Australian Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2004. Chytridiomycosis (Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Disease). Australia s Natural Heritage Trust.
Berger, L., Hyatt, A.D., Olsen, V., Hengstberger, S.G., Boyle, D., Marantelli, G., Humphreys, K., Longcore, J.E. 2002. Production of Polyclonal Antibodies to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Their use in an Immunoperoxidase Test for Chytridiomycosis in Amphibians, Dis Aquat Organ. 48 (3): 213 -220. (Abstract)
Berger, L., Speare, R., and Hyatt., A.D. 1999. Chytrid Fungi and Amphibian Declines: Overview, Implications and Future Directions. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. 23 - 34.
DeWeerdt , Sarah. 2001. Coordinating an International Monitoring Program The Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force. Conservation in Practice Winter 2001 Vol 2 no. 1
Garthwaite, R. Department of Conservation. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Frog Chytrid Fungus. Department of Conservation: Waikato.
Gascon, C., Collins, J. P., Moore, R. D., Church, D. R., McKay, J. E. and Mendelson, J. R. III (eds). 2007. Amphibian Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 64pp.Summary:
The Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) is designed to provide guidance for implementing amphibian conservation and research initiatives at all scales from global down to local.
Available from: http://www.amphibians.org/newsletter/ACAP.pdf [Accessed 9 June 2008]
Johnson, M.L., Berger, L., Philips, L. and Speare, R. 2003. Fungicidal Effects of Chemical Disinfectants, UV Light, Desiccation and Heat on the Amphibian Chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 57 (3): 255 - 260.
Mazzoni, R., Cunningham, A.A., Daszak, P., Apolo, A. Perdomo, P. and Speranza., G. 2003. Emerging Pathogen of Wild Amphibians in Frogs (Rana catesbeiana) Farmed for International Trade, Emerging Infectious Diseases 9 (8): 995 - 998.
Michigan Frog Survey. 2003. Michigan Frog Survey Update. Michigan Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Division Natural Heritage Program.
Parker, J.M., Mikaelian, I., Hahn, N. and Diggs, H.E. 2002. Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Epidermal Chytridiomycosis in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus tropicalis), Comp Med. 52 (3): 265 � 268. (Abstract)
Rollins-Smith, L., Reinert, L.K., Miera, V. and Conlon, J.M. 2002. Antimicrobial Peptide Defenses of the Tarahumara Frog, Rana tarahumarae, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 297 (2): 361 - 367.
Ron, Santiago R., 2005. Predicting the Distribution of the Amphibian Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the New World1. Biotropica 37 (2), 209-221.
Speare, R. and Core Working Group of Getting the Jump on Amphibian Disease. 2001. Nomination for Listing of Amphibian Chytridiomycosis as a key Threatening Process Under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation act 1999. In: Speare, R. and Steering Committee of Getting the Jump on Amphibian Disease. Developing Management Strategies to Control Amphibian Diseases: Decreasing the Risk due to Communicable Diseases. School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University: Townsville. 163 - 187.
USDI (United States Department of the Interior) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. RE: Buck Springs Range Management Allotment Plan
Van-Ells, T., Stanton, J., Strieby, A., Daszak, P., Hyatt, A.D. and Brown, C. 2003. Use of Immunohistochemistry to Diagnose Chytridiomycosis in Dyeing Poison Dart Frogs (Dendrobates tinctorius), Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39 (3): 742 - 745.
Berger, L, R Speare, HB Hines, G Marantelli, AD Hyatt, KR Mcdonald, LF Skerratt, V Olsen, JM Clarke, G Gillespie, M Mahony, N Sheppard, C Williams And MJ Tyler., 2004. Effect of season and temperature on mortality in amphibians due to chytridiomycosis. Australian Veterinary Journal Volume 82, No 7, July 2004Summary:
Available from: http://www.ava.com.au/avj/private/0407/04070434.pdf [Accessed 14 September 2005]
Berger, L., Speare, R., Daszak, P., Green, D.E., Cunningham, A.A., Goggin, C.L., Slocombe, R., Ragan, M.A., Hyatt, A.D., McDonald, K.R., Hines, H.B., Lips, K.R., Marantelli, G. and Parkes, H. 1998. Chytridiomycosis Causes Amphibian Mortality Associated With Population Declines in the Rain Forests of Australia and Central America, Population Biology (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.) 95 (15): 9031 � 9036. Summary:
Available from: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/95/15/9031 [Accessed 7 Dec 2004]
Berger, L., Speare, R., Hines, H.B., Marantelli, G., Hyatt, A.D., McDonald., K.R., Skerratt, L.F., Olsen, V., Clarke, J.M., Gillespie, G., Mahony, M., Sheppard, N. Williams, C. and Tyler. M.J. 2004. Effect of Season and Temperature on Mortality in Amphibians due to Chytridiomycosis, Australian Veterinary Journal 82 (7): 434 - 439.
Carey, C., Cohen, N. and Rollins-Smith, L. 1999. Amphibian declines: an immunological perspective. Developmental and Comparative Immunology. 23 (6): 459-472.
Summary: This paper discusses the role of disease in amphibian decline, and the immunological response.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), 2003. Researching Frog Fungus.
Dasak, P., Andrew, A Cunningham and Hyatt, D Alex., 2003. Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Diversity and Distributions 9, 141�150
Daszak, P., Berger, L., Cunningham, A.A., Hyatt, A.D., Green, D.E., Speare, R., 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. November-December 1999Summary:
Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no6/daszak.htm [Accessed 7 Dec 2004]
Davidson, E.W., Parris, M., Collins, J.P., Longcore, J.E., Pessier, P.A. and Brunner, J. 2003. Pathogenicity and Transmission of Chytridiomycosis in Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum), Copeia 3: 601 - 607.
Fellers, G.M., Green, D.E. and Longcore, J.E. 2001. Oral Chytridiomycosis in the Mountain Yellow-legged Frog (Rana muscosa), Copeia 4: 945 - 953.
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2006. Global Amphibian Assessment. Downloaded on 4 May 2006.Summary:
The Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA) is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of the world s 5,918 known species of frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians. This website presents results of the assessments, including IUCN Red List threat category, range map, ecology information, and other data for every amphibian species.
Available from: http://www.globalamphibians.org/ [Accessed 5 November 2006].
Kingsley D. Environment News, 23 April 2002. Summary:
This article gives details about the first reports of chytrid fungus in Archey s frog.
Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/enviro/EnviroRepublish_537533.htm [Accessed 17 December 2004]
Lips, Karen.R, Forrest Brem, Roberto Brenes, John D. Reeve, Ross A. Alford, Jamie Voyles, Cynthia Carey, Lauren Livo, Allan P. Pessier, and James P. Collins., 2006. Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Published online before print February 15, 2006, 10.1073/pnas.0506889103Summary:
Available from: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/103/9/3165 [Accessed 14 August 2006] Available from: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/103/9/3165 [Accessed 14 August 2006]
Lips, K.R., Green, D.E. and Papendick, R. 2003. Chytridiomycosis in Wild Frogs from Southern Costa Rica, Journal of Herpetology 37 (1): 215 - 218.
Lips, K.R., Mendelson, J.R. Munoz-Alonso, A., Canseco-Marquez, L. and Mulcahy, D.G. 2004. Amphibian Population Declines in Montane Southern Mexico: Resurveys of Historical Localities, Biological-Conservation 119 (4): 555 - 564.
Morehouse, E.A., James, T.Y., Ganley, A.R.D., Vilgalys, R., Berger, L., Murphy , P.J. and Longcore, J.E. 2003. Multilocus Sequence Typing Suggests the Chytrid Pathogen of Amphibians is a Recently Emerged Clone, Molecular Ecology 12 (2): 395 - 403.
Muths, E., Corn, P.S., Pessier, A.P. and Green, D.E. 2003. Evidence for Disease-related Amphibian Decline in Colorado, Biological Conservation 110 (3): 357 - 365.
Mutschmann, F., Berger, L., Zwart, P. and Gaedicke, C. 2000. Chytridiomycosis in Amphibians: First Report in Europe, Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 113 (10): 380 � 383. (Abstract)
Parris, M. J. 2004. Hybrid response to pathogen infection in interspecific crosses between two amphibian species (Anura: Ranidae). Evolutionary Ecology Research 6: 457-471.
Summary: B. dendrobatidis differentially affects genotypes between two species of hybridizing leopard frogs (Rana). Hybrid genotypes are more susceptible to infection, and suffer greater reductions in growth and development from the fungus.
Parris, M.J. and Beaudoin, J.G. 2004. Chytridiomycosis Impacts Predator-prey Interactions in Larval Amphibian Communities, Oceologia (Berlin) 140 (4): 626 - 632.
Summary: B. dendrobatidis alters the outcome of natural predator - prey dynamics in a larval amphibian - predator system.
Parris, M. J. and D. R. Baud. 2004. Interactive effects of a heavy metal and chytridiomycosis on gray treefrog larvae (Hyla chrysoscelis). Copeia 2004: 343-349.
Summary: B. dendrobatidis impacts on Hyla larvae may be somewhat ameliorated in a heavy metal (Cu) aquatic environment. Thus, pathogenic effects may be a result of interactions with other aquatic contaminants.
Parris, M. J. and T. O. Cornelius. 2004. Fungal pathogen causes competitive and developmental stress in larval amphibian communities. Ecology 85: 3385-3395.
Summary: This paper documents that B. dendrobatidis induces competitive effects in the larval environment between a toad (Bufo) and treefrog (Hyla) species.
Rollins-Smith, L.A., Carey, C., Longcore, J., Doersam, J.K., Boutte, A., Bruzgal, J.E., and Conlon, J.M. 2002. Activity of antimicrobial skin peptides from ranid frogs against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the chytrid fungus associated with global amphibian declines. Developmental and Comparative Immunology. 26 (5): 471-479.
Summary: This paper outlines the role of antimicrobial peptides in deterring chytrid infection.
Voyles, Jamie., Sam Young, Lee Berger, Craig Campbell, Wyatt F. Voyles, Anuwat Dinudom, David Cook, Rebecca Webb, Ross A. Alford, Lee F. Skerratt, Rick Speare. 2009. Pathogenesis of Chytridiomycosis, a Cause of Catastrophic Amphibian Declines. Science, Vol. 326 No. 5952, October 23, 2009.
Summary: The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the skin disease chytridiomycosis, is one of the few highly virulent fungi in vertebrates and has been implicated in worldwide amphibian declines. However, the mechanism by which Bd causes death has not been determined. We show that Bd infection is associated with pathophysiological changes that lead to mortality in green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea). In diseased individuals, electrolyte transport across the epidermis was inhibited by >50%, plasma sodium and potassium concentrations were respectively reduced by ~20% and ~50%, and asystolic cardiac arrest resulted in death. Because the skin is critical in maintaining amphibian homeostasis, disruption to cutaneous function may be the mechanism by which Bd produces morbidity and mortality across a wide range of phylogenetically distant amphibian taxa
Waldman, B., van de Wolfshaar, K.E., Klena, J.D., Andjic, V., Bishop, P., and Norman, R. J. de B. 2001. Chytridiomycosis in New Zealand frogs. Surveillance. 28 (3): 9-11.Summary:
This article gives details about the first case of chytrid fungus in New Zealand, including possible means of introduction and spread.
Available from: http://ivabs.massey.ac.nz/centres/wildlife/rschrepts/chytrid/chytrid_article.pdf [Accessed 17 December 2004]
Woodhams, D.C., Alford, R.A. and Marantelli, G. 2003. Emerging Disease of Amphibians Cured by Elevated Body Temperature, Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 55 (1): 65 - 67.
Young, B.E., Lips, K.R., Reaser, J.K., Ibanez, R., Salas, A.W., Rogelio Cedeno, J., Coloma, L.A., Ron, S., La Marca, E., Meyer, J.R., Munoz, A., Bolanos, F., Chaves, G. and Romo, D. 2001. Population declines and priorities for amphibian conservation in Latin America. Conservation Biology. 15 (5): 1213-1223.
Summary: A discussion of the factors involved in the population declines of amphibians in Latin America.