AntWeb, 2006. Linepithema humileSummary:
AntWeb illustrates ant diversity by providing information and high quality color images of many of the approximately 10,000 known species of ants. AntWeb currently focusses on the species of the Nearctic and Malagasy biogeographic regions, and the ant genera of the world. Over time, the site is expected to grow to describe every species of ant known. AntWeb provides the following tools: Search tools, Regional Lists, In-depth information, Ant Image comparision tool PDF field guides maps on AntWeb and Google Earth and Ant genera of the world slide show.
AntWeb is available from: http://antweb.org/about.jsp [Accessed 20 April 2006]
The species page is available from: http://antweb.org/getComparison.do?rank=species&genus=linepithema&name=humile&project=&project= [Accessed 2 May 2006]
Commonwealth of Australia. 2006a. Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.Summary:
This plan establishes a national framework to guide and coordinate Australia�s response to tramp ants, identifying the research, management, and other actions necessary to ensure the long term survival of native species and ecological communities affected by tramp ants. It identifies six national priority species as an initial, but flexible, list on which to focus attention. They are the red imported fi re ant (Solenopsis invicta
), tropical fire ant (S. geminata
), little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata
), African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala
), yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes
), and Argentine ant (Linepithema humile
Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants.pdf [Accessed 17 November 2009]
Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2005. Draft Threat Abatement Plan for for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories
Forschler, B. T. and Evans, G. M. 1994. Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foraging activity response to selected containerized baits. J. Entomol. Sci. 29(2): 209-214.
Summary: Found that baits formulated with hydramethylnon or sulfluramid were effective in eliminating foraging ants in an urban setting.
Green, C. 2005. Argentine ant update, Dawn Chorus 60: 8. Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi.
Haney, P. 1984. A different approach to the Argentine ant problem. Citrograph 69(6): 140-146.
Summary: Provides a brief review of historical chemical approaches to Argentine ant control in agriculture, and presents results for liquid Diazinon and Lorsban spray treatments of citrus trees.
Harris, R.; Abbott, K.; Barton, K.; Berry, J.; Don, W.; Gunawardana, D.; Lester, P.; Rees, J.; Stanley, M.; Sutherland, A.; Toft, R. 2005: Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand. BAH/35/2004-1.Summary:
The invasive ant risk assessment project, prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, synthesises information on the ant species that occur in New Zealand (native and introduced species), and on invasive ants that pose a potential threat to New Zealand.
There is a great deal of information in this risk assessment on invasive ant species that is of global interest, including; biology, distribution, pest status, control technologies.
The assessment project has five sections.1) The Ants of New Zealand: information sheets on all native and introduced ants established in New Zealand 2) Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment: risk scorecard to quantify the threat to New Zealand of 75 ant species. 3) Information sheets on invasive ant threats: information sheets on all ant species scored as medium to high risk (n = 39). 4) Pest risk assessment: A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes
, Lasius neglectus
, Monomorium destructor
, Paratrechina longicornis
, Solenopsis geminata
, Solenopsis richteri
, Tapinoma melanocephalum
, Wasmannia auropunctata
) 5) Ranking of high risk species: ranking of the eight highest risk ant species in terms of the risks of entry, establishment, spread, and detrimental consequences.
NB. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta
) is considered to be the worst ant pest in the world. However, Solenopsis invicta
was specifically excluded from consideration in this risk assessment as this species has already been subject to detailed consideration by Biosecurity New Zealand
(This invasive ant pest risk assessment was funded by Biosecurity New Zealand and Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Undertaken by Landcare Research in collaboration with Victoria University of Wellington and Otago Museum)
Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Ants/ant_pest_risk.asp [Accessed 20 May 2007]
Hartley, Stephen, Harris, Richard & Lester, Philip J., 2006. Quantifying uncertainty in the potential distribution of an invasive species: climate and the Argentine ant. Ecology Letters 9 (9), 1068-1079.
Holway, D.A., Lach, L., Suarez, A.V., Tsutsui, N.D. and Case, T.J. 2002a. The Causes and Consequences of Ant Invasions, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33: 181-233.
Hooper-Bui, L. and Rust, M. K. 2000. Oral toxicity of abamectin, boric acid, fipronil, and hydramethylnon to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Economic Entomology 93(3): 858-864.
Summary: Conducted laboratory tests of the effectiveness of four toxicants against the Argentine ant.
Hooper, L. M. 1995. The biology of the Southern Fire Ant, Solenopsis xyloni (McCook) and its predation of the California Least Tern, Sterna antillarum browni (Mearns). MSc Thesis, University of California Riverside.
Summary: Masters thesis dealing primarily with Solenopsis xyloni, but also makes some references to Linepithema humile.
Krushelnycky, P. D. and Reimer, N. J. 1998. Bait preference by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. Environmental Entomology 27: 1482-1487.
Summary: A year-long study determining the seasonal preferences of baits that could potentially be used in control efforts.
Krushelnycky, P. D. and Reimer, N. J. 1998. Efficacy of Maxforce bait for control of the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. Environmental Entomology 27: 1473-1481.
Summary: An initial attempt to eradicate Argentine ants from test plots in Haleakala National Park, using standard Maxforce bait as well as new bait varieties formulated with hydramethylnon. Was unsuccessful in achieving eradication.
Krushelnycky, P.D., Loope, L.L. and Joe, S.M. 2004. Limiting spread of a unicolonial invasive insect and characterization of seasonal patterns of range expansion, Biological Invasions 6: 47�57.
McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
Ness, J. H and Bronstein, J. L. 2004. The Effects of Invasive Ants on Prospective ant Mutualists, Biological Invasions 6: 445-461.
O�Dowd, D.J., Green, P.T. and Lake, P.S. 1999. Status, Impact, and Recommendations for Research and Management of Exotic Invasive Ants in Christmas Island National Park. Centre for the Analysis and Management of Biological Invasions: Clayton (Victoria, Australia).
Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California � Davis.Summary:
PIAkey (Pacific Invasive Ant key) is an electronic guide designed to assist users identify invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region. The guide covers four subfamilies, 20 genera and 44 species.
The primary tool offered by PIAkey is an interactive key designed using Lucid3 software. In addition to being fully illustrated, the Lucid key allows users to enter at multiple character points, skip unknown characters, and find the most efficient path for identifying the available taxa. Each species is linked to its own web page. These species pages, or factsheets, are linked to an illustrated glossary of morphological terms, and include the following seven sections: 1) Overview of the species; 2) Diagnostic chart illustrating a unique combination of identification characters; 3) Comparison chart illustrating differences among species of similar appearance; 4) Video clip of the species behavior at food baits (where available); 5) Image gallery that includes original specimen images and live images (where available); 6) Nomenclature section detailing the taxonomic history of the species, and 7) Links and references section for additional literature and online resources.
Available from: http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html [Accessed 17 December 2008]
Tsutsui, N.D. and Suarez, A.V. 2003. The Colony Structure and Population Biology of Invasive Ants, Conservation Biology 17(1): 48-58.
van Schagen, J. J., Davis, P. R. and Widner, M. A. 1994. Ant pests of Western Australia, with particular reference to the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). In Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact and Control of Introduced Species: 174-180.
Summary: Reports on effort to eradicate the Argentine ant in Western Australia.
Walker, K. 2006. Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 29/08/2006 12:06:40 PM. Summary:
PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria s Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=615 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
Benois, A. 1973. Incidence des facteurs ecologiques sur le cycle annuel et l activite saisonniere de la fourmi d Argentine, Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), dans la region d Antibes. Insectes Sociaux, 20: 267-296.
Bond, W. and Slingsby, P. 1984. Collapse of an ant-plant mutualism: the Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis) and myrmecochorous proteaceae. Ecology 65(4): 1031-1037.
Summary: Found that the exclusion of native ants by Argentine ants led to decreased rates of seed dispersal in plants adapted to ant-mediated seed dispersal.
Cammell, M. E., Way, M. J. and Paiva, M. R. 1996. Diversity and structure of ant communities associated with oak, pine, eucalyptus and arable habitats in Portugal. Insectes Sociaux, 43: 37-46.
Carney, S.E., Byerley, M.B. and Holway, D.A. 2003. Invasive Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) do not replace native ants as seed dispersers of Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae) in California, USA, Oecologia 135: 576�582.
Carpintero, S., Reyes-L�pez, J. and Arias de Reyna, L. 2005. Impact of Argentine Ants (Linepithema humile) on an arboreal ant community in Do�ana National Park, Spain, Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 151-163.
Christian, C. E. 2001. Consequences of a biological invasion reveal the importance of mutualism for plant communities. Nature 413: 635-639.
Cole, F. R., Medeiros, A. C., Loope, L. L. and Zuehlke, W. W. 1992. Effects of the Argentine ant on arthropod fauna of Hawaiian high-elevation shrubland. Ecology 73(4): 1313-1322.
Summary: Found that the Argentine ant significantly reduces the abundances of a number of endemic and introduced arthropods
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Insectos. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.Summary: English
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - insects is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Insectos [Accessed 30 July 2008] Spanish
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Insectos is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Insectos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Fluker, S. S. 1969. Sympatric associations among selected ant species and some effects of ants on sugarcane mealybugs in Hawaii. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hawaii, 96 pp.
Fluker, S. S. and Beardsley, J. W. 1970. Sympatric associations of three ants: Iridomyrmex humilis, Pheidole megacephala, and Anoplolepis longipes in Hawaii. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63: 1290-96.
Holway, D. A. 1995. Distribution of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) in northern California. Conservation Biology 9: 1634-1637.
Holway, D. A. 1998. Effect of Argentine ant invasions on ground-dwelling arthropods in northern California riparian woodlands. Oecologia 116: 252-258.
Holway, D. A., L. Lach, A. V. Suarez, N. D. Tsutsui, and T. J. Case. 2002. The ecological causes and consequences of ant invasions. Annual review of ecology and systematics 33:181-233.
Summary: A comprehensive review about invasive ants in general.
Human, K. G. and Gordon, D. M. 1996. Exploitation and interference competition between the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, and native ant species. Oecologia 105: 405-412.
Human, K. G. and Gordon, D. M. 1997. Effects of Argentine ants on invertebrate biodiversity in northern California. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1242-1248.
Summary: Using pitfall traps, found that Argentine ants displace nearly all native ants and many non-ant arthropods, and cause a shift in arthropod trophic structure.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Linepithema humileSummary:
An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Linepithema+humile&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Keller, L., Passera, L. and Suzzoni, J. 1989. Queen execution in the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis. Physiological Entomology 14: 157-163.
Summary: Lab and field work demonstrated that about 90% of mated queens were killed by the workers at the beginning of the reproductive season.
Krushelnycky, P. D., Hodges, C. S. N., Medeiros, A. C. and Loope, L. L. 2001. Interaction between the Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel and the Argentine ant in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. Studies in Avian Biology 22: 243-246.
Summary: Found that Argentine ants do not reduce nesting success of Hawaiian Dark-rumped petrel in Haleakala National Park, most likely because the deep, shaded burrows constructed by the petrels are cold and may discourage heavy ant foraging.
Lieberburg, I., Kranz, P. M. and Seip, A. 1975. Bermudian ants revisited: the status and interaction of Pheidole megacephala and Iridomyrmex humilis. Ecology 56: 473�478.
Majer, J. D. 1994. Spread of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), with special reference to Western Australia. In Williams D. F. (ed.) Exotic ants: Biology, impact and control of introduced species: 163-173.
Summary: Provides information on distribution of Argentine ants in Western Australia, and potential abiotic requirements.
Markin, G. P. 1968. Nest relationship of the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 41(4): 511-516.
Markin, G. P. 1970. The seasonal life cycle of the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in southern California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 63(5): 1238-1243.
Rizo, J. L. F. 1995. Reflexiones sobre las hormigas vagabundas de Cuba. Cocuyo 3: 11-22.
Robertson, H. G. Argentine ant bibliography.
Summary: A great summary bibliography of Argentine ant research sorted by topic, found on the South African Museum webpage.
Suarez, A. V., Bolger, D. T. and Case, T. J. 1998. Effects of fragmentation and invasion on native ant communities in coastal southern California. Ecology 79(6): 2041-2056.
Suarez, A. V., Holway, D. A. and Case, T. J. 2001. Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from Argentine ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98(3): 1095-1100.
Summary: A useful resource reviewing and summarizing Argentine ant colonizations worldwide, as well as a finer scale analysis of spread throughout the U.S. and local expansion rates.
Suarez, A. V., Richmond, J. Q. and Case, T. J. 2000. Prey selection in horned lizards following the invasion of Argentine ants in southern California. Ecological Applications 10(3): 711-725.
Summary: Found that exclusion of native ants by Argentine ants led to a diet shift in coastal horned lizards, and densities of juvenile lizards were low in Argentine ant invaded areas.
Tsutsui, N. D. and T. J. Case. 2001. Population genetics and colony structure of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) in its native and introduced ranges. Evolution 55:976-985.
Summary: The social structure and genetics of Argentine ants in their native and introduced ranges.
Tsutsui, N. D., A. V. Suarez, D. A. Holway and T. J. Case. 2000. Reduced genetic variation and the success of an invasive species. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, USA 97:5948-5953.
Summary: The social structure and genetics of Argentine ants in their native and introduced ranges.
Tsutsui, N. D., A. V. Suarez, D. A. Holway, and T. J. Case. 2001. Relationships among native and introduced populations of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile and the source of introduced populations. Molecular ecology 10:2151-2161.
Summary: Using genetic tools to identify the source of invasive Argentine ant populations.
Visser, D., Wright, M. G. and Giliomee, J. H. 1996. The effect of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on flower-visiting insects of Protea nitida Mill. (Proteaceae). African Entomology 4(2): 285-287.
Ward, P. S. 1987. Distribution of the introduced Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis) in natural habitats of the Lower Sacramento Valley and its effects on the indigenous ant fauna. Hilgardia 55(2): 1-16.
Wilson, E. O. 1951. Variation and adaptation in the imported fire ant. Evolution 5: 68-79.