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Common name
snail-eating flatworm (English), Flachwurm (German), flatworm (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
Worldwide land snail diversity is second only to that of arthropods. Tropical oceanic islands support unique land snail faunas with high endemism; biodiversity of land snails in Pacific islands is estimated to be around 5 000 species, most of which are endemic to single islands or archipelagos. Many are already under threat from the rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea), an introduced predatory snail. They now face a newer but no less formidable threat, the introduced flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes). Both \"biocontrol\" species continue to be dispersed to new areas in attempts to control Achatina fulica.
Species Description
This flatworm has a uniform exterior appearance. The adult length is 40 to 65mm long, 4 to 7mm wide. The head end is more pointed than tail end. The flattened cross section has a thickness less than 2mm. The colour of the dorsal surface is very dark brown, almost black, with a thin medial pale line. The ventral surface is pale gray. (de Beauchamp, 1963).
Notes
A rhynchodemid flatworm, Platydemus manokwari, was discovered in New Guinea and originally described in 1962 (Kaneda Kitagawa and Ichinohe 1990). Little has been known of its biology except that it is nocturnal, and there apparently is no report on the rearing of this flatworm (Kaneda Kitagawa and Ichinohe 1990).
Uses
Platydemus manokwari provides some regulation of Achatina fulica and is attributed with eradication in some areas; however, probable adverse effects on indigenous gastropod fauna have been recorded (Barker 2002). Reports that this flatworm can control A. fulica remain correlative, and the individuals who continue to promote its use as a biological control agent appear not to have considered its potential impact on native species (Muniappan 1990, in Lydeard et al. 2004).
Habitat Description
Platydemus manokwari, which was first discovered in New Guinea, is typically a tropical species (Sugiura 2009). Generally P. manokwari is found in leaf litter in both undisturbed forest and habitats modified by humans in tropical and sub-tropical climates (Sugiura 2009). For example, it is found in leaf litter in high-altitude (>675 m) cloud forest on the island of Pohnpei in Micronesia (Eldredge & Smith 1995). This snail-eating flatworm is known to prefer wet conditions and is unable to survive in completely dry habitats (Kaneda et al. 1990, in Sugiura 2009). High humidity and adequate precipitation are essential for its survival (Kaneda et al. 1990, in Sugiura 2009).

In a study by Sugiura (2009) the survival rate of P. manokwari decreased when animals were exposed to 10°C for more than 2 weeks. Kaneda et al. (1992, in Sugiura 2009), examining the developmental period of P. manokwari egg cocoons and juveniles, suggested that the developmental threshold of juvenile and cocoon stages was 11.7°C and 10.0°C, respectively. Therefore, 10°C may be a threshold temperature for the establishment of P. manokwari. Ambient temperature may regulate seasonal variations in predation pressure on land snails. In Japan, higher temperatures may have promoted increases in flatworm population density and feeding activity from early summer to autumn, resulting in the very high predation pressures on land snails observed in July, September, and November (Sugiura 2009). Recent global warming may increase the probability of invasion and population establishment, and elevate the impacts of P. manokwari in temperate regions (Sugiura 2009).

Sugiura and colleagues (2006) surveyed the presence/absence of land snails and P. manokwari in September to October 2005 and found land snails of introduced species (A. fulica, Acusta despecta, and Bradybaena similaris) surviving in coastal areas, probably because of the absence of P. manokwari. P. manokwari does not occur in the urban coastal area, perhaps because of environmental factors such as lack of adequate vegetation (S. Sugiura et al. pers. comm., in Sugiura et al. 2006).

Reproduction
Hermphroditic, probably cross-fertilising.
Nutrition
Terrestrial flatworms (land planarians; Terricola) are predators of various soil invertebrates, such as earthworms, land snails, slugs, and arthropods (Ogren 1995, Winsor et al. 2004, in Sugiura 2009). It was revealed that in the Chichijima Island, Japan, P. manokwari fed not only on live land snails including predatory species, but also on other food resources such as live flatworms or a land nemertean species and the carcasses of slugs and earthworms (Ohbayashi et al. 2005). While P. manokwari feeds on slow-moving soil animals such as earthworms, it prefers live snails over other organisms (Sugiura 2010).
Pathway
Platydemus manokwari has been used as a biological control agent for the giant African snail.Alien soil animals can be unintentionally introduced by commercial trade among islands and continental landmasses (Sugiura 2008). Globalisation of commercial trade may have helped the transfer to non-invaded areas (Sugiura 2009). Movement of ornamental plants, potted plants, and other materials with soil can transfer P. manokwari to new areas (Sugiura 2009). Quarantine procedures for potted plants and other soil containing materials that can carry invasive flatworms are needed to protect against invasions in warming temperate areas (Sugiura 2008, in Sugiura 2009).Platydemus manokwari can readily be transported by soil on construction machines (Okochi et al. 2004).

Principal source: Barnes, 1968. de Beauchamp, 1963. Eldredge and Smith, 1994, 1995. Hopper and Smith, 1992. Muniappan, 1987, 1990. Muniappan et al., 1986.

Compiler: Dr. Robert H. Cowie, Center for Conservation Research and Training, University of Hawaii & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dr. Robert H. Cowie Center for Conservation Research and Training

Publication date: 2010-02-13

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Platydemus manokwari. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=133 on 28-09-2016.

General Impacts
Please follow this link for a detailed account of the Platydemus manokwari (Snail-eating Flatworm) Impacts Information the environmental impacts of Platydemus manokwari. The information in this document is summarised below.

Invertebrate species represent more than 99% of animal diversity; however, they receive much less publicity and attract disproportionately minor research effort relative to vertebrates (Ponder and Lunney 1999, in Lydeard et al. 2004). The global decline of nonmarine molluscs may be facilitated by the spread and introduction of predatory flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria), in particular the flatworm P. manokwari. P. manokwari has been introduced into many locations for use as a biological control agent for the giant African land snail (Achatina fulica). It is an effective predator that poses a serious threat to native snails. Vulnerable native snails threatened by P. manokwari include endemic Partulidae in Guam (Hopper & Smith 1992) and Mandarina snails in the Ogasawara Islands (Japan) (Satoshi 2003).

It is estimated that there are about 4000 native oceanic Pacific island land snails (a number that excludes the continental islands of New Zealand and the island of New Guinea (Barker 1999, Cowie forthcoming, in Lydeard et al. 2004). These unique native snail faunas are disappearing rapidly (Bauman 1996, Cowie 2001a, Cowie and Robinson 2003, in Lydeard et al. 2004). Terrestrial molluscs have the highest number of documented extinctions of any major taxonomic group (Lydeard et al. 2004). Since the year 1500, 288 (40.2%) of the 717 recorded extinctions of animal species have been molluscs, and terrestrial species (land snails) constitute 68.1% of all mollusc extinctions (IUCN 2008). The Endodontidae, probably the most diverse Pacific island family (Solem 1976, in Lydeard et al. 2004), appear to be completely extinct or reduced to sparse remnant populations. All the Partulidae of Moorea (French Polynesia) are extinct in the wild (Murray et al. 1988, in Lydeard et al. 2004). In Hawaii, as many as 90% of the 750 recognised species of land snails are extinct. On Rota (Northern Marianas), 68% of the 43 species are extinct or declining, and in the Samoan archipelago, almost all are declining, although a smaller percentage is extinct (Cowie & Robinson 2003). These estimates suggest that overall perhaps 50% of the land snail fauna of the Pacific islands has disappeared recently.

Experts suggest that the continued introduction of alien predators such as P. manokwari should be strongly discouraged in order to conserve such unique island snail species (Cowie &d Robinson 2003). The introduction of P. manokwari is a serious concern in the conservation of the unique land snails of tropical islands (Sugiura et al. 2006). It has been considered a cause of the extinction of native land snails on several Pacific and Pacific Rim islands (Sugiura & Yamaura 2009). The endemic snail genus Mandarina (Okochi et al. 2004) is thought to have declined because of P. manokwari predation on Chichijima (Chiba 2003, Ohbayashi et al. 2005, in Sugiura et al. 2006). Biological control introductions pose a serious threat to endemic land snails because both E. rosea and P. manokwari feed on any species of live gastropods, including A. fulica (Kaneda et al. 1990, Hopper & Smith 1992, Civeyrel & Simberloff, 1996, Cowie 2001, Cowie & Robinson 2003, Ohbayashi et al. 2007, in Sugiura 2009).

Management Info
Legislation: Barker (2002) describes the continued purposeful introduction of polyphagous enemies as done by “people blissfully unaware of or blatantly dismissive of the ecological catastrophes unfolding in areas to which these same agents had earlier been introduced”. The introduction of the invasive flatworm P. manokwari is a serious concern in the conservation of the land snails. Accidental introductions as well as intentional ones should be actively prevented. Artificial removal in Japan of P. manokwari has been prohibited by the Invasive Alien Species Act since 2006 (Kawakatsu et al. 2007).

Physical control: Hot water treatment to destroy pests has recently been used during the quarantine of ornamental plants. Sugiura (2008) examined the possibility of using hot water treatment for introduced soil animals in potted plants. The author designed an experiment to determine whether hot water treatment (immersion in water at 40°C, 43°C, 45°C, 47°C or 50°C for 5 min) kills soil animals, including the invasive alien terrestrial flatworm P. manokwari. The water temperature required to kill flatworms (=43°C) and earth-worms (=43°C) was lower than that to kill snails (=50°C) and ants (=47°C). Use of hot water for protection from alien soil animal invasions may mitigate their environmental impacts, particularly on oceanic islands where valuable biota could be threatened (Sugiura 2008).

Research and Knowledge: Future priorities in Mollusc Conservation include research (biotic surveys and taxonomic studies along with gathering of basic ecological and biological information) (Lydeard et al. 2004).

Education and Awareness: Information exchange should be improved via dissemination of information through the internet, keys, education etc. enabling greater worker base through training (Lydeard et al. 2004).

Integrated Management: Greater integration and coordination between management agencies, research institutions, and other stakeholders is essential (Lydeard et al. 2004). The resources that are currently available to manage global non-marine mollusc biodiversity are insufficient. Scientific knowledge is scanty and scattered. Often there are too few staff to manage the existing protected areas, which typically focus on vertebrate species. Because of the lack of resources, mollusks and other less charismatic groups are usually ignored. Nevertheless, regional and species-specific conservation action plans must be developed on the basis of appropriately designed scientific studies, such as that undertaken in the United Kingdom for conservation of the land snail V. moulinsiana (Tattersfield 2003, in Lydeard et al. 2004). To develop such plans, greater integration, coordination, and networking among conservation management agencies, research institutions, and other stakeholders is essential. This approach will ensure that conservation is scientifically based and will help to avoid potentially disastrous ecological, economic, or legal consequences. Furthermore, local and national governments and their agencies, and nongovernmental organizations of all kinds (from international organizations to local conservation societies), must forge relationships to ensure that their goals are not competitive or contradictory and that their actions are in concert. Molluscs must not be ignored when new conservation areas are created. Both new and existing reserves must be adequately managed, with attention paid to mollusks, and in some instances reserves should be established explicitly for molluscs (Lydeard et al. 2004).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Platydemus manokwari
Informations on Platydemus manokwari has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Platydemus manokwari in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Please follow this link for a detailed account of the Platydemus manokwari (Snail-eating Flatworm) Impacts Information the environmental impacts of Platydemus manokwari. The information in this document is summarised below.

Invertebrate species represent more than 99% of animal diversity; however, they receive much less publicity and attract disproportionately minor research effort relative to vertebrates (Ponder and Lunney 1999, in Lydeard et al. 2004). The global decline of nonmarine molluscs may be facilitated by the spread and introduction of predatory flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria), in particular the flatworm P. manokwari. P. manokwari has been introduced into many locations for use as a biological control agent for the giant African land snail (Achatina fulica). It is an effective predator that poses a serious threat to native snails. Vulnerable native snails threatened by P. manokwari include endemic Partulidae in Guam (Hopper & Smith 1992) and Mandarina snails in the Ogasawara Islands (Japan) (Satoshi 2003).

It is estimated that there are about 4000 native oceanic Pacific island land snails (a number that excludes the continental islands of New Zealand and the island of New Guinea (Barker 1999, Cowie forthcoming, in Lydeard et al. 2004). These unique native snail faunas are disappearing rapidly (Bauman 1996, Cowie 2001a, Cowie and Robinson 2003, in Lydeard et al. 2004). Terrestrial molluscs have the highest number of documented extinctions of any major taxonomic group (Lydeard et al. 2004). Since the year 1500, 288 (40.2%) of the 717 recorded extinctions of animal species have been molluscs, and terrestrial species (land snails) constitute 68.1% of all mollusc extinctions (IUCN 2008). The Endodontidae, probably the most diverse Pacific island family (Solem 1976, in Lydeard et al. 2004), appear to be completely extinct or reduced to sparse remnant populations. All the Partulidae of Moorea (French Polynesia) are extinct in the wild (Murray et al. 1988, in Lydeard et al. 2004). In Hawaii, as many as 90% of the 750 recognised species of land snails are extinct. On Rota (Northern Marianas), 68% of the 43 species are extinct or declining, and in the Samoan archipelago, almost all are declining, although a smaller percentage is extinct (Cowie & Robinson 2003). These estimates suggest that overall perhaps 50% of the land snail fauna of the Pacific islands has disappeared recently.

Experts suggest that the continued introduction of alien predators such as P. manokwari should be strongly discouraged in order to conserve such unique island snail species (Cowie &d Robinson 2003). The introduction of P. manokwari is a serious concern in the conservation of the unique land snails of tropical islands (Sugiura et al. 2006). It has been considered a cause of the extinction of native land snails on several Pacific and Pacific Rim islands (Sugiura & Yamaura 2009). The endemic snail genus Mandarina (Okochi et al. 2004) is thought to have declined because of P. manokwari predation on Chichijima (Chiba 2003, Ohbayashi et al. 2005, in Sugiura et al. 2006). Biological control introductions pose a serious threat to endemic land snails because both E. rosea and P. manokwari feed on any species of live gastropods, including A. fulica (Kaneda et al. 1990, Hopper & Smith 1992, Civeyrel & Simberloff, 1996, Cowie 2001, Cowie & Robinson 2003, Ohbayashi et al. 2007, in Sugiura 2009).

Red List assessed species 4: EX = 1; CR = 3;
View more species View less species
Outcomes
[10] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of food web
  • [9] Reduction in native biodiversity
Management information
Legislation: Barker (2002) describes the continued purposeful introduction of polyphagous enemies as done by “people blissfully unaware of or blatantly dismissive of the ecological catastrophes unfolding in areas to which these same agents had earlier been introduced”. The introduction of the invasive flatworm P. manokwari is a serious concern in the conservation of the land snails. Accidental introductions as well as intentional ones should be actively prevented. Artificial removal in Japan of P. manokwari has been prohibited by the Invasive Alien Species Act since 2006 (Kawakatsu et al. 2007).

Physical control: Hot water treatment to destroy pests has recently been used during the quarantine of ornamental plants. Sugiura (2008) examined the possibility of using hot water treatment for introduced soil animals in potted plants. The author designed an experiment to determine whether hot water treatment (immersion in water at 40°C, 43°C, 45°C, 47°C or 50°C for 5 min) kills soil animals, including the invasive alien terrestrial flatworm P. manokwari. The water temperature required to kill flatworms (=43°C) and earth-worms (=43°C) was lower than that to kill snails (=50°C) and ants (=47°C). Use of hot water for protection from alien soil animal invasions may mitigate their environmental impacts, particularly on oceanic islands where valuable biota could be threatened (Sugiura 2008).

Research and Knowledge: Future priorities in Mollusc Conservation include research (biotic surveys and taxonomic studies along with gathering of basic ecological and biological information) (Lydeard et al. 2004).

Education and Awareness: Information exchange should be improved via dissemination of information through the internet, keys, education etc. enabling greater worker base through training (Lydeard et al. 2004).

Integrated Management: Greater integration and coordination between management agencies, research institutions, and other stakeholders is essential (Lydeard et al. 2004). The resources that are currently available to manage global non-marine mollusc biodiversity are insufficient. Scientific knowledge is scanty and scattered. Often there are too few staff to manage the existing protected areas, which typically focus on vertebrate species. Because of the lack of resources, mollusks and other less charismatic groups are usually ignored. Nevertheless, regional and species-specific conservation action plans must be developed on the basis of appropriately designed scientific studies, such as that undertaken in the United Kingdom for conservation of the land snail V. moulinsiana (Tattersfield 2003, in Lydeard et al. 2004). To develop such plans, greater integration, coordination, and networking among conservation management agencies, research institutions, and other stakeholders is essential. This approach will ensure that conservation is scientifically based and will help to avoid potentially disastrous ecological, economic, or legal consequences. Furthermore, local and national governments and their agencies, and nongovernmental organizations of all kinds (from international organizations to local conservation societies), must forge relationships to ensure that their goals are not competitive or contradictory and that their actions are in concert. Molluscs must not be ignored when new conservation areas are created. Both new and existing reserves must be adequately managed, with attention paid to mollusks, and in some instances reserves should be established explicitly for molluscs (Lydeard et al. 2004).

Locations
Management Category
None
Bibliography
33 references found for Platydemus manokwari

Managment information
Anonymous. 2000. Flatworm (Platydemus manokwari) in Samoa. SAPA NEWSLETTER April - June 2000 - Issue 2/00 3-4.
Summary: Records presence in Samoa. Good illustration.
Civeyrel, L. and Simberloff, D. 1996. A tale of two snails: is the cure worse than the disease? Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 1231-1252.
Summary: A discussion of the introduction of predatory snails (notably Euglandina rosea), in putative attempts to control A. fulica. The devastating consequences on native land snail diversity, especially in the islands of the Pacific.
Clarke, B., Murray, J., & Johnson, M.S., 1984. The extinction of endemic species by a program of biological control. Pacific Science, 38: 97-104.
Summary: A paper on the introduced biocontrol agent, the land snail Euglandina rosea.
Coote, T. & Loeve, E., 2003. From 61 species to five: endemic tree snails of the Society Islands fall prey to an ill-judged biological control programme. Oryx, 37: 91-96.
Summary: A paper on the introduced biocontrol agent, the land snail Euglandina rosea.
Cowie, R.H., 1992. Evolution and extinction of Partulidae, endemic Pacific island land snails. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B Biological Sciences, 335: 167-191.
Summary: A paper on the introduced biocontrol agent, the land snail Euglandina rosea.
Cowie, R. H. 2001. Can snails ever be effective and safe biocontrol agents?. International Journal of Pest Management 47: 23-40.
Summary: Discusses the use of land and freshwater snails as biological control agents against other snails and against aquatic weeds. Recommends snails not be used for biocontrol.
Cowie R.H. and�Robinson A.C. 2003. The Decline of Native Pacific Island Faunas: Changes in Status of the Land Snails of Samoa Through the 20th Century, Biological Conservation 110(1).
Eldredge, L. G. and Smith, B. D. 1994. Introductions and transfers of the triclad flatworm Platydemus manokwari. Tentacle 4: 8.
Summary: Details of spread of Platydemus manokwari
Eldredge, L. G. and Smith, B. D. 1995. Triclad flatworm tours the Pacific. Aliens 2: 11.
Summary: A description of the locations throughout the Pacific where P. manokwari has been introduced. Describes some of the impacts that this species is having on native snail populations.
Hadfield, M.G., 1986. Extinction in Hawaiian Achatinelline snails. Malacologia, 27: 67-81.
Summary: A paper on the introduced biocontrol agent, the land snail Euglandina rosea.
Hadfield, M. G., Miller, S. E. and Carwile, A. H. 1993. The decimation of endemic Hawai�ian tree snails by alien predators. American Zoologist 33: 610-622.
Summary: Discusses the impacts of alien rats and Euglandina rosea on native Hawaiian tree snails.
Hopper, D. R. and Smith, B. D. 1992. Status of tree snails (Gastropoda: Partulidae) on Guam, with a resurvey of sites studied by H. E. Crampton in 1920. Pacific Science 46: 77-85.
Lydeard,�C., Cowie,�R.H., Ponder,�W.F., Bogan,�A.E., Bouchet,�P., Clark,�S.A., Cummings,�K.S., Frest,�T.J., Gargominy,�O., Herbert,�D.G., Hershler,�R., Perez,�K.E., Roth,�B., Seddon,�M. Strong,�E.E., Thompson,�F.G. 2004. The global Decline of Nonmarine Mollusks, BioScience 54.
Muniappan, R. 1987. Biological control of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica Bowdich, in the Maldives. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 35(4): 127-133.
Muniappan, R. 1990. Use of the planarian, Platydemus manokwari, and other natural enemies to control the giant African snail. In: The use of natural enemies to control agriculatural pests. Proceedings of the international Seminar The use of parasitoids and predators to control agricultural pests Tsukuba, Japan, October 2-7, 1989. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region, Taipei. pp.179-183
Muniappan, R., Duhamel, G., Santiago, R. M., and Acay, D. R. 1986. Giant African snail control in Bugsuk island, Philippines, by Platydemus manokwari. Ol�agineux 41(4): 183-186.
Murray, J., Murray, E., Johnson, M. S. and Clarke, B. 1988. The extinction of Partula on Moorea. Pacific Science 42: 150-153.
Summary: Reports the final demise of all seven Partula species of Moorea in the face of the spread of E. rosea and the imminent threat to Partula on Tahiti.
Sugiura, S. 2009. Seasonal fluctuation of invasive flatworm predation pressure on land snails: Implications for the range expansion and impacts of invasive species, Biological Conservation 142: 3013-3019.
General information
Barker, G.M. 2002. Molluscs as crop pests. CABI Publishing.
Barnes, R. D. 1968. Invertebrate Zoology, Second edition. London: W.B. Saunders.
Summary: Basic textbook on invertebrates. Provides general information on Platyhelminthes (flatworms) and the higher level classification.
Bauman, S. 1996. Diversity and decline of land snails on Rota, Mariana Islands, American Malacological Bulletin 12(1-2): 13-27.
Cowie, R.H. and Cook, R.P. 2001. Extinction or survival: partulid tree snails in American Samoa, Biodiversity and Conservation 10(2).
de Beauchamp, P. 1963. Platydemus manokwari in. sp., planaire terrestre de la Nouvelle-Guin�e Hollandaise. Bulletin de la Soci�t� Zoologique de France 87(5-6, December 1962 issue): 609-615.
Summary: The original description of Platydemus manokwari.
Hopper, D.R. and Smith, B.D. 1992. Status of tree snails (Gastropoda: Partulidae) on Guam, with a resurvey of sites studied by H.E. Crampton in 1920, Pacific Science 46(1): abstract.
Kaneda, M., Kitagawa, K., Ichinohe, F. 1990. Laboratory rearing method and biology of Platydemus manokwari de Beauchamp (Tricladida: Terricola: Rhynchodemidae), Applied Entomology and Zoology 25(4): abstract.
Kawakatsu, M., M. Nishino & A. Ohtaka. 2007. Platydemus manokwari, used previously as a biological control agent abroad for the giant African snail, Japanese Journal of Limnology 68: 461-46.
Lovenburg, Vanessa. 2009. Terrestrial Gastropod Distributional Factors: Native and Nonnative Forests, Elevation and Predation on Mo orea, French Polynesia. UC Berkeley: UCB Moorea Class: Biology and Geomorphology of Tropical Islands.
Muniappan, R., Duhamel, G., Santiago, R.M., Acay and D.R. 1986. Giant African snail control in Bugsuk Island, Philippines, by Platydemus manokwari, Oleagineux 41(4): abstract.
Muniappan, R, G. Duhamel, R.M. Santiago & D.R. Acay. 1986. Giant African snail control in Bugsuk Island, Philippines, by Platydemus manokwari, Oleagineux 41(4): 183-188.
Ohbayashi, T., I. Okochi, H. Sato & T. Ono. 2005. Food habit of Platydemus manokwari De Beauchamp, 1962 (Tricladida: Terricola: Rhynchodemidae), known as a predatory flatworm of land snails in the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, Appl. Entomol. Zool. 40(4): 609-614.
Satoshi, C. 2003. Species Diversity and Conservation of Mandarina, an Endemic Land Snail of the Ogasawara Islands.
Summary: Available from: http://www.airies.or.jp/publication/ger/pdf/07-01-04.pdf [Accessed 4 March 2006]
Sugiura, S., I. Okochi & H. Tamada. 2006. High predation pressure by an introduced flatworm on land snails on the oceanic Ogasawara Islands, Biotropica 38(5): 700-703.
Sugiura, S. & Y. Yamaura. 2009. Potential impacts of the invasive flatworm Platydemus manokwari on arboreal snails, Biol Invasions 11: 737-742.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Platydemus manokwari
Cowie,
Dr. Robert H.
Pacific biodiversity and nonmarine snails (land and freshwater).
Webpage
Organization:
University of Hawaii
Address:
Center for Conservation Research and Training,
University of Hawaii,
3050 Maile Way, Gilmore 409, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA
Phone:
+1 808 9564909
Fax:
(808) 956 2647/9608