AntWeb, 2006. Pheidole megacephalaSummary:
AntWeb illustrates ant diversity by providing information and high quality color images of many of the approximately 10,000 known species of ants. AntWeb currently focusses on the species of the Nearctic and Malagasy biogeographic regions, and the ant genera of the world. Over time, the site is expected to grow to describe every species of ant known. AntWeb provides the following tools: Search tools, Regional Lists, in-depth information, Ant Image comparision tool PDF field guides maps on AntWeb and Google Earth and Ant genera of the world slide show.
AntWeb is available from: http://antweb.org/about.jsp [Accessed 20 April 2006]
The species page is available from: http://antweb.org/getComparison.do?rank=species&genus=pheidole&name=megacephala&project=&project= [Accessed 2 May 2006]
Commonwealth of Australia. 2006a. Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.Summary:
This plan establishes a national framework to guide and coordinate Australia�s response to tramp ants, identifying the research, management, and other actions necessary to ensure the long term survival of native species and ecological communities affected by tramp ants. It identifies six national priority species as an initial, but flexible, list on which to focus attention. They are the red imported fi re ant (Solenopsis invicta
), tropical fire ant (S. geminata
), little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata
), African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala
), yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes
), and Argentine ant (Linepithema humile
Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants.pdf [Accessed 17 November 2009]
Harris, R.; Abbott, K.; Barton, K.; Berry, J.; Don, W.; Gunawardana, D.; Lester, P.; Rees, J.; Stanley, M.; Sutherland, A.; Toft, R. 2005: Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand. BAH/35/2004-1.Summary:
The invasive ant risk assessment project, prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, synthesises information on the ant species that occur in New Zealand (native and introduced species), and on invasive ants that pose a potential threat to New Zealand.
There is a great deal of information in this risk assessment on invasive ant species that is of global interest, including; biology, distribution, pest status, control technologies.
The assessment project has five sections.1) The Ants of New Zealand: information sheets on all native and introduced ants established in New Zealand 2) Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment: risk scorecard to quantify the threat to New Zealand of 75 ant species. 3) Information sheets on invasive ant threats: information sheets on all ant species scored as medium to high risk (n = 39). 4) Pest risk assessment: A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes
, Lasius neglectus
, Monomorium destructor
, Paratrechina longicornis
, Solenopsis geminata
, Solenopsis richteri
, Tapinoma melanocephalum
, Wasmannia auropunctata
) 5) Ranking of high risk species: ranking of the eight highest risk ant species in terms of the risks of entry, establishment, spread, and detrimental consequences.
NB. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta
) is considered to be the worst ant pest in the world. However, Solenopsis invicta
was specifically excluded from consideration in this risk assessment as this species has already been subject to detailed consideration by Biosecurity New Zealand
(This invasive ant pest risk assessment was funded by Biosecurity New Zealand and Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Undertaken by Landcare Research in collaboration with Victoria University of Wellington and Otago Museum)
Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Ants/ant_pest_risk.asp [Accessed 20 May 2007]
Hoffmann, B. D. 1998. The Big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala: a new threat to monsoonal northwestern Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 250-255.
Hoffmann, Benjamin D and O Connor, Simon., 2004. Eradication of two exotic ants from Kakadu National Park. Ecological Management & Restoration, August 2004, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 98-105(8)
Hoffmann D. Benjamin, 2011. Eradication of populations of an invasive ant in northern Australia: successes, failures and lessons for management. Biodivers Conserv DOI 10.1007/s10531-011-0106-0
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.Summary:
This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
McEwen, F. L., Beardsley, J. W. Jr., Hapai, M. and Su, T. H. 1979. Laboratory tests with candidate insecticides for control of the big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 23: 119�123.
McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
Reimer, N. J. and Beardsley, J. W. 1990. Effectiveness of hydroxymethylnon and nenoxycarb for control of Big-headed ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an ant associated with mealybug wilt of pineapple in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83: 74-80.
Reimer, N. J., Glancey, B. M. and Beardsley, J. W. 1991. Development of Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colonies following ingestion of fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen. Journal of Economic Entomology 84: 56�60.
Samways, M. J. 1985. Appraisal of the propeitary ant bait Amdro for control of ants in southern African citrus. Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Journal 621: 14-17.
Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California � Davis.Summary:
PIAkey (Pacific Invasive Ant key) is an electronic guide designed to assist users identify invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region. The guide covers four subfamilies, 20 genera and 44 species.
The primary tool offered by PIAkey is an interactive key designed using Lucid3 software. In addition to being fully illustrated, the Lucid key allows users to enter at multiple character points, skip unknown characters, and find the most efficient path for identifying the available taxa. Each species is linked to its own web page. These species pages, or factsheets, are linked to an illustrated glossary of morphological terms, and include the following seven sections: 1) Overview of the species; 2) Diagnostic chart illustrating a unique combination of identification characters; 3) Comparison chart illustrating differences among species of similar appearance; 4) Video clip of the species behavior at food baits (where available); 5) Image gallery that includes original specimen images and live images (where available); 6) Nomenclature section detailing the taxonomic history of the species, and 7) Links and references section for additional literature and online resources.
Available from: http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html [Accessed 17 December 2008]
Su, T. H., Beardsley, J. W. and McEwen, F. L. 1980. AC-217,300, a promising new insecticide for use in baits for control of the bigheaded ant in pineapple. Journal of Economic Entomology 73(6): 755�756.
Walker, K. 2006. Coastal brown-ant (Pheidole megacephala) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 28/08/2006 10:23:48 PM.Summary:
PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria s Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=645 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
Warner, J., Yang, R.L. & Scheffrahn, R.H. (2008). Efficacy of selected bait and residual toxicants for control of bigheaded ants, Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in large field plots. Florida Entomologist 91(2): 277-282.
Williams, D. F. 1994. Exotic ants: biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Zerhusen, D., Rashid, M. 1992. Control of the Big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala, Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the fire ant bait Amdro and its secondary effect on the population of the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latrielle (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 113: 258-264.
Abbott, K.L., Show, S.M. & Lester, P.J. (2006). The ants of Tokelau. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 33(2): 157-164.
Bach, C. E. 1991. Direct and indirect interactions between ants (Pheidole megacephala), scales (Coccus viridis) and plants (Pluchea indica). Oecologia, 87:233-39.
Beardsley, J. W., Su, T. S., McEwen, F. L. and Gerling, D. 1982. Field investigations of the interrelationships of the Big-headed ant, the gray pineapple mealybug and the pineapple mealybug wilt disease in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian entomological society 24: 51-67.
Blackburn, T. and Kirby, W. F. 1880. Notes on species of aculeate Hymenoptera occurring in the Hawaiian Islands. Entomologists Monthly Magazine 17: 85-89.
Blard, F. 2006. Les fourmis envahissantes de l��le de la R�union�: Interaction comp�titives et facteurs d�invasion. Th�se de doctorat. Universit� de la R�union. 97 pp
Summary: Cette �tude porte sur les relations comp�titives entre trois esp�ces ainsi que sur les facteurs li�s � leur succ�s dans l invasion des milieux.
Broekhuysen, G. J. 1948. The Brown house ant (Pheidole megacephala, Fabr.). Union of South Africa Department of Agriculture Bulletin 266: 1-40.
DeJean, A., Moreau, C.S., Kenne, M. & Leponce, M. (2008). The raiding success of Pheidole megacephala on other ants in both its native and introduced ranges. Comptes Rendus Biologies 331: 631�635.
Ferreira, F.P., De Almeida Soares, S., Antonialli Junior, W.F. 2008. Communities of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in two hospitals of Ponta Por�, MS, Brazil. Sociobiology 51(3): 783-794.
Fluker, S. S. 1969. Sympatric associations among selected ant species and some effects of ants on sugarcane mealybugs in Hawaii. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hawaii, 96 pp.
Fluker, S. S. and Beardsley, J. W. 1970. Sympatric associations of three ants: Iridomyrmex humilis, Pheidole megacephala, and Anoplolepis longipes in Hawaii. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63: 1290-96.
Gillespie, R.G. and Reimer, N. 1993. The Effect of Alien Predatory Ants (Hymenoptera: Formididae) on Hawaiian Endemic Spiders (Araneae:Tetragnathidae). Pacific Science 47(1) 21-33.
Heterick, B. 1997. The interaction between the coastal brown ant, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius) and other invertebrate auna of Mt Coot-tha (Brisbane, Australia). Australian Journal of Ecology, 22: 218-21.
Hoffmann, B. D., Andersen, A. N. and Hill, G. J. E. 1999. Impact of an introduced ant on native rain forest invertebrates: Pheidole megacephala in monsoonal Australia. Oecologia 120: 595-604.
Hoffmann, B.D. & Parr, C.L. (2007). An invasion revisited: the African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala) in northern Australia. Biological Invasions 10: 1171�1181.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Pheidole megacephalaSummary:
An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Pheidole+megacephala&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Jahn, G. C. and Beardsley, J. W. 1994. Big-headed ants, Pheidole megacephala: interference with the biological control of Gray pineapple mealybugs. pp. 199�205 in Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic ants. Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview, Boulder, CO.
Jourdan, H., Mille, C. 2006. Les invert�br�s introduits dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : esp�ces envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes. Premi�re �valuation et recommandations pour leur gestion. In M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Summary: Cette synth�se sur les invert�br�s envahissants et potentiellement envahissants dans l archipel cal�donien a �t� r�alis�e dans le cadre d une expertise coll�giale men�e par l IRD.
Kamura, C.M., Morini, M.S.C.,, Figueiredo, C.J., Bueno, O.C. &Campos-Farinha, A.E.C. (2007). Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest. Brazilian Journal of Biology 67(4): 635-641.
Lieberburg, I., Kranz, P. M. and Seip, A. 1975. Bermudian ants revisited: the status and interaction of Pheidole megacephala and Iridomyrmex humilis. Ecology 56: 473�478.
Pacheco, R. & Vasconcelos, H.L. (2007). Invertebrate conservation in urban areas: Ants in the Brazilian Cerrado. Landscape and Urban Planning 81: 193�199.
Perkins, R. C. L. 1907. Insects of Tantalus. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society (1906)1: 38�51.
Smith, F. 1879. Descriptions of new species of aculeate Hymenoptera collected by the Rev. T. Blackburn in the Sandwich Islands. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 14(79): 674�685.
Ward, D. & Beggs, J. (2007). Coexistence, habitat patterns and the assembly of ant communities in the Yasawa islands, Fiji. Acta Oecologica 32: 215-223.
Wetterer, J.K. (2007). Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 3. The African Big-Headed Ant, Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Pacific Science 61(4): 437-456.
Wetterer, J. K., and B. C. O Hara. 2002. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Dry Tortugas, The outermost Florida Keys. Florida Entomologist 85(2):303-307.
Wetterer, J.K., Espadaler, X., Wetterer, A.L., Aguin-Pombo, D. & Franquinho-Aguiar, A.M. (2006). Long-term impact of exotic ants on the native ants of Madeira. Economic Entomology 31: 358�368.