Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
Common name
Synonym
Scirpus cubensis , (Poepp. & Kunth)
Oxycaryum schomburgkianum , Nees
Oxycaryum cubense , (Poepp. & Kunth) Palla forma paraguayense (Maury) Pedersen
Similar species
Summary
Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) is a wetland sedge found throughout the Americas and in parts of Africa. It forms large floating mats on standing water and may be aggressive and invasive in some areas. However, it does not appear to be a species of concern in much of its range and is a good source of food for ducks, as well as important in cycling detritus.
Species Description
Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) is a perennial, rhizomatous, emergent sedge of littoral regions. It has slender, triangular, erect stems one to three feet in height and long, slender leaves. Its scaly stolons (runners) often mass together or with the roots/rhizomes of other plants to form floating mats. The inflorescences consist of 1-13 3/4\" globose/ovoid heads each with 5 or more spikelets and may be umbellate or monocephalous, and produce pale or red-brown beaked achenes that are ovoid/ellipsoid from spring through fall. Monocephalous plants, apparently native to South America, have been named Oxycaryum cubense forma paraguayense (Pedersen 1995; Carter in Bryson et al. 1996; eFloras, 2007; SE-EPPC, 2007).
Notes
Oxycaryum cubense is a morphologically diverse species (eFloras, 2007). In the southeastern United States, both umbellate and monocephalous forms occur, and the monocephalous form (forma paraguayense) appears to be invasive (SE-EPPC, 2007).
Lifecycle Stages
Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) is a perennial that may grow from a seed or a rhizome.
Uses
Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) is a major food of US mallard ducks (Ramey, 1999) and is important in the cycling of detritus (Bianchini and Cunha-Santino, 2006).
Habitat Description
Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) is an obligate wetland species (USDA, 2007) and is found in rivers, streams, swamps, marshes, ponds and other forms of standing water. It may be on the water's edge (up to 50m from the coast) or may detatch from the land and float freely (eFloras, 2007).
Reproduction
Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) reproduces by rhizomes/stolons and by the production of achenes (seeds) (eFloras, 2007).

Principal source: Adams, C.D. 1994. Cyperaceae. Pages 262-485 in G. Davidse, M.S. Sousa, and A.O. Chater, eds. Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 6: Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. Coyacán, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria.
\r\n\r\nAnderson, L.C. 2000. Noteworthy plants from North Florida. VII. Sida 19:211-216.
\r\n\r\nAnderson, L.C. 2007. Noteworthy plants from North Florida. VIII. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1:741-751.
\r\n\r\nBryson, C.T. and R. Carter. 2008. The Significance of Cyperaceae as Weeds. Pp. 15-101 in R. F. C. Naczi and B. A. Ford (editors), Sedges: Uses, Diversity, and Systematics of the Cyperaceae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 108.
\r\n\r\n Bryson, C.T., J.R. MacDonald, R. Carter, and S.D. Jones. 1996. Noteworthy Carex, Cyperus, Eleocharis, Kyllinga, and Oxycaryum (Cyperaceae) from Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. SIDA 17 (2): 501-518.
\r\n\r\nBryson, C.T., V.L. Maddox and R. Carter. 2008. Spread of Cuban Club-rush [Oxycaryum cubense (Poeppig & Kunth) Palla] in the Southeastern United States. Invasive Plant Science and Management. 1:326-329.
\r\n\r\nCarter, R., W.W. Baker and M.W. Morris. Contributions to the flora of Georgia, U.S.A. Vulpia. In review.
\r\n\r\nMohr, C. 1901. Plant life of Alabama. Contr. U.S. National Herb. 6. Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office. 921 pp.
\r\n\r\nPedersen, T.M. 1995. Nueva combinacion in Cyperaceae. Hickenia 2:138.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Richard Carter Professor and Curator of the Herbarium (VSC) Biology Department Valdosta State University Georgia United States of America

Publication date: 2008-01-25

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Oxycaryum cubense. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1231 on 18-09-2020.

General Impacts
Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) forms large monotypic floating mats on the surface of standing water. These mats may send out runners over other emergent plant species and crowd them or exclude them (Schardt, 2006). Cuban bulrush does not appear to be a dangerous invasive throughout much of the world, but is described by Weakley (2007) as \"aggressively weedy\" and is known to be invasive in Georgia and Alabama, US (Carter in Bryson et al. 1996).
Management Info
Chemical: The herbicide 2, 4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) is effective on mats of Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) (Schardt, 2006). Marshall et al. (2005) recommend herbicide microsponge mixtures on O. cubense for rainfastness.
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Oxycaryum cubense
NATIVE RANGE
  • argentina
  • bolivia
  • brazil
  • colombia
  • costa rica
  • cuba
  • ecuador
  • el salvador
  • french guiana
  • guatemala
  • guyana
  • honduras
  • mexico
  • nicaragua
  • panama
  • paraguay
  • peru
  • suriname
  • trinidad and tobago
  • united states
  • venezuela
Informations on Oxycaryum cubense has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Oxycaryum cubense in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) forms large monotypic floating mats on the surface of standing water. These mats may send out runners over other emergent plant species and crowd them or exclude them (Schardt, 2006). Cuban bulrush does not appear to be a dangerous invasive throughout much of the world, but is described by Weakley (2007) as \"aggressively weedy\" and is known to be invasive in Georgia and Alabama, US (Carter in Bryson et al. 1996).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
Management information
Chemical: The herbicide 2, 4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) is effective on mats of Oxycaryum cubense (Cuban bulrush) (Schardt, 2006). Marshall et al. (2005) recommend herbicide microsponge mixtures on O. cubense for rainfastness.
Bibliography
29 references found for Oxycaryum cubense

Managment information
Bryson, C.T., V.L. Maddox and R. Carter. 2008. Spread of Cuban Club-rush [Oxycaryum cubense (Poeppig & Kunth) Palla] in the Southeastern United States. Invasive Plant Science and Management. 1:326-329.
Marshall, Lucia , Rick Lowe, Joe Jernigan, and Tom Broadwell. 2005. New Technology for Rainfastness in Aquatic Weed and Vegetation Management.
Summary: This article examines the use of a new form of herbicide treatment (a microsponge suspoemulsion adjuvant) for rainfastness on aquatic plants.
Available from: http://www.biosorb-inc.com/Aquatics_Article.pdf [Accessed 22 August 2007].
Schardt, Jeff. 2006. Tussocks and Floating Islands. Plant Management in Florida Waters Website, University of Florida.
Summary: A website for information on Florida s waters. Touches on invasiveness of Oxycaryum cubense.
Available from: http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/guide/tussocks.html [Accessed 30 July 2007].
General information
Adams, C.D. 1994. Cyperaceae. Pages 262-485 in G. Davidse, M.S. Sousa, and A.O. Chater, eds. Flora Mesoamericana, Vol. 6: Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. Coyac�n, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Aut�noma de M�xico, Ciudad Universitaria.
Alonso, L. E. and L. Nordon (editors). 2003. A Rapid Biological Assessment of the Aquatic Ecosystems of the Okavango Delta, Botswana: A High Water Survey. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 27. Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Summary: This article provides the details of a rapid biological assessment of the aquatic ecosystmes of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Provides distribution information for Oxycaryum cubense.
Anderson, L.C. 2000. Noteworthy plants from North Florida. VII. Sida 19:211-216.
Anderson, L.C. 2007. Noteworthy plants from North Florida. VIII. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1:741-751.
Bianchini Jr., I and M.B. Cunha-Santino. 2006. The Effect of the Size of Particles on Mineralization of Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Lye. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 66(2B): 641-650.
Summary: An article which examines the effect of the size of particles on mineraliztion of Oxycaryum cubense. Has some morphological description of the species.
Boggan, J., V. Funk, and C. Kelloff. 1997. Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana): 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Summary: This document is a checklist of the plants of the Guianas.
Available from: http://www.mnh.si.edu/biodiversity/bdg/guilist2nd.pdf [Accessed 22 August 2007].
Bryson, C.T. and R. Carter. 2008. The Significance of Cyperaceae as Weeds. Pp. 15-101 in R. F. C. Naczi and B. A. Ford (editors), Sedges: Uses, Diversity, and Systematics of the Cyperaceae. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 108.
Bryson, C.T., J.R. MacDonald, R. Carter, and S.D. Jones. 1996. Noteworthy Carex, Cyperus, Eleocharis, Kyllinga, and Oxycaryum (Cyperaceae) from Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. SIDA 17 (2): 501-518.
Summary: An article that discusses the localities, habitats, associated species, and weed potentials of selected members of thd family Cyperaceae.
CAB International. 2004. Prevention and Management of Alien Invasive Species: Forging Cooperation throughout West Africa. Proceedings of a workshop held in Accra, Ghana, 9-11 March, 2004. CAB International, Nairobi, Kenya.
Summary: Provides distribution information for Oxycaryum cubense.
Available from: http://www.gisp.org/downloadpubs/WestAfrica.pdf [Accessed 03 August 2007].
Carter, Richard. Undated. New, Poorly Known or Expected Invasive Graminoids & Vines of Southern Georgia. Valdosta State University, Georgia.
Summary: This power point presentation introduces new, poorly known, or expected invasive graminoids and vines of southern Georgia, including Oxycaryum cubense.
Available from: http://www.gaeppc.org/workshops/tifton05/carter.pdf [Accessed 22 August 2007].
Carter, R., W.W. Baker and M.W. Morris. Contributions to the flora of Georgia, U.S.A. Vulpia. In review.
Cunha-Santino M.B. and I. Bianchi Jr. 2004. Oxygen uptake during mineralization of humic substances from Ingernao Lagoon (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Biology, 64(3B): 583-590.
Summary: Provides distribution information for Oxycaryum cubense.
eFloras. 2007. Oxycaryum cubense. Flora of North America. Vol. 23, pg. 139.
Summary: An online collection of floras around the world. Provides a description of Oxycaryum cubense.
Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242357856[Accessed 31 July 2007].
Ita, E.O. 1994. Aquatic plants and wetland wildlife resources of Nigeria. CIFA Occasional Paper. No. 21. Rome, FAO. 52 p.
Summary: Provides information on the non-fish aquatic resources of Nigeria, including distribution information for Oxycaryum cubense.
Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/T3660E/T3660E00.HTM [Accessed 02 Auguest 2007].
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Lye
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=518065 [Accessed 24 January 2008]
Kenoyer, Leslie A. 1929. General and Successional Ecology of the Lower Tropical Rain-Forest at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecology, 10 (2): 201-222.
Summary: This article discusses the ecology of the lower tropical rain-forest at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Provides distribution information for Oxycaryum cubense.
Mohr, C. 1901. Plant life of Alabama. Contr. U.S. National Herb. 6. Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office. 921 pp.
Olejniczak, Claudia. The 21st Century Gorilla: Progress or Perish? Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.
Summary: This study on the mountain gorillas of the Republic of Congo provides distribution information for Oxycaryum cubense.
Available from: http://www.brookfieldzoo.org/pagegen/inc/AColejni.pdf [Accessed 03 August 2007].
Petr, T. 2000. Interactions between fish and aquatic macrophytes in inland waters. A review: FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 396. Rome, FAO. 185p.
Summary: This article discusses the interactions between fish and aquatic macrophytes in inland waters.
Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/X7580E/X7580E00.HTM [Accessed 22 August 2007].
Ramey, Victor. 1999. Wildlife, Wetlands, and those Other Plants . Aquaphyte Online. University of Florida. Spring, 1999.
Summary: A webpage that discusses the importance of grasses, rushes, and sedges to the wetland ecosystem, especially as wildlife food.
Available from: http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/aq-w99-5.html [Accessed 30 July 2007].
Richards, L.T. 2001. A Guide to Wetland Identification, Delineation and Wetland Functions. Mini-Dissertation submitted to the Rand Afrikaans University.
Summary: A guide to the identification and delineation of inland wetlands in South Africa.
Available from: http://etd.rau.ac.za/theses/available/etd-03232004-125423/restricted/AGuidetoWetlandIdentification...pdf [Accessed 30 July 2007].
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2007. 2007 Additions to the Alabama Invasive Plant Council s list of invasive plants. Bugwood Network, The University of Georgia. Last updated 21 May 2007.
Summary: This pamphlet provides descriptions of the 2007 additions to Alabama s invasive plant list, including O. cubense.
Available from: http://www.se-eppc.org/alabama/newadditions.pdf [Accessed 31 July 2007].
Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. 2004. Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapters 5-15). Occasional Publications in Biodiversity No 15, Biodiversity Foundation for Africa, Bulawayo/Zambezi Society, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Summary: Provides distribution information for Oxycaryum cubense.
Available from: http://www.biodiversityfoundation.org/documents/Chap05_Plants.pdf [Accessed 03 Aug 2007].
USDA, NRCS. 2007. The Plants Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 25 July 2007). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Summary: A website that provides standardized information on the plants of the US.
Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?keywordquery=oxycaryum+cubense&mode=sciname&submit.x=19&submit.y=18 [Accessed 25 July 2007].
Weakley, A.S. 2007. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia and Surrounding Areas. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Working draft as of 11 January 2007.
Summary: An identification guide to the flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas (in progress). Does not yet have the identification characteristics for O. cubense.
Available from: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/WeakleysFlora.pdf [Accessed 31 July 2007].
w� TROPICOS. 2007. Oxycaryum cubense. The Missouri Botanical Garden s online VAST (Vascular Tropicos) nomenclature database and associated authority files. Accessed 02 August 2007.
Summary: This database provides nomenclature and distribution information of vascular plant and bryophyte species.
Available from: http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html [Accessed 02 August 2007].
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Oxycaryum cubense
  • EICAT impact category for this assessment:
  • EICAT impact mechanism (or 2-3 mechanisms):
  • Justification:
  • EICAT Confidence rating:
  • Country/Countries with max impact:
  • Description of impacts:
  • Assessors:
  • Date: