), geco-casero bocón (Spanish)
Synonym
Hemidactylus javanicus , Fitzinger 1826 (nomen nudum)
Hemidactylus frenatus , Schlegel in Dumeril & Bibron 1836: 366
Hemidactylus , (Pnoepus) Bojeri Fitzinger 1843
Hemidactylus vittatus , Gray 1845
Hemidactylus punctatus , Jerdon 1853
Hemidactylus fraenatus , Bleeker 1857
Hemidactylus inornatus , Hallowell 1861
Hemidactylus pumilus , Hallowell 1861: 502
Gecko caracal , Tytler 1865
Gecko chaus , Tytler 1865
Hemidactylus longiceps , Cope 1869: 320
Hemidactylus hexaspis , Cope 1869: 320
Hemidactylus papuensis , [Macleay] 1877
Hemidactylus tristis , Sauvage 1879
Hemidactylus frenatus , Boulenger 1885: 120
Hemidactylus nigriventris , Lidth De Jeude 1905
Hemidactylus bowringii , Stejneger 1907: 172
Hemidactylus fragilis , Calabresi 1915
Hemidactylus frenatus , De Rooij 1915: 28
Hemidactylus nigriventris , De Rooij 1915: 31
Hemidactylus vandermeer-mohri , Brongersma 1928
Hemidactylus mabouia , Barbour & Loveridge 1929 (partim)
Hemidactylus okinawensis , Okada 1936
Hemidactylus vandermeermohri , Wermuth 1965
Hemidactylus auritus , Poeppig (in Obst) 1977
Pnoepus papuensis , Wells & Wellington 1985
Pnoepus frenatus , Wells & Wellington 1985
Pnoepus bojeri , Wells & Wellington 1985
Pnoepus vittatus , Wells & Wellington 1985
Pnoepus punctatus , Wells & Wellington 1985
Pnoepus inornatus , Wells & Wellington 1985
Pnoepus pumilus , Wells & Wellington 1985
Pnoepus caracal , Wells & Wellington 1985
Pnoepus fragilis , Wells & Wellington 1985
Hemidactylus fragilis , Lnaza 1990
Hemidactylus frenatus , Lanza 1990
Hemidactylus frenatus , Liner 1994
Hemidactylus frenatus , Glaw & Vences 1994: 277
Hemidactylus frenatus , Manthey & Grossmann 1997: 235
Hemidactylus frenatus , Cox et al. 1998: 84
Hemidactylus frenatus , Cogger 2000: 246
Pnoepus frenatus , Wells 2002
Hemidactylys , cf. frenatus Andreone et al. 2003
Similar species
Summary
The common house gecko is now established in at least 87 locations around the world outside of its natural range in Asia and the Indo-Pacific. Many of these new locations have been small remote islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Where the common house gecko has been introduced to islands of the Pacific Ocean, researchers have shown that this lizard has been responsible for the competitive displacement of other similar sized or smaller gecko species in urban and suburban environments. It was shown that habitat simplification and clumped food resources around artificial light sources as a result of urbanisation have enabled the common house gecko to gain an indirect competitive advantage over other nocturnal gecko species. The ability of the house gecko to persist outside of its natural range poses a threat to the survival of ecologically similar endemic geckos.\n
Species Description
Hemidactylus frenatus is a gecko which measures 7.5-15 cm long with males larger than females. Their scalation is uniform, with distinctive enlarged scales along their backs and arranged in bands on their tail. Its coloration may be gray or light brown to beige with greenish iridescence and a white underside (Csurhes & Markula, 2009). H. frenatus may be identified by several detailed characteristics. It has vertical pupils. Its digits have widened subdigital lamellae, medial subcaudals which are distinctly enlarged, and are arranged in a series. The subdigital lamellae of digit IV extends to base of digit. It has small dorsal tubercles which are restricted to dorso-lateral rows, and a second pair of anterior chin shields in contact with infralabials. Other characters include divided lamellae; dorsum and venter light in coloration, sometimes semi-transparent; a light line through eye; dark lateral stripe may be present; and maximum size of 60 mm SVL (Krysko & Daniels, 2005). H. frenatus has a very distinctive “chuck, chuck, chuck” call (Wilson, 2006) which is most commonly emitted at dusk and dawn. This call is one of the key indicators that house geckos are present in a particular area (N.C. Cole, pers. comm.).
Lifecycle Stages
Females lay two eggs per clutch which have an incubation period of 48-90 days in laboratory conditions (Krysko et al., 2003; Church, 1962 in Krysko et al., 2003). Studies conducted in outdoor enclosures hatched after an average of 50 days (48 to 53 days) (N.C. Cole, pers. comm..). Eggs are round and hard-shelled, unlike most reptile eggs, making them resistant to moisture loss and better able to survive travelling long distances (Wilson, 2006). Juveniles become sexually mature after six months to a year. The lifespan of H. frenatus is approximately 5 years (Csurhes & Markula, 2009).
Uses
Hemidactylus frenatus are kept as pets in some locations.
Habitat Description
Hemidactylus frenatus may occur in tropical, subtropical, and temperate environments. It is most abundant in urban, suburban, and developed locations. It is nocturnal and introduced populations are almost always found on building walls near artificial lighting. H. frenatus is also known to inhabit natural environments, including in woodlands, patches of forest, on trees in open fields, rocky and forested areas, coconut palm trunks, under rotting logs, and among dense, low ground-cover such as Ipomea and Canavalia Canavalia often associated with grasses and a rocky habitat. H. frenatus prefers habitats with open hunting surfaces such as walls or vertical rocks near concentrated populations of insects (Csuhres & Markula, 2009; Frenkel, 2006; Newberry & Jones, 2007).
Reproduction
Hemidactylus frenatus is a sexually reproducing, oviparous reptile. Mating includes a short courtship during which males repeatedly touch the female with his snout and may bite and hold her by the neck. Three to four weeks after fertilization females lay two hard-shelled that are partially fixed to a solid surface (Csurhes & Markula, 2009). Incubation of the eggs to a temperature of at least 18 °C is required for development (Ota, 1994; N.C. Cole, pers. comm.). Breeding occurs throughout the year in tropical environments and is seasonal in cooler conditions. Females are able to store functional sperm for up to a year (Yamamoto & Ota, 2006).
Nutrition
Hemidactylus frenatus is predominantly a nocturnal, opportunistic hunter which preys on a wide range of insects and spiders. It may be commonly found hunting in developed environments on walls near artificial lights. Stomach contents analysis revealed prey of insect orders Blattodea, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera Orthoptera, Zygoptera, as well as Araneae and other arachnids. H. frenatus is also known to consume juveniles of other geckos and skinks and also known to consume sugar-based products and nectar (Cole 2005 b; Csurhes & Markula, 2009).
Pathway
The majority of introductions of Hemidactylus frenatus are the result of it finding its way onto boats or shipping containers that are transported to new locations (Csurhes & Markula, 2009). Its superior ability to cling to surfaces allows it access to high crevice spaces for refuge and egg deposition, both of which increase it potential to stowaway undetected in cargo and shipping containers (Newberry & Jones, 2008).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Dr. Nik Cole, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust.

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Hemidactylus frenatus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1344 on 16-12-2017.

General Impacts
Hemidactylus frenatus has demonstrated a high propensity for competitive displacement of similar-sized and urban-adapted geckos. The ability of H. frenatus to replace locally native gecko species seems most pronounced in urban areas. H. frenatus is very well adapted to predation on concentrations of insects that gather along building walls near artificial lighting, seemingly more so than most endemic gecko species. H. frenatus also tends to be more aggressive and territorial, as well as, more tolerant of interspecific cohabitation and competition than endemic geckos. Such features allow it to successfully outcompete native species and exclude them from concentrated food sources. Studies have demonstrated aggressive, dominant behavior in H. frenatus over native geckos Nactus spp. on the Mascarene Islands and Lepidodactylus lugubris throughout Pacific islands. H. frenatus was frequently observed stalking, lunging towards and biting at other geckos. In some instances H. frenatus bit off their tails or ate them entirely. H. frenatus was also found to aggressively exclude endemic geckos from daytime refugia, making these native species more vulnerable to predation and adverse climatic conditions (Cole et al. 2005; Newberry & Jones, 2008). H. frenatus are also known to predate upon other small, usually juvenile lizards, such as Cryptoblepharus boutonii (Cole et al. 2005b).

There are many records of H. frenatus displacing or causing decline in native geckos throughout its introduced range ostensibly by competitive displacement. H. frenatus displaces endemic and 'Vulnerable (VU)' lesser night gecko (see Nactus coindemirensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and the endemic night gecko Nactus durrelli in the Mascarene Islands. It displaces both Nactus spp. from favored environments increasing their risk of predation and has proven to be a major cause in the decline of, the once thought extinct in the wild, N. coindemirensis (Cole et al, 2005; Jones & Cole, 2004). H. frenatus displaces Pacific island native Lepidodactylus lugubris in many locations and has demonstrated superior predation abilities. Experiments have demonstrated that H. frenatus consumes a disproportionately higher amount of insect prey than L. lugubris, thereby leaving it with less potential prey which decreases its body condition, fecundity, and ability to survive (Hanley et al 1995; Harvey et al 1998; Petren & Case, 1996). A similar predation study with Australian gecko Gehyra dubia also found H. frenatus to be a more formidable forager (Canyon & Hill, 1997). The displacement of Hemidactylus garnotii by H. frenatus throughout the Pacific basin has been attributed to behavioral interference from aggressive males. Furthermore, H. frenatus was also found to hybridize with H. garnotti in laboratory experiments (Dame & Petren, 2006).

Management Info
Preventative measures: The majority of introductions of Hemidactylus frenatus are the result of it finding its way onto boats or shipping containers that are transported to new locations. It is recommended that incoming cargo be examined for H. frenatus and that any individuals or eggs found be exterminated to prevent its establishment. Its superior ability to cling to surfaces allows it access to high crevice spaces for refuge and egg deposition, which gives it high potential to stowaway undetected in cargo and shipping containers (Csurhes & Markula, 2009; Newberry & Jones, 2008).\n

The use of naturally or artificially occurring substrates with a crumbly/highly concentrated particulate surface may be used to exclude the pad-bearing H. frenatus from specific locations, allowing claw-bearing gecko species to forage unchallenged. This method of exclusion was tested in attempts to preserve populations of threatened Nactus spp in the Mascarene Islands. Simple habitat modifications through the addition of artificial refugia have been proposed as a means to enhance populations of endangered or displaced native reptiles (Cole et al 2005).\n

Chemical control: The use of Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) injected into the intracoelomic cavity of H. frenatus is a chemical euthanasia method consistent with conditions specified by The Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals which require that euthanasia of ectotherms be consistent with the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines on Euthanasia. Test subjects were administered a intracoelomic injection of 250 to 500 mg/kg of 0.7% to 1% sodium-bicarbonate–buffered MS222 solution followed by intracoelomic injection of 0.1 to 1.0 ml unbuffered 50% (v/v) MS222 solution. Test subjects were effectively made unconscious by the first injection and respiratory and cardiac functions were eliminated by the second (Conroy et al 2009).\n

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Hemidactylus frenatus
Informations on Hemidactylus frenatus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Hemidactylus frenatus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Hemidactylus frenatus has demonstrated a high propensity for competitive displacement of similar-sized and urban-adapted geckos. The ability of H. frenatus to replace locally native gecko species seems most pronounced in urban areas. H. frenatus is very well adapted to predation on concentrations of insects that gather along building walls near artificial lighting, seemingly more so than most endemic gecko species. H. frenatus also tends to be more aggressive and territorial, as well as, more tolerant of interspecific cohabitation and competition than endemic geckos. Such features allow it to successfully outcompete native species and exclude them from concentrated food sources. Studies have demonstrated aggressive, dominant behavior in H. frenatus over native geckos Nactus spp. on the Mascarene Islands and Lepidodactylus lugubris throughout Pacific islands. H. frenatus was frequently observed stalking, lunging towards and biting at other geckos. In some instances H. frenatus bit off their tails or ate them entirely. H. frenatus was also found to aggressively exclude endemic geckos from daytime refugia, making these native species more vulnerable to predation and adverse climatic conditions (Cole et al. 2005; Newberry & Jones, 2008). H. frenatus are also known to predate upon other small, usually juvenile lizards, such as Cryptoblepharus boutonii (Cole et al. 2005b).

There are many records of H. frenatus displacing or causing decline in native geckos throughout its introduced range ostensibly by competitive displacement. H. frenatus displaces endemic and 'Vulnerable (VU)' lesser night gecko (see Nactus coindemirensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and the endemic night gecko Nactus durrelli in the Mascarene Islands. It displaces both Nactus spp. from favored environments increasing their risk of predation and has proven to be a major cause in the decline of, the once thought extinct in the wild, N. coindemirensis (Cole et al, 2005; Jones & Cole, 2004). H. frenatus displaces Pacific island native Lepidodactylus lugubris in many locations and has demonstrated superior predation abilities. Experiments have demonstrated that H. frenatus consumes a disproportionately higher amount of insect prey than L. lugubris, thereby leaving it with less potential prey which decreases its body condition, fecundity, and ability to survive (Hanley et al 1995; Harvey et al 1998; Petren & Case, 1996). A similar predation study with Australian gecko Gehyra dubia also found H. frenatus to be a more formidable forager (Canyon & Hill, 1997). The displacement of Hemidactylus garnotii by H. frenatus throughout the Pacific basin has been attributed to behavioral interference from aggressive males. Furthermore, H. frenatus was also found to hybridize with H. garnotti in laboratory experiments (Dame & Petren, 2006).

Red List assessed species 2: CR = 1; EN = 1;
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Locations
AUSTRALIA
CHRISTMAS ISLAND
COSTA RICA
GUAM
MAURITIUS
NORFOLK ISLAND
REUNION
SAINT HELENA
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[8] Competition
[1] Predation
[1] Disease transmission
Outcomes
[9] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [9] Reduction in native biodiversity
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Plant/animal health
Management information
Preventative measures: The majority of introductions of Hemidactylus frenatus are the result of it finding its way onto boats or shipping containers that are transported to new locations. It is recommended that incoming cargo be examined for H. frenatus and that any individuals or eggs found be exterminated to prevent its establishment. Its superior ability to cling to surfaces allows it access to high crevice spaces for refuge and egg deposition, which gives it high potential to stowaway undetected in cargo and shipping containers (Csurhes & Markula, 2009; Newberry & Jones, 2008).\n

The use of naturally or artificially occurring substrates with a crumbly/highly concentrated particulate surface may be used to exclude the pad-bearing H. frenatus from specific locations, allowing claw-bearing gecko species to forage unchallenged. This method of exclusion was tested in attempts to preserve populations of threatened Nactus spp in the Mascarene Islands. Simple habitat modifications through the addition of artificial refugia have been proposed as a means to enhance populations of endangered or displaced native reptiles (Cole et al 2005).\n

Chemical control: The use of Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) injected into the intracoelomic cavity of H. frenatus is a chemical euthanasia method consistent with conditions specified by The Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals which require that euthanasia of ectotherms be consistent with the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines on Euthanasia. Test subjects were administered a intracoelomic injection of 250 to 500 mg/kg of 0.7% to 1% sodium-bicarbonate–buffered MS222 solution followed by intracoelomic injection of 0.1 to 1.0 ml unbuffered 50% (v/v) MS222 solution. Test subjects were effectively made unconscious by the first injection and respiratory and cardiac functions were eliminated by the second (Conroy et al 2009).\n

Locations
MAURITIUS
Management Category
Prevention
Bibliography
75 references found for Hemidactylus frenatus

Managment information
Canyon, D. V; Hii, J. L. K., 1997. The gecko: An environmentally friendly biological agent for mosquito control. Medical & Veterinary Entomology. 11(4). Oct., 1997. 319-323.
Case T J; Bolger D T., 1991. The Role of Introduced Species in Shaping the Distribution and Abundance of Island Reptiles. Evolutionary Ecology. 5(3). 1991. 272-290.
Conroy, C. J. ; Papenfuss, T. ; Parker, J. ; Hahn, N. E., 2009. Use of Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS222) for Euthanasia of Reptiles. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. 48(1). JAN 2009. 28-30,32
Csurhes, Steve and Anna Markula., 2009. Pest animal risk assessment: Asian house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus. Biosecurity Queensland, Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation
Gill, B. J; Bejakovich, D; Whitaker, A. H., 2001. Records of foreign reptiles and amphibians accidentally imported to New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 28(3). September, 2001. 351-359.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Petren, Kenneth; Case, Ted J., 1998. Habitat structure determines competition intensity and invasion success in gecko lizards. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95(20). Sept. 29, 1998. 11739-11744.
Takahashi, Hiroo., 2005. A case of artificial overseas dispersal of Hemidactylus frenatus. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan.(2). 2005. 116-119.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Vences, Miguel; Wanke, Stefan; Vieites, David R; Branch, William R; Glaw, Frank; Meyer, Axel., 2004. Natural colonization or introduction? Phylogeographical relationships and morphological differentiation of house geckos (Hemidactylus) from Madagascar. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 83(1). September 2004. 115-130.
General information
Ballardo, W.S., Quijano, F.M., & Sol�s, M.E.M. 1996. Range extensions for Hemidactylus frenatus in M�xico. Herpetological Review, 27: 40.
Barquero, Marco D., Hilje, Branko. 2005. House Wren preys on introduced gecko in Costa Rica. Wilson Bulletin. 117(2). JUN 2005. 204-205.
Barton, Diane P. 2007. Pentastomid parasites of the introduced Asian house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus (Gekkonidae), in Australia. Comparative Parasitology. 74(2). JUL 2007. 254-259.
Brown, Graham R., 2005. Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates recorded from Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve and Cartier Island Marine Reserve. Beagle. FEB 05. 107-129.
Brown, Susan G; LeBrun, Roanne; Yamasaki, Jacqueline; Ishii-Thoene, Deborah., 2002. Indirect competition between a resident unisexual and an invading bisexual gecko. Behaviour. 139(9). September 2002. 1161-1173.
Buden, Donald W., 2000. The Reptiles of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. Micronesica 32(2):155-180, 2000
Buden, Donald W., 2007. Reptiles of Satawan Atoll and the Mortlock Islands, Chunk State, Federated States of Micronesia. Pacific Science. 61(3). JUL 2007. 415-428.
Carretero, Miguel A; Harris, D. James; Rocha, Sara., 2005. Recent observations of reptiles in the Comoro islands (Western Indian Ocean). Herpetological Bulletin.(91). SPR 2005. 19-28.
Casas-Andreu, G., Barrios-Quiroz, G., & Cruz-Avina, R. 1998. Geographic distribution. Hemidactylus frenatus. Herpetological Review 29; 51.
Case, Ted J; Bolger, Douglas T; Petren, Ken., 1994. Invasions and competitive displacement among house geckos in the tropical Pacific. Ecology (Tempe). 75(2). 1994. 464-477.
Case, T.J., Bolger, D.T., Petren, K. 1994. Invasions and competitive displacement among house geckos in the tropical Pacific. Ecology 75 (2), pp. 464-477.
Cole, N.C. 2005b. The ecological impact of the invasive house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus upon endemic Mauritian geckos. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Bristol, UK.
Cole, N.C. 2009a. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Mauritius. Mauritian Wildlife Foundation, Vacoas, Mauritius.
Cole, N.C. 2009b. Herpetofaunal observations on Eagle Island, Middle Brother, North Brother and Diego Garcia, with an overview of previous records in the Chagos Archipelago. Phelsuma 17: 40-48.
Cole, N.C., Jones, C.G., Harris, S. 2005. The need for enemy-free space: The impact of an invasive gecko on island endemics. Biological Conservation Volume 125, Issue 4, October 2005, Pages 467-474.
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Reptiles. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - reptiles is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Reptiles [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Reptiles is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Reptiles [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Couper, Patrick J; Lauren D. Keim & Conrad J. Hoskin., 2007. A new velvet Gecko (Gekkonidae: Oedura) from south-east Queensland, Australia. Zootaxa 1587: 27�41 (2007)
Dame, Elizabeth A., Petren, Kenneth. 2006. Behavioural mechanisms of invasion and displacement in Pacific island geckos (Hemidactylus). Animal Behaviour. 71(Part 5). MAY 2006. 1165-1173.
Summary: Available from: http://www.artsci.uc.edu/collegedepts/biology/fac_staff/docs/2006DamePetren.pdf [Accessed 28 December 2009]
de Brito-Gitirana, L; Storch, V., 2002. Temperature induced alterations in the liver of wall lizard (Hemidactylus frenatus): Morphological and biochemical parameters. Micron. 33(7-8). 2002. 667-672.
Frenkel, Caty. 2006. Hemidactylus frenatus (Squamata : Gekkonidae): call frequency, movement and condition of tail in Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical. 54(4). DEC 2006. 1125-1130.
Fuenmayor, Gilson Rivas; Ugueto, Gabriel N; Bauer, Aaron M; Barros, Tito; Manzanilla, Jesus ., 2005. Expansion and natural history of a successful colonizing Gecko in Venezuela (Reptilia: Gekkonidae: Hemidactylus mabouia) and the discovery of H. frenatus in Venezuela. Herpetological Review. 36(2). JUN 2005. 121-125.
Galina-Tessaro, Patricia; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Sergio Alvarez-C�rdenas & Gustavo Arnaud., 1999. Colonization of Socorro Island (Mexico), by the tropical house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus (Squamata: Gekkonidae). Rev. biol. trop v.47 n.1-2 San Jos� jun. 1999
Gill, B. J., 1993. The land reptiles of Western Samoa. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 23(2). 1993. 79-89.
Goldberg, Stephen R; Charles R. Bursey; Hay Cheam., 1998. Gastrointestinal Helminths of Four Gekkonid Lizards, Gehyra mutilata, Gehyra oceanica, Hemidactylus frenatus and Lepidodactylus lugubris from the Mariana Islands, Micronesia. The Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 84, No. 6 (Dec., 1998), pp. 1295-1298
Greenbaum, Eli., 2002. Hemidactylus frenatus (common house Gecko). Herpetological Review. 33(1). March, 2002. 65-66.
Hanley, Kathryn A; Vollmer, Dana M; Case, Ted J., 1995. The distribution and prevalence of helminths, coccidia and blood parasites in two competing species of gecko: Implications for apparent competition. Oecologia (Berlin). 102(2). 1995. 220-229.
Hanley, K., Petren, K., Case, T. 1998. An experimental investigation of the competitive displacement of a native gecko by an invading gecko: no role for parasites. Oecologia (1998) 115:196�205.
Heriberto Valdez-Villavicencio, Jorge, Peralta-Garcia, Anny. 2008. Hemidactylus frenatus (Sauria: Gekkonidae) in Northwestern Mexico. Acta Zoologica Mexicana Nueva Serie. 24(3). DEC 2008. 229-230.
Summary: New records of the introduced gecko Hemidactylus frenatus from northwestern Mexico are provided. One of them represents the first record for the state of Sonora.
Horner, Paul., 2005. Survey for terrestrial reptiles of Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve. Beagle. FEB 05. 131-132.
Ineich, Ivan., 2009. Herpetological survey of Maiao Island, Society Archipelago (French Polynesia; Inventaire herpetologique de l ile de Maiao, archipel de la Societe (Polynesie francaise). Bulletin de la Societe Herpetologique de France.(130-31). 2009. 51-63.
Ineich, Ivan; Gouni, Anne; Blanc, Ludwig; Durieux, Jean; Butaud, Jean-Fran Ois., 2007. Lizards of Niau Atoll, Tuamotu archipelago, French Polynesia. Herpetological Review. 38(4). DEC 2007. 491-492.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database Hemidactylus frenatus Dum�ril and Bibron, 1836
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=174056 [Accessed 8 April 2008]
Jadin, Robert C; Altamirano, Marco A; Yanez-Munoz, Mario H; Smith, Eric N., 2009. First record of the common house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) in Ecuador. Applied Herpetology. 6(2, Sp. Iss. SI). 2009. 193-195.
Jones, C. & Cole, N. 2004. Nactus coindemirensis. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. . Downloaded on 20 January 2010.
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/40795/0 [Accessed 28 December 2009]
Kraus, Fred., 2009. Alien Reptiles and Amphibians A Scientifi c Compendium and Analysis; In Invading Nature- Springer Series in Invasion Ecology Volume 4 Series Editor: James A. Drake University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, U.S.A.
Krysko, Kenneth L; Sheehy, Coleman M. III ., 2005. Ecological status of the Ocellated Gecko, Sphaerodactylus argus argus Gosse 1850, in Florida, with additional herpetological notes from the Florida Keys. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(1). 05. 169-172.
Krysko, K.L., Sheehy III, C.M. & Hooper, A.N. 2003. Interspecific communal oviposition and reproduction of four species of lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae) in the lower Florida Keys. Amphibia-Reptilia 24: 390�396.
McCoid, Michael James., 1996. Putative interactions of geckos in the southern Mariana Islands. Micronesica. 28(2). 1996. 193-202.
Meshaka, Walter E., Jr; Butterfield, Brian P; Hauge, Brian., 1994. Hemidactylus frenatus established on the lower Florida keys. Herpetological Review. 25(3). 1994. 127-128.
Moritz, C; Case, T. J; Bolger, D. T; Donnellan, S., 1993. Genetic diversity and the history of Pacific island house geckos (Hemidactylus and Lepidodactylus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 48(2). 1993. 113-133.
Newbery, Brock and Jones, Darryl. 2008. Presence of Asian House Gecko Hemidactylus frenatus across an urban gradient in Brisbane: influence of habitat and potential for impact on native gecko species. Pest or Guest: the zoology of overabundance, Pp 59 - 65.
Newbery, Brock; Dawson, Paul; Jones, Darryl N., 2005. Density of Asian House Geckos Hemidactylus frenatus within suburban Brisbane. Queensland Naturalist. 43(1-3). JUN 2005. 8-13.
Ota, H. 1994. Female reproductive cycles in the northernmost populations of the two geckonid lizards, Hemidactylus frenatus and Lepidodactylus lugubris. Ecological Research 9: 121-130.
Paredes-Leon, Ricardo; Reynoso, Victor-Hugo., 2005. Hemidactylus frenatus (Common House Gecko). Herpetological Review. 36(4). DEC 2005. 467-468.
Petren, Kenneth; Case, Ted J., 1996. An experimental demonstration of exploitation competition in an ongoing invasion. Ecology (Washington D C). 77(1). 1996. 118-132.
Poulin, Brigitte; Lefebvre, Gaetan; Rand, A. Stanley., 1995. Lacertilia: Hemidactylus frenatus (House gecko): Foraging. Herpetological Review. 26(4). 1995. 205.
Ramirez-Bautista, Aurelio; Hernandez-Salinas, Uriel; Leyte-Manrique, Adrian., 2006. Hemidactylus frenatus (common house gecko) - Reproduction. Herpetological Review. 37(1). MAR 2006. 85-86.
Reptiles Database, 2009. Hemidactylus frenatus Schlegel, 1836
Summary: Available from: http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species.php?genus=Hemidactylus&species=frenatus [Accessed 8 September 2010]
Rubio Morales, Beatriz; Cid Mendez, Eduardo ; Correa Sanchez, Felipe., 2009. Hemidactylus frenatus (Common House Gecko). BROOD. Herpetological Review. 40(3). SEP 2009. 345-346.
Schmidt Ballardo, Walter; Mendoza Quijano, Fernando; Martinez Solis, M. Ela., 1996. Range extensions for Hemidactylus frenatus in Mexico. Herpetological Review. 27(1). 1996. 40.
Vinson, J. & Vinson, J.M. 1969. The saurian fauna of the Mascarene Islands. The Mauritius Institute Bulletin, VI: 203-320.
Wells, Richard W., 2002. Notes on the Genus Hemidactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) in Australia. Australian Biodiversity Record 2002 (No 6) ISSN 1325-2992 March, 2002
Werner, Y. L., 1990. Habitat- Dependent Thermal Regimes of Hawaiin Geckos Reptilia Gekkonidae. Journal of Thermal Biology. 15(3-4). 1990. 281-290.
Wiles, Gary J; Guerrero, Jesse P., 1996. Relative abundance of lizards and marine toads on Saipan, Mariana Islands. Pacific Science. 50(3). 1996. 274-284.
Wiles G. J; Amerson, A B JR; Beck R E JR., 1989. Notes On The Herpetofauna of Tinian Mariana Islands Pacific Ocean. Micronesica. 22(1). 1989. 107-118.
Wilson, S. 2006. Asian House Geckos: Queensland Museum Fact Sheet.
Summary: Available from: www.qm.qld.gov.au/inquiry/factsheets/asian_house_geckos_20080709.pdf [Accessed 5 May, 2010]
Yamamoto, Yurie; Ota, Hidetoshi., 2006. Long-term functional sperm storage by a female common house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, from the Ryukyu archipelago, Japan. Current Herpetology. 25(1). JUN 2006. 39-40.
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Hemidactylus frenatus
Cole,
N. C.
Organization:
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Address:
c/o Mauritian Wildlife Foundation Grannum Road, Vacoas, Mauritius, Indian Ocean
Phone:
+230 6976097
Fax:
+230 6976512
Ineich,
Ivan
Geographic region: Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Mus�um National d Histoire Naturelle
Address:
25 Rue Cuvier. D�partement de Syst�matique et Evolution- USM 602-Section Reptiles- CP n�30. 75 005 Paris
Phone:
01 40 79 34 92
Fax: