Global invasive species database

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Common name
Synonym
Ardisia crenulata , G. Lodd.
Ardisia crenulata , (Lodd.)
Similar species
Summary
Ardisia crenata is an ornamental, cultivated for its very decorative red fruit, but it is easily naturalised and has become highly invasive in mesic forests in several regions of the world (e.g. Mascarene Islands, Hawaii, Seychelles) where it causes a reduction in the presence and diversity of native understorey plant species. Its fruit is easily spread by indigenous or introduced birds.
Species Description
Ardisia crenata is a small erect evergreen shrub up to 1.5m tall, growing in multistemmed clumps with only flowering branches. Leaves alternate to 21cm long and 1-4cm wide, dark green above, waxy, glaborous with 12 to 18 pairs of lateral nerves, merging into a distinct marginal nerve which is slighty raised below. Flowering branches lateral or axillary clusters, up to 10cm long with few leaves. Flowers are small, bisexual, white to pink, often drooping below foliage. Petaloid components pinkish white, anthers yellow. Fruit is a red, glaborous 1 seeded drupe, 5-8 mm in diameter. Populations with white berries also exist (Langeland, 2007; PIER, 2007; Sellers, 2007).
Notes
A recent study comparing wild genotypes of Ardisia crenata within its native range in Japan with the genotype currently invading north central Florida concluded that traits selected for the ornamental cultivar may increase its pervasiveness in non-native habitat. Cultivar phenotypes found in Florida have dense foliage, compared to those found in Japan, which produces greater self shading and a slower growth rate. Dense foliage is more adventageous in the more open forests of Florida due to light availabiltiy. One area of the study revealed that very few seedlings were found growing within a 1 metre radius of adult plants for the Japanese genotypes, 5 or less, while up to 631 seedlings were found within a 1 metre radius of adult plants for the Florida genotypes. The thick carpet of seedlings found beneath adult plants can out compete native plants such as wildflowers (Kitajima, 2006).
Lifecycle Stages
Ardisia crenata reaches sexual maturity around 20cm in height when lateral branches start developing. Each lateral branch lives for two years, producing vegetation in the first year and flowers and fruit in the second year. Shoot extension and leaf production are generally limited to July through September after flowering. Seeds are intollerant to dessication. Viable seeds retained through out the year on the plant. Seeds have the ability to germinate within a range of 4 to 10 of soil pH, with germination rates of 84 to 98 percent within 40 days (Kitajima, 2006; Langeland, 2007).
Uses
Ardisia crenata is cultivated and planted in many countries as an ornamental shrub (PIER, 2007).
Habitat Description
Ardisia crenata thrives in the understory of mesic forests, often found in dense patches containing between 100 and 300 stems per m2 (Kitajima, 2006; Langeland, 2007).
Reproduction
Angiosperm, dicotyledonous. Sexual. Easily propogated by seed or cutting, only established by seed in the wild. Reaches reproductive maturity around 20cm in height when lateral branches start developing. Vivaciously resprouts after cutting or fire. Each drupe contains one seed inside a fleshy membrane (Kitajima, 2006; Langeland, 2007).
Nutrition
Ardisia crenata thrives in productive, well drained soils with partial to heavy shade in the understory of mesic forests (PIER, 2007; Langeland, 2007). Growth rates of A. crenata have been positively correlated with soil phosphorus levels (Bray, 2003).

Principal source: Langeland, K.A. and Burks, K.C. 2007. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. Ardisia crenata
Kitajima, K. and Fox, A. M. and Sato, T. and Nagamatsu, D. 2006. Cultivar selection prior to introduction may increase invasiveness: evidence from Ardisia crenata.
Sellers, B. A. and Langeland, K. A. and Ferrell, J. A. and Meisenberg, M. and Walter. 2007. Identification and Control of Coral Ardisia (Ardisia crenata): A Potentially Poisonous Plant.
PIER, 2007. Ardisia crenata Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII); Comit� fran�ais de l'UICN (IUCN French Committee) & IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Forest Starr and Kim Starr, Botanical Research Associates United States Geological Survey Biological Resources Division Makawao, Maui, Hawaii USA
Dr Rachel Atkinson, Charles Darwin Foundation, Santa Cruz, Galapagos

Publication date: 2008-03-14

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Ardisia crenata. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1285 on 21-09-2017.

General Impacts
Considered a high risk invasive in many areas, Ardisia crenata often invades the understory of mesic forests from areas where it is planted or cultivated for ornamental purposes. Ardisia crenata can significantly reduce native species diversity when present, regardless of density. It significantly increases shade in understories, often shading out native seedlings. While there is no published data supporting the theory that A. crenata is poisonous, it is suspected to be the agent of death of livestock in two seperate cases in Florida (Langeland, 2007; Sellers, 2007).
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Ardisia crenata for Hawaii and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The result is a score of 7 and a recommendation of: \"reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific).\"

Management areas should be closely monitored for presence and frequency of Ardisia crenata. It should be subject to inter-island quarantine or banned from importation to non-native locations. A. Crenata is already barred from importation into French Polynesia (Space and Flynn, 2002). Eradication is most effective when performed within first 1 to 2 years of presence before seed production begins (Langeland, 2007).

Physical: Hand pulling seedlings is effective where soil disturbance is acceptable (PIER, 2007).

Chemical: Chemical application of glyphosphate can be used on dense populations while larger, individual specimens may be cut down and stumps treated with herbicide or treated with a basal application of triclopyr. Suppresion may be accomplished through complete foliar applications of 5% v/v of Garlon 4 or Remedy. Garlon 4 or Remedy can be applied to the basal bark in an 18% v/v solution, applying no more than 8 quarts per acre and/or less than 10% of total grazed area when applying more than 2 quarts per acre. Always follow labeling instructions when applying herbicides (PIER, 2007; Sellers, 2007).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Ardisia crenata
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
  • japan
  • korea, democratic people's republic of
  • korea, republic of
  • malaysia
  • myanmar
  • philippines
  • taiwan
  • thailand
  • viet nam
Informations on Ardisia crenata has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Ardisia crenata in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Considered a high risk invasive in many areas, Ardisia crenata often invades the understory of mesic forests from areas where it is planted or cultivated for ornamental purposes. Ardisia crenata can significantly reduce native species diversity when present, regardless of density. It significantly increases shade in understories, often shading out native seedlings. While there is no published data supporting the theory that A. crenata is poisonous, it is suspected to be the agent of death of livestock in two seperate cases in Florida (Langeland, 2007; Sellers, 2007).
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Ardisia crenata for Hawaii and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The result is a score of 7 and a recommendation of: \"reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific).\"

Management areas should be closely monitored for presence and frequency of Ardisia crenata. It should be subject to inter-island quarantine or banned from importation to non-native locations. A. Crenata is already barred from importation into French Polynesia (Space and Flynn, 2002). Eradication is most effective when performed within first 1 to 2 years of presence before seed production begins (Langeland, 2007).

Physical: Hand pulling seedlings is effective where soil disturbance is acceptable (PIER, 2007).

Chemical: Chemical application of glyphosphate can be used on dense populations while larger, individual specimens may be cut down and stumps treated with herbicide or treated with a basal application of triclopyr. Suppresion may be accomplished through complete foliar applications of 5% v/v of Garlon 4 or Remedy. Garlon 4 or Remedy can be applied to the basal bark in an 18% v/v solution, applying no more than 8 quarts per acre and/or less than 10% of total grazed area when applying more than 2 quarts per acre. Always follow labeling instructions when applying herbicides (PIER, 2007; Sellers, 2007).

Locations
COOK ISLANDS
Management Category
Unknown
Bibliography
17 references found for Ardisia crenata

Managment information
Kitajima, K. and Fox, A. M. and Sato, T. and Nagamatsu, D. 2006. Cultivar selection prior to introduction may increase invasiveness: evidence from Ardisia crenata. Biological Invasions: Volume 8, Number 7, October 2006, pp. 1471-1482.
Summary: This article is an interesting look into the phenotypic and genotypic differences between specimens of Ardisia crenata found within its native range in Japan versus specimens found as invasives in north central Florida. The article concludes that traits chosen for the ornamental cultivar of A. crenata commonly found in Florida contribute to its pervasiveness as an invasive species.
Langeland, K.A. and Burks, K.C. 2007. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida s Natural Areas. Ardisia crenata pp. 100-101. University of Florida, IFAS publication Number 257.
Summary: This book is a great reference for a wide range of invasive plants found in Florida s natural areas. For each species featured there is information on the botanical description, ecological significance, distribution, and life history.
Available from: http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/identif.html [Accessed 10 March 2008]
Meisenburg, M. J. and Fox, A. M. 2002. What role do birds play in dispersal of invasive plants? Wildland Weeds, summer 2002, Volume 5, Number 3, pp. 8-14. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council.
Summary: This article looks into the role of birds in the dispersal of specific invasive plants, refering to other publications as well as research within the University of Florida.
Available from: http://www.fleppc.org/publications/Wildland%20Weeds/WW_Summer%202002.pdf [Accessed 10 March 2008]
Sellers, B. A. and Langeland, K. A. and Ferrell, J. A. and Meisenberg, M. and Walter. 2007. Identification and Control of Coral Ardisia (Ardisia crenata): A Potentially Poisonous Plant. SS AGR 276. University of Florida, IFAS Extension.
Summary: This article gives a brief biological summary of Ardisia crenata including a warning of possible toxicity and concludes with specific control methods.
Available from: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AG281 [Accessed 10 March 2008]
Space, J. C. and Flynn, T. November 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on Invasive Plant Species of Environmental Concern. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Honolulu, Hawai�i, USA.
Summary: This report is a broad and in depth description of invasive plants through out the Cook Islands. It is a good source for distribution and management information within the Cook Islands.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/cook_islands_report.pdf [Accessed 10 March 2008]
Tunison, J. T. and Zimmer, N. G. 1992. Success in Controlling Localized Alien Plants in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and Research. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. University of Hawaii, Manoa.
Summary: This volume is an organized group of publications adressing invasive species management in Hawaii with specific insight into management of such species within National parks.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/books/apineh1992/pdfs/apineh1992.pdf [Accessed 10 March 2008]
General information
Baret, S., Rouget, M., Richardson, D. M., Lavergne, C., Egoh, B., Dupont, J., & Strasberg, D. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La R�union (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology, 31, 747-758.
Summary: L objectif de ce papier est d identifier les zones prioritaires en mati�re de gestion des invasions biologiques � La R�union en mod�lisant la distribution actuelle et potentiellle d une s�lection de plantes parmi les plus envahissantes.
Bray, S.R. and Kitajima, K. and Sylvia, D. M. 2003. Mycorrhizae Differentially Alter Growth, Physiology, and Competitive Ability Of An Invasive Shrub. Ecological Applications: Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 565�574. Ecological Society of America 2003.
Summary: This article gives a brief biological summary of Ardisia crenata before going into depth about the affects of mycorrhizae on its growth.
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Ardisia crenata Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de La R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=08c5433a60135c32e34f46a71175850c [Accessed 28 March 2008]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database Ardisia crenata Sims.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=183614 [Accessed 8 April 2008]
Kueffer, C. & Lavergne, C. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the Western Indian Ocean. R�union. FAO. 36 p
Summary: Available from: http://www.fao.org/forestry/webview/media?mediaId=6842&langId=2 [Accessed 26 March 2008]
Macdonald, I.A.W., Th�baud, C., Strahm, W.A., & Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects on alien plant invasions on native v�g�tation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation, 18, 51-61.
Summary: Cet article est le premier � proposer une hi�rarchisation des plantes les plus envahissantes de La R�union. 33 plantes ont �t� ainsi class�es en utilisant une m�thode d�velopp�e en Afrique du Sud. Les bases d une strat�gie de lutte contre les plantes exotiques envahissantes sont �galement formul�es.
Mandon-Dalger, I., Clergeau, P., Tassin, J., Riviere, J., & Gatti, S. 2004. Relationships between alien plants and an alien bird species on Reunion Island. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 20, 635-642.
Summary: Ce papier analyse le r�le des oiseaux exotiques dans la diss�mination de certaines plantes exotiques envahissantes de la R�union.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk) 2007. Ardisia crenata
Summary: This site is set up by the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry to profile plant threats to Pacific ecoysystems in partnership with the United States Forest Service. A highly reliable site.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/ardisia_crenata.htm [Accessed 10 March 2008]
Tassin, J., Rivi�re, J.N., Cazanove, M., Bruzzeses, E. 2006. Ranking of invasive woody plant species for management on r�union Island. Weed research 46, 388-403
Summary: L inventaire de 318 esp�ces de plantes ligneuses introduites � la R�union, permet d en identifier 132 comme naturalis�es dans les �cosyst�mes naturels. 26 de ces esp�ces choisies parmi les plus envahissantes ont �t� class�es en fonction de leur impact biologique sur les �cosyst�mes indig�nes.
USDA, ARS, 2008. Ardisia crenata. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), February, 2008. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Summary: This taxonomy website, provided by the USDA, is a great source for common names and some distribution information of plants.
Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?3880 [Accessed 10 March 2008]
Contact
The following 4 contacts offer information an advice on Ardisia crenata
Atkinson,
Dr. Rachel
Dr. Rachel Atkinson is the coordinator of the introduced plant program at the Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF). CDF works closely with the National Park Service to provide technical assistance to weed control programmes. Our work involves training weeders, carrying out control trials, investigating weed species ecology, establishing systematic searching methodologies for eradication programmes, carrying out introduced plant species inventories, weed risk assessments etc.
Organization:
Charles Darwin Foundation, Santa Cruz, Galapagos
Address:
Puerto Ayora Santa Cruz Galapagos Ecuador
Phone:
(593-5) 2526146/147 ext 218
Fax:
Baret,
St�phane
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Parc national de La R�union, Charg� de mission flore
Address:
112 rue Ste Marie - 97400 St Denis
Phone:
02 62 90 79 06
Fax:
02 62 90 11 39
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax:
Triolo,
Julien
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Office National des For�ts
Address:
ONF. Domaine Forestier de la Providence, 97488 Saint Denis cedex
Phone:
692345283
Fax: