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  • Pheidole megacephala worker (soldier) dorsal view (Photo: Japanese Ant Color Image Database)
  • Pheidole megacephala worker (soldier) lateral view (Photo: Japanese Ant Color Image Database)
  • Pheidole megacephala worker (soldier) frontal (head) view (Photo: Japanese Ant Color Image Database)
  • Pheidole megacephala (Photo: Cambou�, AntWeb, hosted by California Academy of Sciences)
  • Pheidole megacephala  (Photo: Mark Deyrup , AntWeb, hosted by California Academy of Sciences)
  • Pheidole megacephala  (Photo: Mark Deyrup , AntWeb, hosted by California Academy of Sciences)
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Common name
Grosskopfameise (German), big-headed ant (English), coastal brown-ant (English), brown house-ant (English), lion ant (English)
Synonym
Myrmica trinodis , Losana 1834
Formica megacephala , Fabricius 1793
Formica edax , Forskal 1775
Oecophthora perniciosa , Gerstacker 1859
Oecophthora pusilla , Heer 1852
Myrmica suspiciosa , Smith 1859
Atta testacea , Smith 1858
Pheidole janus , F. Smith
Pheidole laevigata , Mayr
Myrmica laevigata , F. Smith
Similar species
Summary
Pheidole megacephala is one of the world's worst invasive ant species. Believed to be native to southern Africa, it is now found throughout the temperate and tropical zones of the world. It is a serious threat to biodiversity through the displacement of native invertebrate fauna and is a pest of agriculture as it harvests seeds and harbours phytophagous insects that reduce crop productivity. Pheidole megacephala are also known to chew on irrigation and telephone cabling as well as electrical wires.
Species Description
It is a small ant (minor workers approximately 2mm long and major workers 3-4mm long), ranging in colour from a pale yellow to a very dark brown. The first antennal segment (scape) of the minor workers far exceeds the top of the head, and is covered in many long hairs. There are no spines on the front of the body (pronotum), but two very small spines on the rear of the body (propodeum) facing almost directly up. There are many small punctations on the rear side of the body, and side of the head, but remaining body areas are smooth and shiny. The entire body is covered in many sparse, long hairs. The second waist segment (post petiole) is conspicuously swollen.

Please click on AntWeb: Pheidole megacephala for more images and assistance with identification. The AntWeb image comparison tool lets you compare images of ants at the subfamily, genus, species or specimen level. You may also specify which types of images you would like to comare: head, profile, dorsal, or label.
Please see PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) Species Content Page Ants: Coastal brown-ant for high quality diagnostic and overview images.

Please follow this link for a fully illustrated Lucid key to common invasive ants [Hymenoptera: Formicidae] of the Pacific Island region [requires the most recent version of Java installed]. The factsheet on Pheidole megacephala contains an overview, diagnostic features, comparision charts, images, nomenclature and links. (Sarnat, 2008)

Lifecycle Stages
This ant has a complete life-cycle, and developmental time and longevity of each stage is highly dependent on temperature. Incubation time of eggs ranges from13-32 days. Duration of the larval stage ranges from 23-29 days. Duration of the pupal stage ranges from 10-20+ days. Lifespans of minor workers have been shown to be 78 days at 21C, and 38 days at 27C.
Reproduction
Sexual reproduction by fertile queens. Insemination of virgin queens occurs once within the parent colony, then the male dies. Reproduction is year-round, but would vary according to climatic conditions of each locality.
Queens have been documented to lay up to 292 eggs per month.
Nutrition
Omnivorous. Will capture and kill invertebrates and small vertebrates (e.g. bird hatchlings). Harvests seeds, and tends phytophagous insects. General scavenger.
Pathway
Sailing ships in the 18th and 19th centuries.General freight and household movements from infested areas.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Dr. Ben Hoffmann, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, PMB 44 Winnellie, NT 0822, Australia

Publication date: 2011-08-03

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Pheidole megacephala. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=132 on 30-07-2016.

General Impacts
This ant displaces most native invertebrate faunas directly through aggression, and as such is a serious threat to biodiversity. Evidence also exists of reductions in vertebrate populations where this ant is extremely abundant. Effects on plants and horticultural crops can be direct through the likes of seed harvesting, or indirect through the likes of harbouring phytophagous insects which reduce plant productivity. It is known to facilitate the invasion of introduced plant species. This ant is known to chew on irrigation, telephone cabling and electrical wires.
Management Info
Preventative measures: Preventative management is the best option stopping the spread of this species, with attention focused on the movement of soils, particularly in potted plants, and the movement of all other materials from infested areas. The Pacific Ant Prevention\r Programme is a proposal prepared for the Pacific Plant Protection Organisation and Regional \r\r\nTechnical Meeting For Plant Protection. This plan aims to prevent the red imported fire ant \r\r\nand other invasive ant species with economic, environmental and/or social impacts, entering \r\r\nand establishing in or spreading between (or within) countries of the Pacific Region.

\r\nPhysical: Fire may play an important role in controlling this ant in many areas by producing an environment less favourable to this ant, but providing a selective advantage to aggressive native ant species, or by direct destruction of colonies.

\r\nChemical: Good control is achieved using the bait 'Amdro' applied over the entire infested area. Complete eradication can be achieved within 24 hours. A major eradication event within Kakadu National Park, Australia, was completed by the end of 2002. Chemical control using general insecticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DDT, heptachlor and Mirex® was the favoured option until relatively recently, with most of these chemicals now phased out due to environmental consequences. Latest options include the insect growth regulators (IGRs), methoprene, fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen which regress ovarian tissues of fertile queens turning them sterile, and the stomach toxicant hydramethylnon, which kills all workers and reproductives that come into contact with it.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Pheidole megacephala
Informations on Pheidole megacephala has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Pheidole megacephala in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
This ant displaces most native invertebrate faunas directly through aggression, and as such is a serious threat to biodiversity. Evidence also exists of reductions in vertebrate populations where this ant is extremely abundant. Effects on plants and horticultural crops can be direct through the likes of seed harvesting, or indirect through the likes of harbouring phytophagous insects which reduce plant productivity. It is known to facilitate the invasion of introduced plant species. This ant is known to chew on irrigation, telephone cabling and electrical wires.
Red List assessed species 1: CR = 1;
View more species View less species
Mechanism
[4] Competition
Outcomes
[8] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [7] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Human nuisance 
Management information
Preventative measures: Preventative management is the best option stopping the spread of this species, with attention focused on the movement of soils, particularly in potted plants, and the movement of all other materials from infested areas. The Pacific Ant Prevention\r Programme is a proposal prepared for the Pacific Plant Protection Organisation and Regional \r\r\nTechnical Meeting For Plant Protection. This plan aims to prevent the red imported fire ant \r\r\nand other invasive ant species with economic, environmental and/or social impacts, entering \r\r\nand establishing in or spreading between (or within) countries of the Pacific Region.

\r\nPhysical: Fire may play an important role in controlling this ant in many areas by producing an environment less favourable to this ant, but providing a selective advantage to aggressive native ant species, or by direct destruction of colonies.

\r\nChemical: Good control is achieved using the bait 'Amdro' applied over the entire infested area. Complete eradication can be achieved within 24 hours. A major eradication event within Kakadu National Park, Australia, was completed by the end of 2002. Chemical control using general insecticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DDT, heptachlor and Mirex® was the favoured option until relatively recently, with most of these chemicals now phased out due to environmental consequences. Latest options include the insect growth regulators (IGRs), methoprene, fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen which regress ovarian tissues of fertile queens turning them sterile, and the stomach toxicant hydramethylnon, which kills all workers and reproductives that come into contact with it.

Locations
Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
51 references found for Pheidole megacephala

Managment information
AntWeb, 2006. Pheidole megacephala
Summary: AntWeb illustrates ant diversity by providing information and high quality color images of many of the approximately 10,000 known species of ants. AntWeb currently focusses on the species of the Nearctic and Malagasy biogeographic regions, and the ant genera of the world. Over time, the site is expected to grow to describe every species of ant known. AntWeb provides the following tools: Search tools, Regional Lists, in-depth information, Ant Image comparision tool PDF field guides maps on AntWeb and Google Earth and Ant genera of the world slide show.
AntWeb is available from: http://antweb.org/about.jsp [Accessed 20 April 2006]
The species page is available from: http://antweb.org/getComparison.do?rank=species&genus=pheidole&name=megacephala&project=&project= [Accessed 2 May 2006]
Commonwealth of Australia. 2006a. Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Summary: This plan establishes a national framework to guide and coordinate Australia�s response to tramp ants, identifying the research, management, and other actions necessary to ensure the long term survival of native species and ecological communities affected by tramp ants. It identifies six national priority species as an initial, but flexible, list on which to focus attention. They are the red imported fi re ant (Solenopsis invicta), tropical fire ant (S. geminata), little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata), African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala), yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes), and Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).
Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants.pdf [Accessed 17 November 2009]
Commonwealth of Australia. 2006b. Background document for the threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Summary: This background document to the Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories provides supporting information on a range of issues such as tramp ant biology, population dynamics, spread, biodiversity impacts and management measures.
Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants-background.pdf [Accessed 17 November 2009]
Harris, R.; Abbott, K.; Barton, K.; Berry, J.; Don, W.; Gunawardana, D.; Lester, P.; Rees, J.; Stanley, M.; Sutherland, A.; Toft, R. 2005: Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand. BAH/35/2004-1.
Summary: The invasive ant risk assessment project, prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, synthesises information on the ant species that occur in New Zealand (native and introduced species), and on invasive ants that pose a potential threat to New Zealand.
There is a great deal of information in this risk assessment on invasive ant species that is of global interest, including; biology, distribution, pest status, control technologies.
The assessment project has five sections.1) The Ants of New Zealand: information sheets on all native and introduced ants established in New Zealand 2) Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment: risk scorecard to quantify the threat to New Zealand of 75 ant species. 3) Information sheets on invasive ant threats: information sheets on all ant species scored as medium to high risk (n = 39). 4) Pest risk assessment: A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes, Lasius neglectus, Monomorium destructor, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, Solenopsis richteri, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Wasmannia auropunctata) 5) Ranking of high risk species: ranking of the eight highest risk ant species in terms of the risks of entry, establishment, spread, and detrimental consequences.
NB. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) is considered to be the worst ant pest in the world. However, Solenopsis invicta was specifically excluded from consideration in this risk assessment as this species has already been subject to detailed consideration by Biosecurity New Zealand
(This invasive ant pest risk assessment was funded by Biosecurity New Zealand and Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Undertaken by Landcare Research in collaboration with Victoria University of Wellington and Otago Museum)
Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Ants/ant_pest_risk.asp [Accessed 20 May 2007]
Hoffmann, B. D. 1998. The Big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala: a new threat to monsoonal northwestern Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 250-255.
Hoffmann, Benjamin D and O Connor, Simon., 2004. Eradication of two exotic ants from Kakadu National Park. Ecological Management & Restoration, August 2004, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 98-105(8)
Hoffmann D. Benjamin, 2011. Eradication of populations of an invasive ant in northern Australia: successes, failures and lessons for management. Biodivers Conserv DOI 10.1007/s10531-011-0106-0
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
McEwen, F. L., Beardsley, J. W. Jr., Hapai, M. and Su, T. H. 1979. Laboratory tests with candidate insecticides for control of the big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 23: 119�123.
McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
Pacific Ant Prevention Programme, March 2004. Pacific Invasive Ant Group (PIAG) on behalf of the IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).
Summary: A proposal prepared for the Pacific Plant Protection Organisation and Regional Technical Meeting For Plant Protection. This plan aims to prevent the red imported fire ant and other invasive ant species with economic, environmental and/or social impacts, entering and establishing in or spreading between (or within) countries of the Pacific Region.
Reimer, N. J. and Beardsley, J. W. 1990. Effectiveness of hydroxymethylnon and nenoxycarb for control of Big-headed ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an ant associated with mealybug wilt of pineapple in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83: 74-80.
Reimer, N. J., Glancey, B. M. and Beardsley, J. W. 1991. Development of Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colonies following ingestion of fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen. Journal of Economic Entomology 84: 56�60.
Samways, M. J. 1985. Appraisal of the propeitary ant bait Amdro for control of ants in southern African citrus. Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Journal 621: 14-17.
Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California � Davis.
Summary: PIAkey (Pacific Invasive Ant key) is an electronic guide designed to assist users identify invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region. The guide covers four subfamilies, 20 genera and 44 species.
The primary tool offered by PIAkey is an interactive key designed using Lucid3 software. In addition to being fully illustrated, the Lucid key allows users to enter at multiple character points, skip unknown characters, and find the most efficient path for identifying the available taxa. Each species is linked to its own web page. These species pages, or factsheets, are linked to an illustrated glossary of morphological terms, and include the following seven sections: 1) Overview of the species; 2) Diagnostic chart illustrating a unique combination of identification characters; 3) Comparison chart illustrating differences among species of similar appearance; 4) Video clip of the species behavior at food baits (where available); 5) Image gallery that includes original specimen images and live images (where available); 6) Nomenclature section detailing the taxonomic history of the species, and 7) Links and references section for additional literature and online resources.
Available from: http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html [Accessed 17 December 2008]
Stanley, M. C. 2004. Review of the efficacy of baits used for ant control and eradication. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0405/044. Prepared for: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.
Summary: Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/ants/BaitEfficacyReport.pdf [Accessed 10 December 2005]
Su, T. H., Beardsley, J. W. and McEwen, F. L. 1980. AC-217,300, a promising new insecticide for use in baits for control of the bigheaded ant in pineapple. Journal of Economic Entomology 73(6): 755�756.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Walker, K. 2006. Coastal brown-ant (Pheidole megacephala) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 28/08/2006 10:23:48 PM.
Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria s Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=645 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
Warner, J., Yang, R.L. & Scheffrahn, R.H. (2008). Efficacy of selected bait and residual toxicants for control of bigheaded ants, Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in large field plots. Florida Entomologist 91(2): 277-282.
Williams, D. F. 1994. Exotic ants: biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Zerhusen, D., Rashid, M. 1992. Control of the Big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala, Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the fire ant bait Amdro and its secondary effect on the population of the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latrielle (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 113: 258-264.
General information
Abbott, K.L., Show, S.M. & Lester, P.J. (2006). The ants of Tokelau. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 33(2): 157-164.
Bach, C. E. 1991. Direct and indirect interactions between ants (Pheidole megacephala), scales (Coccus viridis) and plants (Pluchea indica). Oecologia, 87:233-39.
Beardsley, J. W., Su, T. S., McEwen, F. L. and Gerling, D. 1982. Field investigations of the interrelationships of the Big-headed ant, the gray pineapple mealybug and the pineapple mealybug wilt disease in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian entomological society 24: 51-67.
Blackburn, T. and Kirby, W. F. 1880. Notes on species of aculeate Hymenoptera occurring in the Hawaiian Islands. Entomologists Monthly Magazine 17: 85-89.
Blard, F. 2006. Les fourmis envahissantes de l��le de la R�union�: Interaction comp�titives et facteurs d�invasion. Th�se de doctorat. Universit� de la R�union. 97 pp
Summary: Cette �tude porte sur les relations comp�titives entre trois esp�ces ainsi que sur les facteurs li�s � leur succ�s dans l invasion des milieux.
Broekhuysen, G. J. 1948. The Brown house ant (Pheidole megacephala, Fabr.). Union of South Africa Department of Agriculture Bulletin 266: 1-40.
DeJean, A., Moreau, C.S., Kenne, M. & Leponce, M. (2008). The raiding success of Pheidole megacephala on other ants in both its native and introduced ranges. Comptes Rendus Biologies 331: 631�635.
Ferreira, F.P., De Almeida Soares, S., Antonialli Junior, W.F. 2008. Communities of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in two hospitals of Ponta Por�, MS, Brazil. Sociobiology 51(3): 783-794.
Fluker, S. S. 1969. Sympatric associations among selected ant species and some effects of ants on sugarcane mealybugs in Hawaii. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hawaii, 96 pp.
Fluker, S. S. and Beardsley, J. W. 1970. Sympatric associations of three ants: Iridomyrmex humilis, Pheidole megacephala, and Anoplolepis longipes in Hawaii. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63: 1290-96.
Gillespie, R.G. and Reimer, N. 1993. The Effect of Alien Predatory Ants (Hymenoptera: Formididae) on Hawaiian Endemic Spiders (Araneae:Tetragnathidae). Pacific Science 47(1) 21-33.
Heterick, B. 1997. The interaction between the coastal brown ant, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius) and other invertebrate auna of Mt Coot-tha (Brisbane, Australia). Australian Journal of Ecology, 22: 218-21.
Hoffmann, B. D., Andersen, A. N. and Hill, G. J. E. 1999. Impact of an introduced ant on native rain forest invertebrates: Pheidole megacephala in monsoonal Australia. Oecologia 120: 595-604.
Hoffmann, B.D. & Parr, C.L. (2007). An invasion revisited: the African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala) in northern Australia. Biological Invasions 10: 1171�1181.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Pheidole megacephala
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Pheidole+megacephala&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Jahn, G. C. and Beardsley, J. W. 1994. Big-headed ants, Pheidole megacephala: interference with the biological control of Gray pineapple mealybugs. pp. 199�205 in Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic ants. Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview, Boulder, CO.
Jourdan, H., Mille, C. 2006. Les invert�br�s introduits dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : esp�ces envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes. Premi�re �valuation et recommandations pour leur gestion. In M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Summary: Cette synth�se sur les invert�br�s envahissants et potentiellement envahissants dans l archipel cal�donien a �t� r�alis�e dans le cadre d une expertise coll�giale men�e par l IRD.
Kamura, C.M., Morini, M.S.C.,, Figueiredo, C.J., Bueno, O.C. &Campos-Farinha, A.E.C. (2007). Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest. Brazilian Journal of Biology 67(4): 635-641.
Lieberburg, I., Kranz, P. M. and Seip, A. 1975. Bermudian ants revisited: the status and interaction of Pheidole megacephala and Iridomyrmex humilis. Ecology 56: 473�478.
Pacheco, R. & Vasconcelos, H.L. (2007). Invertebrate conservation in urban areas: Ants in the Brazilian Cerrado. Landscape and Urban Planning 81: 193�199.
Perkins, R. C. L. 1907. Insects of Tantalus. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society (1906)1: 38�51.
Sarnat E.M. and E. P. Economo, 2011. Fiji Ants. The online home of Fiji s Myrmecofauna.
Summary: Available from: http://www.fijiants.org/ [Accessed 7 February 2011]
Smith, F. 1879. Descriptions of new species of aculeate Hymenoptera collected by the Rev. T. Blackburn in the Sandwich Islands. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 14(79): 674�685.
Ward, D. & Beggs, J. (2007). Coexistence, habitat patterns and the assembly of ant communities in the Yasawa islands, Fiji. Acta Oecologica 32: 215-223.
Wetterer, J.K. (2007). Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 3. The African Big-Headed Ant, Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Pacific Science 61(4): 437-456.
Wetterer, J. K., and B. C. O Hara. 2002. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Dry Tortugas, The outermost Florida Keys. Florida Entomologist 85(2):303-307.
Wetterer, J.K., Espadaler, X., Wetterer, A.L., Aguin-Pombo, D. & Franquinho-Aguiar, A.M. (2006). Long-term impact of exotic ants on the native ants of Madeira. Economic Entomology 31: 358�368.
Contact
The following 10 contacts offer information an advice on Pheidole megacephala
Andersen,
Alan
Anoplolepis gracilipes, Pheidole megacephala - Australia
Organization:
CSIRO Division of Sustainable Ecosystems
Address:
CSIRO Tropical Ecosystems Research Centre, PMB 44, Winnellie NT 0822 Australia
Phone:
+61 8 89448431
Fax:
+61 8 89448444
Davis,
Peter
Linepithema humile, Technomyrmex albipes, Ochetellus glaber, Monomorium destructor, Pheidole megacephala, Solenopsis invicta, Australia
Organization:
Western Australia Department of Agriculture
Address:
Entomology, Department of Agriculture, 3 Baron-Hay Court, South Perth, Western Australia, Australia, 6151
Phone:
+61 8 93683232
Fax:
+61 8 94742405
Heterick,
Brian
Ant taxonomy
Organization:
Curtin University of Technology
Address:
GPO Box U 1987, Perth WA 6845, Australia
Phone:
+61 8 92663598
Fax:
+61 8 92662495
Hoffmann,
Ben
Invasive ecology, control and eradication of key exotic ant species (P. megacephala, S. geminata, and A. gracilipes) throughout tropical Australia
Organization:
CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems
Address:
PMB 44 Winnellie NT 0822, Australia
Phone:
+61 8 89448432
Fax:
+61 8 89448444
Ingram,
Krista K.
Linepithema humile, Pheidole megacephala, USA: Hawaii, California; Northwest Argentina; Southeast Brazil; Chile (Isla Juan Fernandez, Robinson Crusoe Islands)
Organization:
Stanford University
Address:
371 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 USA
Phone:
+1 650 725 6791
Fax:
+1 650 723 6132
Lach,
Lori
Linepithema humile (South Africa and Hawaii), Anoplolepis gracilipes and Pheidole megacephala(Hawaii)
Organization:
Cornell University
Address:
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Corson Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA
Phone:
+1 607 2544239
Fax:
+1 607 2558088
Majer,
Jonathan
Ant ecology
Organization:
Curtin University of Technology
Address:
GPO Box U 1987, Perth WA 6845, Australia
Phone:
+61 8 92667964
Fax:
+61 8 92662495
O Connor,
Simon
Simon has previously coordinated New Zealand s national invasive ant programme which included responding to incursions and development and implementation of the surveillance programme. He is currently employed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community to implement the preliminary stages of the Pacific Ant Prevention Programme. Extensive surveillance through the Pacific islands, project work around specific ant problems and public awareness building has been the main focus of his current role
Organization:
Coordinator, Pacific Ant Prevention Programme Secretariat of the Pacific Community
Address:
C/- MAF PO Box 2526 Wellington New Zealand
Phone:
64 4 8190539
Fax:
64 4 8190736
Robertson,
Hamish
Taxonomy, biology and ecology of African ants
Organization:
South African Museum
Address:
Iziko Museums of Cape Town, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town 8000, South Africa
Phone:
+27 21 4813866
Fax:
+27 21 4813993
Vanderwoude,
Cas
Organization:
General Manager, Flybusters AntiAnts
Address:
Box 100-287 NSMC Auckland New Zealand
Phone:
+64 9 486 4411
Fax:
+64 27 270 1455