Global invasive species database

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Common name
tamaligi paepae (English, Samoa), falcata (English), parasiante (Portuguese), ukall ra ngebard (Palauan), tuhke kerosene (English), mara (Portuguese), tamaligi, tamalini (Samoan), albizzia (English), tuhkehn karisihn (Pohnpeian), tamaligi palagi (English, American Samoa), tuhke kerosin (Pohnpeian), peacock plume (English), sau (English), malacana (English), tamaligi uliuli (English, Samoa), 'arapitia (Cook Islands), albízia (Portuguese)
Synonym
Adenanthera falcataria , L.
Albizia falcataria , (L.) Fosb.
Albizia moluccana , Miq.
Paraserianthes falcataria , (L.) I. Nielsen
Albizia falcata , auct. pl.
Albizia moluccana , F.A. Miquel
Paraserianthes falcataria , subsp. falcataria
Similar species
Summary
Falcataria moluccana is an invasive, nitrogen-fixing tree species. It is has been introduced to the Seychelles, Mauritius, Reunion and many Pacific islands; including, most notably, Hawaii where it has become a problematic invader. Its rapid growth habit allows it to outcompete slow-growing native trees, and its abundant, high-quality litter alters nutrient dynamics in the soil. This affects decomposition rates and microorganism and invertebrate community composition. Ecosystem processes may be altered in both terrestrial and aquatic environments where F. moluccana invades riparian areas.
Species Description
\"Trees up to 40 m tall, bark white, gray or greenish, smooth or slightly warty, young parts densely reddish brown tomentose or puberulent. Leaves with a large nectary below the lowermost pair of pinnae and smaller ones between or below most pairs of pinnae, pinnae (4-) 8-15 pairs, leaflets 15-25 pairs per pinna, obliquely elliptic, falcate, 10-20 mm long, 3-6 mm wide, midrib strongly excentric near 1 of the margins. Flowers in panicles ca 20 cm in diameter, often with 2 serial branches from 1 bract scar; calyx 1-1.5 mm long, silky pubescent, the teeth 0.5 mm long; corolla cream or greenish yellow, 3-4.5 mm long (excl. stamens); stamens 10-17 mm long. Pods 9-12 cm long, 1.5-2.5 cm wide, densely pubescent or glabrous, with a narrow, longitudinal wing along the upper suture. Seeds transversely arranged, ellipsoid, 5-7 mm long, 2.5-3.5 mm wide, laterally flattened, with a pleurogram ca 3 mm long and 1.5 mm wide\" (Wagner et al., 1999).
Lifecycle Stages
Produces abundant seeds contained in lightweight pods and are dispersed by wind (Little & Skolmen, 1989 in Starr et al., 2003).
Uses
Falcataria moluccana was originally introduced to Hawaii in 1917 from North Borneo and Java. Since then this tree has been planted in the hundreds of thousands. It is used for reforestation and as an ornamental due to its aesthetic looks, including attractive gray bark and feather-like flowers (Wagner et al. 1999; Starr et al. 2003).

Plantations of F. moluccana have also been established in Hawaii short-rotation forestry applications, due to its fast growth and nitrogen fixation capacity (Binkley & Giardina, 1997 in Hughes & Denslow, 2005). The wood is used for a variety of purposes including canoe building and furniture making (Starr et al. 2003).

Japanese farmers in Palau planted F. moluccana for use as a shade tree for cacao, coffee and tea plantations (Endress, 2002).

More recently F. moluccana has been approved for use as a biofuel, to generate electricity on the Hawaiian island of Kauai (Eagle, 2008; Chimera et al., 2010).

Habitat Description
Falcataria moluccana grows well on a variety of soil types, including degraded sites and acidic or nutrient poor soils (Hughes & Denslow, 2005). It is able to grow on poor soils due to its nitrogen-fixing roots (Kitalong, 2008). In Hawaii F. moluccana often establishes on young lava flows with minimal soil development (Mascaro et al. 2009). In Hawaii F. moluccana spreads rapidly in areas below 305 m elevation with 2,032-3,810 mm annual rainfall (Little & Skolmen, 1989 in Starr et al., 2003).
Pathway
Spread long distances by humans who plant the tree for landscaping, forestry or other purposes (Little & Skolmen, 1989 in Starr et al., 2003).Grown as an ornamental garden plant due to its attractive flowers.Spread long distances by humans who plant the tree for landscaping, forestry or other purposes (Little & Skolmen, 1989 in Starr et al., 2003).

Principal source:

Compiler: Comit� fran�ais de l'UICN (IUCN French Committee) & IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review:

Publication date: 2008-03-14

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Falcataria moluccana. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1249 on 30-08-2016.

General Impacts
The exotic nitrogen-fixing tree Falcataria moluccana dramatically alters forest structure and litter inputs in forests it invades. In rare wet lowland forest on young lava flows in Hawaii, F. moluccana is a particular problem as it grows rapidly, reducing light-levels and outcompeting native slow-growing Metrosideros polymorpha. Enhanced leaf litter quality and quantity of F. molucccana compared to native species causes increases in soil nutrient levels, decomposition rates, microorganism community composition and soil invertebrates. Ecosystem processes are altered in both terrestrial and aquatic environments where F. moluccana invaded riparian areas (Hughes & Denslow, 2005; Allison et al., 2006; Atwood et al., 2010).

For a detailed account of the impacts of F. moluccana please read Impacts of Falcataria moluccana.

Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Falcataria moluccana produced a high score of 8 and a recommendation of: \"reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific).\" (PIER, 2005). This species is also listed on the Hawaii state Noxious Weed List (Ostertag et al., 2009).

Cultural control: The planting of F. moluccana is discouraged in many regions; both where it is a known invasive and where further research is required to determine its impact (e.g Space & Flynn, 2000b; Space et al., 2003; Space et al., 2004; Space et al., 2009). In Hawaii, Starr et al. (2003) recommend asking public not to spread trees and to instead plant alternatives such as native koa (Acacia koa).

Manual control: Girdling (ring-barking) of F. moluccana in the sapling stage may be a cost-effective control measure (Mueller-Dombois, 2008). It is relatively easy to achieve and tends to be successful (Gerlach, 2004). Uprooting seedlings and saplings, followed by chemical control can also be effective (Meyer, 2008). F. moluccana is also reportedly susceptible to being killed by root damage by heavy equipment (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical control: F. moluccana is very susceptible to hormone-type herbicides. 2,4-D and glyphosate cause severe injury, while dicamba and tricoplyr are even more effective. Herbicides may be applied by injecting into the trunks of trees, or as a spray on the trunk after debarking (Motooka et al., 2003; Meyer, 2008).

Integrated management: Trees can be removed by hand or using saws, and stumps treated with a triclopyr-based herbicide to prevent resprouting (Ostertag et al., 2009). Ostertag et al., (2009) carried out removal experiments in Hawaii to determine native species’ response to the removal of all invasive trees and shrubs from plots. While there were major environmental changes in removal plots, native species growth and litterfall productivity did not change over three years, confirming the slow growth response capabilities of Hawaiian trees. However with continued removal of invasive species, it may be possible to alter the seedbank enough to encourage native regeneration (Cordell et al., 2009). Cordell et al. (2009) recommend non-native species removal to encourage natural regeneration, with supplemental native species planting as an additional strategy. Follow-up removal is essential to success (Cordell et al., 2009). In reality, treating and sustaining such removal plots to control invasive species is highly labour intensive, and may not be feasible at a regional scale (Ostertag et al., 2008).

Other: Recently F. moluccana has been approved for use as a biofuel, to generate electricity on the Hawaiian island of Kauai (Eagle, 2008; Chimera et al., 2010). The president of the project states that “the project will reduce the overall amount of albizia on island and positively benefit the community”. However in order to fulfill the wood requirements, an additional 2000 acres of F. moluccana would be necessary. However Chimera et al. (2010) list a number of reasons why this is unlikely to result in effective control of the invasive tree, and will most likely lead to it being more widely planted and greater spread.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Falcataria moluccana
NATIVE RANGE
  • indonesia
  • new guinea
  • papua new guinea
  • solomon islands
Informations on Falcataria moluccana has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Falcataria moluccana in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The exotic nitrogen-fixing tree Falcataria moluccana dramatically alters forest structure and litter inputs in forests it invades. In rare wet lowland forest on young lava flows in Hawaii, F. moluccana is a particular problem as it grows rapidly, reducing light-levels and outcompeting native slow-growing Metrosideros polymorpha. Enhanced leaf litter quality and quantity of F. molucccana compared to native species causes increases in soil nutrient levels, decomposition rates, microorganism community composition and soil invertebrates. Ecosystem processes are altered in both terrestrial and aquatic environments where F. moluccana invaded riparian areas (Hughes & Denslow, 2005; Allison et al., 2006; Atwood et al., 2010).

For a detailed account of the impacts of F. moluccana please read Impacts of Falcataria moluccana.

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
PALAU
SEYCHELLES
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[5] Competition
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[9] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [2] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
  • [1] Modification of food web
  • [4] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Modification of successional patterns
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Falcataria moluccana produced a high score of 8 and a recommendation of: \"reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific).\" (PIER, 2005). This species is also listed on the Hawaii state Noxious Weed List (Ostertag et al., 2009).

Cultural control: The planting of F. moluccana is discouraged in many regions; both where it is a known invasive and where further research is required to determine its impact (e.g Space & Flynn, 2000b; Space et al., 2003; Space et al., 2004; Space et al., 2009). In Hawaii, Starr et al. (2003) recommend asking public not to spread trees and to instead plant alternatives such as native koa (Acacia koa).

Manual control: Girdling (ring-barking) of F. moluccana in the sapling stage may be a cost-effective control measure (Mueller-Dombois, 2008). It is relatively easy to achieve and tends to be successful (Gerlach, 2004). Uprooting seedlings and saplings, followed by chemical control can also be effective (Meyer, 2008). F. moluccana is also reportedly susceptible to being killed by root damage by heavy equipment (Motooka et al., 2003).

Chemical control: F. moluccana is very susceptible to hormone-type herbicides. 2,4-D and glyphosate cause severe injury, while dicamba and tricoplyr are even more effective. Herbicides may be applied by injecting into the trunks of trees, or as a spray on the trunk after debarking (Motooka et al., 2003; Meyer, 2008).

Integrated management: Trees can be removed by hand or using saws, and stumps treated with a triclopyr-based herbicide to prevent resprouting (Ostertag et al., 2009). Ostertag et al., (2009) carried out removal experiments in Hawaii to determine native species’ response to the removal of all invasive trees and shrubs from plots. While there were major environmental changes in removal plots, native species growth and litterfall productivity did not change over three years, confirming the slow growth response capabilities of Hawaiian trees. However with continued removal of invasive species, it may be possible to alter the seedbank enough to encourage native regeneration (Cordell et al., 2009). Cordell et al. (2009) recommend non-native species removal to encourage natural regeneration, with supplemental native species planting as an additional strategy. Follow-up removal is essential to success (Cordell et al., 2009). In reality, treating and sustaining such removal plots to control invasive species is highly labour intensive, and may not be feasible at a regional scale (Ostertag et al., 2008).

Other: Recently F. moluccana has been approved for use as a biofuel, to generate electricity on the Hawaiian island of Kauai (Eagle, 2008; Chimera et al., 2010). The president of the project states that “the project will reduce the overall amount of albizia on island and positively benefit the community”. However in order to fulfill the wood requirements, an additional 2000 acres of F. moluccana would be necessary. However Chimera et al. (2010) list a number of reasons why this is unlikely to result in effective control of the invasive tree, and will most likely lead to it being more widely planted and greater spread.

Management Category
Prevention
Control
None
Unknown
Monitoring
Bibliography
57 references found for Falcataria moluccana

Managment information
Chimera G. Charles, Christopher E Buddenhagen & Patti M Clifford, 2010. Biofuels: the risks and dangers of introducing invasive species Biofuels (2010) 1(5), 785�796
Hanson D. Eric, 2004. ASSIST: Development of the American Samoa Selected Invasive Species Task Force. Weed Technology, 18(sp1):1334-1337. 2004.
Kitalong, Ann Hillmann, 2008. Forests of Palau: a long-term perspective. Micronesica 40(1/2): 9-31, 2008
Summary: Available from: http://www.uog.edu/up/micronesica/dynamicdata/assetmanager/images/vol40/2_kitalong.pdf [Accessed 21 March 2011]
Ostertag, Rebecca; Cordell, Susan; Michaud, Jene; Cole, T. Colleen; Schulten, Jodie R.; Publico, Keiko M.; Enoka, Jaime H., 2009. Ecosystem and Restoration Consequences of Invasive Woody Species Removal in Hawaiian Lowland Wet Forest. Ecosystems. 12(3). APR 2009. 503-515.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2005. Risk Assessment: Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes, Fabaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/wra/pacific/falcataria_moluccana_htmlwra.htm [Accessed 21 March 2011]
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2010. Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes, Fabaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/falcataria_moluccana.htm [Accessed 21 March 2011]
Space, James C. & Flynn, Tim. 2000a. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/asreport.htm [Accessed 21 March 2011]
Space, James C. & Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.
Summary: Available from: http://www.sprep.org/att/IRC/eCOPIES/Countries/Tonga/12.pdf [Accessed 21 March 2011]
General information
Allison, Steven D.; Nielsen, Caroline; Hughes, R. Flint., 2006. Elevated enzyme activities in soils under the invasive nitrogen-fixing tree Falcataria moluccana. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 38(7). JUL 2006. 1537-1544.
Atwood, Trisha B.; Wiegner, Tracy N.; Turner, Jason P.; MacKenzie, Richard A., 2010. Potential Effects of an Invasive Nitrogen-Fixing Tree on a Hawaiian Stream Food Web. Pacific Science. 64(3). JUL 2010. 367-379.
Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 664577 (MacKee, M. 18073)
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/vouchers/pier/bish0000664577.htm [Accessed 29 March 2011]
Cordell, Susan; Ostertag, Rebecca; Rowe, Barbara; Sweinhart, Linda; Vasquez-Radonic, Lucero; Michaud, Jene; Cole, T. Colleen; Schulten, Jodie R., 2009. Evaluating barriers to native seedling establishment in an invaded Hawaiian lowland wet forest. Biological Conservation. 142(12). DEC 2009. 2997-3004.
Eagle, N. 2008. Commission approves biomass plant. The Garden Island, Lihue, HI, USA.
Summary: Available from: http://thegardenisland.com/news/article_434788b2-4437-5a71-b339-864e9b51172f.html [Accessed 28 March 2011]
Endress A. Bryan, 2002. The Importance of Endemic Species to Forest Succession in Palau. Micronesica 34(2):141-153, 2002
Summary: Available from: http://www.uog.edu/up/micronesica/dynamicdata/assetmanager/images/vol34/endress_141-153.pdf [Accessed 21 March 2011]
Florence J., Chevillotte H., Ollier C.& Meyer J.-Y. 2007. Falcataria moluccana Base de donn�es botaniques Nadeaud de l Herbier de la Polyn�sie fran�aise (PAP).
Summary: Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=dab49080d80c724aad5ebf158d63df41 [Accessed 1 April 2008]
Fosberg, F. R.; Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.
Summary: Available from: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/arb/293-305/294.pdf [Accessed 29 March 2011]
Gerlach, Justin, 2004. A 10-year study of changes in forest vegetation on Silhouette island, Seychelles. Journal for Nature Conservation 12 (2004) 149�155
Hughes, R. Flint; Denslow, Julie S., 2005. Invasion by a N-2-fixing tree alters function and structure in wet lowland forests of Hawaii. Ecological Applications. 15(5). OCT 2005. 1615-1628.
Hughes, R. Flint; Uowolo, Amanda, 2006. Impacts of Falcataria moluccana invasion on decomposition in Hawaiian lowland wet forests: The importance of stand-level controls. Ecosystems. 9(6). SEP 2006. 977-991.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database Falcataria moluccana (Miquel) Barneby & Grimes
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=565183 [Accessed 10 March 2008]
Kueffer, Christoph, 2010. Reduced risk for positive soil-feedback on seedling regeneration by invasive trees on a very nutrient-poor soil in Seychelles. Biological Invasions. 12(1). JAN 2010. 97-102.
Kueffer, C.; Klingler, G.; Zirfass, K.; Schumacher, E.; Edwards, P. J.; Guesewell, S., 2008. Invasive trees show only weak potential to impact nutrient dynamics in phosphorus-poor tropical forests in the Seychelles. Functional Ecology. 22(2). APR 2008. 359-366.
Lorence, David H. & Wagner, Warren L. 2008. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.
Summary: Available from: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/results.cfm [Accessed 21 March 2011]
MacKee, H.S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultiv�es en Nouvelle-Cal�donie, 2nd edn. MNHN, Paris.
Summary: Cet ouvrage liste 1412 taxons (esp�ces, sous esp�ces et vari�t�s) introduits en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. L auteur pr�cise dans la majorit� des cas si l esp�ce est cultiv�e ou naturalis�e.
Mascaro, Joseph; Becklund, Kristen K.; Hughes, R. Flint; Schnitzer, Stefan A., 2008. Limited native plant regeneration in novel, exotic-dominated forests on Hawai i. Forest Ecology & Management. 256(4). AUG 10 2008. 593-606.
McCormack, Gerald. 2008. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.
Summary: Available from: http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/species.asp?id=6477 [Accessed 29 March 2011]
Meyer, J.-Y. 2007. Conservation des for�ts naturelles et gestion des aires prot�g�es en Polyn�sie fran�aise. Bois et for�ts des tropiques, 291 (1), 25-30.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Mueller-Dombois, Dieter , 2008. Pacific Island Forests: Successionally Impoverished and Now Threatened to Be Overgrown by Aliens? Pacific Science, 62(3):303-308. 2008.
National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1993. Voucher specimen #PTBG41748 (Art Whistler 9357)
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/vouchers/pier/ptbg0000041748.htm [Accessed 29 March 2011]
Pallewatta, N., J.K. Reaser, and A.T. Gutierrez. (eds.). 2003. Invasive Alien Species in South-Southeast Asia: National Reports & Directory of Resources. Global Invasive Species Programme, Cape Town, South Africa.
Starr, Forest; Starr, Kim & Loope, Lloyd. 2003. Falcataria moluccana.
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/pdf/falcataria_moluccana.pdf [Accessed 28 March 2011]
Tuttle, Nathania C.; Beard, Karen H.; Pitt, William C., 2009. Invasive litter, not an invasive insectivore, determines invertebrate communities in Hawaiian forests. Biological Invasions. 11(4). APR 2009. 845-855.
USDA, NRCS, 2011. Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & Grimes peacocksplume
Summary: Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=FAMO [Accessed 21 March 2011]
Wiegner, Tracy N.; Tubal, Randee L., 2010. Comparison of Dissolved Organic Carbon Bioavailability from Native and Invasive Vegetation along a Hawaiian River. Pacific Science. 64(4). OCT 2010. 545-555.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Falcataria moluccana
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax: